See also: Pole (homonymy)
The north pole is the point more with the Northern of the Ground.
The Ground rotating of 24 hour S, the axis of rotation passes by two points of its surface: the geographical north pole and the geographical South pole. This axis is tilted of 66°30 compared to the ecliptic (plane of the terrestrial Orbite). The north pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean in a zone permanently covered by the Banquise; it is the geographical North pole, which the north pole indicates in general, without another precision.
The north pole can be also defined in two other ways:
- magnetic North pole: The magnetic north pole is the place where the Magnetic field of the Earth point downwards. The needle of a Compass, whatever the place where one is located on planet, is pointed towards this place. It is acted in fact of the south pole of the magnet consisted the Earth. Generated by displacements of the ferrous core of the Earth, this pole is in constant displacement (approximately 40 km per annum): it crossed in 2005 the Canadian coast and it is expected that it is found with the top of the grounds Siberia in approximately 50 years;
- geomagnetic North pole: It is the place where the whole of the terrestrial magnetic fields converges by supposing that the magnetic poles act exactly as a magnetized bar. It is determined by calculation. It is towards this place that the Northern lights occur, resulting from the convergence of the solar particles guided by the lines of the terrestrial magnetic field. (see the diagram of the article Magnetosphere ). It follows the magnetic pole in its displacements.
One calls also North pole of the inaccessibility a geographical construction. It is the point of the Arctic most distant from any coast. It was reached for the first time by Hubert Wilkins, which flew over it in the plane in 1927; in 1958, a Russian Brise-glace reached this point. This pole is localized with 84°03' northern, western 174°51' with approximately 1 100 km of the nearest coast.
Erroneous theory of the free polar sea of ice
The German geographer August Peterman was the holding main thing of the thesis of the existence of a free polar sea of ices. This theory was erroneous, but it influenced several forwardings of 1853 with 1876.
With the conquest of the north pole
Two forwardings simultaneously left to the conquest the north pole at the beginning of the 20th century:
- the American Frederick Cook, left with a very light forwarding - it was only accompanied by two Inuit S - affirmed to have reached the pole the April 21st 1908 but at its base only after one long tour the April 18th 1909 returned;
- About at the same time, the American Robert Peary launched his forwarding and affirmed to have reached the pole the April 6th 1909. Peary obtained with difficulty Congrès of the United States of America that he is recognized officially like the first arrived at the pole.
In fact, it seems today (almost) some, since the discovery of a copy of the newspaper of Peary, that this one was mistaken and that he approached the pole only of one forty kilometers; the “exploring community” of the time reproached him for not having made any statement of position during the last 200 km of its voyage towards the pole. And, moreover, the mean velocity that he affirmed to have held at the time of the return is regarded as humanly impossible and equalized forever since.
Cook would have also been mistaken in its estimates, but there exists a beam of indices indicating that it would have even made up its exploits and that he would have in fact never tempted to approach the north pole. The debate is not closed.
The first men who are really arrived at the north pole were respectively:
- James Clark Ross in 1831 reaches the magnetic north pole;
- Roald Amundsen and Umberto Nobile, which flew over it aboard airship Norge the May 12th 1926;
- the Russian Papanine who was posed in the plane the May 21st 1937;
- Wally Herbert which reached the north pole in sledge with dogs the April 5th 1969.
- the First solitary forwarding (confirmed) to reach the north pole: Naomi Uemura (March 5th - April 29th, 1978). Party alone in sledge with dogs and regularly supplied by plane.
- the First forwarding (confirmed) to reach the North pole without any supply: Will Steger International Whodunnit Forwarding. May 1st 1986. The members of the team were: Paul Schurke, Brent Boddy, Richard Weber, Geoff Carroll, Year Bancroft and a team of 21 dogs. Brent Boddy & Richard Weber became the first Canadians, and Ann Bancroft, the first woman, to reach the Pole.
- First crossing of the Arctic Ocean in skis: forwarding Whodunnit Bridge of 1988 during which 9 Russians and 4 Canadians traversed the 1 800 kilometers separating north from the Siberia of the Island of Ellesmere in Canada while passing by the North pole. Richard Weber (Canadian foreman) became the first man to reach the North pole starting from the two sides of the Arctic Ocean.
- the First solitary forwarding (confirmed) with ski: Jean-Louis Etienne (1986). First French with the pole, on May 11th, 1986, after 63 days of walk.
- First crossing of the Arctic Ocean with ski: forwarding Whodunnit Bridge of 1988 during which 9 Russians and 4 Canadians traversed the 1 800 kilometers separating north from the Siberia of the Island of Ellesmere in Canada while passing by the North pole. Richard Weber (Canadian foreman) became the first man to reach the North pole starting from the two sides of the Arctic Ocean.
- the First launching of a montgolfier starting from the North pole: Total Concern Forwarding, guided by Richard Weber in 1989.
- First attempt to reach the North pole and to return from there without any assistance, supply and while using only human resources: Forwarding of 1992 of Richard Weber and Mikhail Malakhov.
- the First commercial forwarding with the North pole: North Dash Pole of 1993 organized by Richard Weber and Mikhail Malakhov.
- the First forwarding confirmed to reach the North pole and to return from there without any assistance, supply and while using only human resources: forwarding of 1995 of Richard Weber and Mikhail Malakhov.
- the First forwarding only made up of women to reach the North pole starting from Russia: Women Quest 2001 guided by Josée Auclair.
- First people to reach the North pole during the polar night: Borge Ousland and Mike Horn. March 23rd 2006.
- First monarch reigning to reach the North pole: Albert II de Monaco. April 16th 2006.
- the First forwarding to reach the North pole without any assistance, nor supply and by using rackets exclusively: Richard Weber and Conrad Dickinson, the April 26th 2006.
Displacement of the magnetic north pole
Since its discovery in 1831, the magnetic north pole moved of more than: 1126 km (700 miles) at a rate of approximately 40 km per annum. At the time of its discovery, the magnetic north pole was in the extreme north of the Canada. Today, it moves towards the Russia causing more frequent northern lights Russian side.
Voyages and adventures of the captain Hatteras is a novel of Jules Verne of 1866 describing a forwarding carried out by English towards the north pole. This novel was written at the time of the erroneous theory of the free polar sea of ice.
|Random links:||Bajazet | GeografÃa de Tailandia | Thespa Kusatsu | Bart Vlaeminck | Auzay | Caen Tennis shoe Apple-brandy | Perieres|