It is bordering on the China (1416 km of common borders) and on the Russia in north (19 km of borders), as well as République of Korea in south (238 km of borders). The latter southernmost Frontière is consisted the demilitarized zone (DMZ), which actually is militarized in the world. The Japan, close maritime neighbor of Korea, does not have land borders with this one, but is separated from the North Korea by the Mer of the East.
The official long form is democratic Popular republic of Korea (RPDC, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk , in Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; in Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國).
The official name of Chosŏn (Korea, or Pays of the fresh morning translates improperly into Pays of the Morning calms ) in North Korea corresponds to that of the last Korean independent dynasty before the Japanese invasion, the dynasty of the IH or Chosŏn (1392-1910). In South Korea, the Korean name of the country is Hanguk , which refers to the “country ( guk ) of Han”, name of a prehistoric tribe of the south of the peninsula. As for the Western name of Korea, it returns to the dynasty Koryŏ which reigned from 918 to 1392. " Corée" being the resultant of the Italian linguistic deformation and Lusitanian of the first explorers and commercial Western at the time of their visits at the court of Koryŏ. That gave " corio" then " coria" and finally " corea" (term often used in many advertisements or slogans, " footballistiques" in particular, like " Oh! Pilsŏng Corea" , and preferred because less connoted politically, compared to " Korea" who has a political connotation in bond with the the United States of America).
See also: History of the North Korea
The shortly after the capitulation Japan ease the August 15th 1945, Kim Il Sung, which had directed the Korean popular revolutionary army (ARPC) in Korean resistance to the Japanese occupation, is essential like the principal leader of the country as a general secretary of the Party of the work of Korea, resulting from the fusion of the communist Party and the néo-democratic Party of Korea.
After the War of Korea which involved more than one million of died in North, the North Korea industrializes itself quickly and seeks to reach self-sufficiency political, economic and military in accordance with the principles of the theory of the Juche.
In the absence of peace treaty since the end of the war of Korea in 1953, of the international tensions enamel the foreign policy of the North Korea: in 1968, an American ship-spy, the Pueblo , is captured in the territorial water North-Korean.
In the interior field, the leader Kim Jong-il, wire of the president Kim It-sung, is officially prepared to take his succession since 1980. After the death of this last in 1994, and following a national mourning three years in conformity with the Korean tradition after the death of the father, it reaches officially the high positions of the State in 1997.
The August 31st 1998 the North Korea proceeded to an attempt at launching of an artificial satellite, the " Kwangmyongsong 1" since a Taepodong ballistic missile. No trace of the satellite which could not have been found in spite of the official announcement of the success of this flight, the American specialists estimate that the upper floor would have broken down before the setting on orbit.
The Kim Jong-il leader encourages measurements of liberalization of the economy since 2002, while reinforcing the military capacity of the country, in a tended international context, pursuant to the Politique of songun. October 9th, 2006, the North Korea announces to have carried out its first nuclear test.
See also: Institutions of the North Korea
According to the article first of the Constitution, The Democratic Popular republic of Korea is a sovereign socialist State which represents the interests of all the Korean people. . Article three specifies that the Democratic Popular republic of Korea takes for guide of her activities the ideas of the Juche, design of the world centered on the man and revolutionary ideology in favor of the emancipation of the popular masses. . This ideology, instituted by Kim It-sung which according to him falls under the prolongation of the principles Marxist-Leninists has as a consequence the application of a policy of independence, as well on the political plan as economic: the cooperative links must be based on the principle of complementarity.
The preamble to the Constitution gives to the president Kim It-sung, founder of the mode in 1948 (during the division of Korea), the title of " chair éternel" , but his/her son is the chief of the executive de facto since the death of his father in 1994. The political power is strongly concentrated between the hands of this last, which cumulates the stations of:
- president of the Defense committee main road, in load of the military businesses and thus commander-in-chief of the popular Armed with Korea
- general secretary of the Left the work of Korea, which is by far the principal party of the country
So of other parties exist (the social democrat Parti of Korea and the Parti Chondogyo-Chong-u), they are under the control of the Party of the work of Korea. The North Korea thus shows the characteristics essential of a Stalinist mode with Sole party.
See also: Human rights in North Korea
The North Korea signed several treated committing it to respect the Human rights and several articles of its Constitution defend several Fundamental freedoms. But because of the lack of information available, it is very difficult to check their respect.
Foreign governments and ONG as Amnesty International strongly suspect the North Korea of not respecting certain fundamental freedoms (like the freedom of expression, of association, religion or of circulation) and exhorts the government of North Korea to take without more awaiting measurements in order to improve the respect of the human rights in the country .
The forced labor would be very frequent with the center of a great number of camps of detention . In 2003 the number of forced workers is estimated between: 150000 with: 200000.
After the partition of the Korean peninsula, the Western States recognized the South Korea like representative only Korea, while the socialist States established diplomatic relations only with the North Korea. During the Cold war, while belonging to the Eastern bloc, the North Korea sought to preserve its independence with respect to the Soviet Union by maintaining a balance in its relations with the Popular republic of China and the USSR. It had thus not adhered to the Council for Mutual Economic Aid and no foreign troop stationed on her territory.
After the disappearance of the USSR, the North Korea and South Korea simultaneously adhered to UNO the September 17th 1991 and diversified their international relations. One and the other is recognized today by the near total of the States of the world, except however - for the North Korea - several great Western States, of which the the United States, the Japan and the France which is one of the two countries of the European Union, with the Estonia, not to recognize the North Korea.
Bringing together intercoréen since 2000On the initiative of the South Korean president Kim Dae-jung, a meeting takes place in North Korea with the leader North-Korean Kim Jong-il in June 2000, sealed by a joint statement the signed on June 15th with Pyongyang: it marks the beginning of the bringing together between the two States for a Réunification of Korea.
Some South Korean companies were established in North, in particular with Kaesong and South Korea became the second business partner of the North Korea. The mounts Kumgang were visited by more than one million South-Koreans since 1997. Regular meetings take place at the ministerial level.
The policy of opening to the North of the president Kim Dae-jung was continued by its successor Roh Moo-hyun. The South Korean principal party of opposition, the Great national party, after having strongly criticized policy of the sun ray , joined, at the beginning of July 2007, with the principle of a progressive bringing together between the two Corées based on the development of the inter-Korean relations. However, the Law of national security (intended to fight against communist subversion ) is always in force in South Korea.
A second top intercoréen, between the leader of North Kim Jong-il and the South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun, initially envisaged to Pyongyang from August 28th to 30th 2007, was deferred from October 2nd to 4th after most serious Inondations in North Korea for forty years has involved 600 died and disappeared and touched a million people. The intercoréen agreement signed on October 4th, 2007 underlined the common engagement of the two States to promote peace and economic prosperity in the peninsula.
Alliance with ChinaHaving supported the North Korea at the time of the War of Korea, the China became the main ally of the North Korea since the disappearance of the USSR, like its first business partner and the first foreign investor in RPDC.
The bilateral relations are based on the treaty of friendship, of co-operation and of mutual assistance between the democratic Popular republic of Korea and the Popular republic of China, signed in 1961 under the damage undergone during the Japanese occupation (marked in particular by the prostitution forced of the Femmes of Korean comfort during the Second world war), Japan regards as priority the question of the removal of several of its nationals by the secret services North-Korean in the Années 1970 and 1980. In addition, shootings of missile North-Korean, then the nuclear test North-Korean of October 9th, 2006, were perceived in Japan like threats for the Japanese archipelago: the Japanese government adopted sanctions against the North Korea (see also the article details on the Relations nippo - North-Korean during the mandate of Junichiro Koizumi).
After the signature of an agreement on the Nuclear weapons in North Korea with Beijing on February 13rd, 2007, Japan and the North Korea engaged of the bilateral negotiations to standardize their diplomatic relations.
In the absence of official diplomatic relations at the governmental level, the parliamentary Ligue of friendship Japan-Korea of North treats questions of shared interest for the two countries, such as the delimitation of the fishing zones.
Tensions with the United StatesWith respect to the United States, of which close to: 30000 soldiers are always stationed in South Korea in 2006, the process of standardization in progress under the presidency of Bill Clinton ended with the election of George W. Bush, which included the North Korea in the countries of the Axe of the Evil in January 2002, while the reinforcement of the American Financial sanctions against the North Korea increased the effects of the American Embargo.
The tensions américano - North-Koreans went up of a notch after the charge by the United States which the North Korea would lead a clandestine program of uranium enrichment to fine soldiers, which the North Korea always denied. In February 2007, hearing by the American Congress of the person in charge of the American information in North Korea, Mr. Joseph deTrani, questioned the existence of such a clandestine program of uranium enrichment. David Albright, president of the Institute for science and international safety (ISO) and former inspector of UNO, made a comparison with information of the American intelligence services on Iraq, the day before the conflict, according to which Iraq held massive weapons of destruction.
The bilateral relations are currently in the process of standardization after the agreement signed in Beijing on February 13rd, 2007 on the closing of the nuclear plant North-Korean of Yongbyon. In June 2007, the visit of the Secretary of State associates American in load of the file North-Korean, Christopher Hill, was the first on this level since 2002.
Relations with the international organizations
Nuclear programIn a context of tensions with the United States which showed it to lead a clandestine program of uranium enrichment to fine soldiers, the North Korea presented the development of its nuclear program (containing plutonium) as a measurement of defense vis-a-vis the attitude which she considered aggressive of the United States: it proceeded to a test on October 9th, 2006 after being withdrawn of the Traité nuclear non-proliferation (NPT) in 2003. This test was strongly criticized by the International community, including by China, main ally of Pyongyang.
After the agreement concluded in Beijing on February 13rd, 2007 on the Nuclear weapons in North Korea, Mohamed El Baradei, managing director of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), was invited to Pyongyang. At the conclusion of its visit, he declared, on March 14th, 2007, that the discussions had been " completely utiles" and that the authorities North-Korean had " reiterated their engagement with the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula ". According to Mohamed El Baradei, its visit opens the way with a standardization of the relations between the IAEA and the North Korea. After the releasing by the United States of funds North-Koreans held by the Bank value Asia Delta, based in Macao, had raised the main obstacle to the implementation of the agreement of February 13rd, 2007, the managing director of the IAEA declared, on July 18th, 2007, that the inspectors of the Agency had noted the closing of the totality of the five installations of the site of Yongbyon.
Relations with ONGThe relations with the international organizations and ONG are also tended, because it severely limits the access to its territory, officially for safety reasons , as it is the case of the World food program (WFP).
Since the War of Korea, it is always mobilized on the border intercoréenne or of the fatal fixings take place from time to time.
A big part of the budget of the State (with height of 5,217 billion dollars in 2002 according to the CIA) is devoted to the maintenance and the development of the army.
After the Nuclear test North-Korean of October 9th, 2006, the democratic Popular republic of Korea became the ninth current world power to hold the nuclear weapon.
See also: Geography of the North Korea
The country is located in Eastern Asia, in the north of the Péninsule of Korea, from which it occupies approximately 55% of the grounds and with the west by the Yellow Mer, bordering Mer of the Eastern China Sea.
The principal rivers are the Yalou (baptized Amnok by Korean), 800 km length and the Tumen, whose course reaches 521 km.
The culminating point is the Mont Paektu (: 2750 m). In the sorry and imposing landscape of the crater of this old volcano, the Lac Chon extends. Fifty mountains exceed 2000 m in addition (for the majority located in the Hamgyong). The three quarters of the country mountainous or consist of plates.
The climate is of moderate type continental, characterized by an annual amplitude of 35°C with Pyongyang (the average temperature in January is of - 8°C and that of July are 27°C) and of the hot and wet summers. Annual precipitations reach 916 mm with Pyongyang and: 1400 mm with Wonsan, on the east coast. In 1967,1995,2006 and the 2007 country was subjected to very strong floods which involved heavy human losses and material.
The territory consists of 80% of mountains and plates in major part covered with forests (coniferous, oaks, chestnuts…). The climate, continental, is characterized by one long, cold winter and a wet summer. The 2/3 of annual precipitations intervene during the monsoon of summer, from June to September. With the autumn, the typhoons are not rare.
Fauna and floraFauna North-Korean belongs to a vaster unit which gathers the North-East of China and is of Siberia. It counts in particular brown and black Ours, tiger S (of which the Tigre in Korea pertaining to the subspecies of the Tigre of Siberia), Zibeline S, stag S and Sarcelle S of the Lac Baïkal. Among the avicolous species, the black green woodpecker with white belly is specific to the north of the Korea.
For the flora, the North Korea shelters several natural parks, in particular in the areas of the Mounts Chilbo, Paektu, Kuwol, Myohyang and Kumgang.
Administrative geographyThe North Korea counts nine provinces and four cities under clean administrative statute.
The nine provinces are:
- Kangwon, in south-east (main cities: Wonsan, chief town of province, and Kosong), where are located the Kumgang mounts or Kumgangsan (" san" mean mountain in Korean);
- Jagang, in the North-West, frontier with China (chief town of province: Kanggye);
- Ryanggang, in north (chief town of province: Hyesan), the Mount Paektu, culminating point of the North Korea at the sino-Korean border, belongs to Ryanggang;
- two provinces of North and the South Pyongan, in the west, whose chief towns are respectively Sinuiju, at the Chinese border, and Pyongsong (another important city: Kangso, in the South Pyongan); the mounts Myohyang are located at the limit of the provinces of the South Pyongan and Jagang;
- two provinces of North and the South Hamgyong (chief town of province: respectively Chongjin and Hamhung), in the North-East of the country (another important city: the port of Sinpo in the South Hamgyong);
- the northern and the southern Hwanghae, in the extreme-south of the country (chief towns of province: Sariwon and Haeju).
SettlementThe first settlements of Korea date from the paleolithic time more than one million years ago. The first modern populations of men, of type Homo sapiens, are present there are 30.000 to 40.000 years in the provinces of Hamgyong North and Pyongan of the South, located today in the north of the Korean peninsula. Their architecture of the type Dolmen S is also common to Europe, India and the Middle East at the same time.
The territorial unit of Korea and the anthropomorphic identity of the Koreans are attested 7.000 years ago.
In the linguistic plan, the Korean S would be directly related with the Indo-Europeans within the vaster whole of the populations Eurasiatique S according to linguists J.H. Greenberg and Mr. Ruhlen. Work of the geneticist Luca Cavalli-Sforza confirms the assumption of a relationship between the Koreans and the Indo-Europeans.
See also: Demography of the North Korea
The population North-Korean was estimated at approximately: 23113000 inhabitants in July 2006, is a density of a little less 192 people per square kilometer. In 2005, approximately 60% of the population is town. These problems make that the infantile Death rate is estimated at 23,29 per thousand in 2006 under conditions then criticized by association Mindan of the South-Koreans of Japan. The North Korea thus counts a small Japanese community estimated at: 1800 people. Moreover, a Chinese minority of: 50000 people is present in North Korea, as well as a community of origin Vietnamese. But for several years the rate of immigration has been extremely weak and in 2006 it is estimated at zero. That made of the North Korea a very homogeneous country on the ethnic level. The specialists consider more probable the figure of 100.000 North-Koreans present in China, even less, by observing that " illegal immigration is not, by nature, not recorded officiellement" and that " most of the shifts in population along the border are legal, with people going to work or study abroad ". The defector of more than 450 North-Koreans made at Seoul on July 27th, 2004 was described as " planned kidnapping and a crime of terrorism flagrant" by the authorities North-Korean.
See also: Economy of the North Korea
The North Korea has a planned economy. According to the Idéologie of Perches , the North Korea sought self-sufficiency for a long time and has of this fact have an economic policy of Autarcie. Although the exchanges with outside were reduced, it received an important Chinese help and Soviet after the Guerre of Korea (1950-1953), buying with preferential rates raw materials nonpresent on its ground (like the Pétrole).
Since 2002, certain economic reforms were installation, comparable with measurements of liberalization installation in China in the Années 1990.
The reforms however are presented like temporary and certain were not maintained. Since October 2005, rice is not any more sold on the private markets and again raises of the only public system of distribution. This measurement was justified by the increase in the production of cereals, whereas the development of the private markets had increased the inequalities in the access to rice, bases Korean food.
Total dataIn the absence of official statistics, the statistical data on the economy North-Korean come from the international institutions and South Korean, as well as Western and South Korean researchers. They are established in particular starting from the observations collected by the foreigners and the South-Koreans present in North Korea. So the estimates are partially incomplete.
After the war of Korea, the economic growth was as fast, even faster, as in South Korea: it reaches 10% per annum on average between 1960 and 1970 and exceeds 17% between 1971 and 1975. The economic deceleration as from 1976 coincides however with a going beyond, for the first time, of the North Korea by South Korea in terms of rough National product (GNP) per capita.
After the disappearance of the USSR and people's democracies of Eastern Europe, the economic growth was definitely negative until 1998 according to the South Korean ministry of the reunification. According to the same source, average annual growth rate exceeds 3% since 1999, but the North Korea did not find the food level of self-sufficiency yet.
Evaluations of the total GNP and per capita
According to the South Korean ministry for the reunification, the GNP of the North Korea last east of 15,7 billion dollars in 2001 to 20,8 billion dollars in 2004, is an average GNP per annum and per capita of 914 $ in 2004. According to other sources, it would rise in purchasing power parity to approximately 40 billion dollars in 2005, that is to say 1.800 dollars per capita.
International economic relations
In 2005, the principal recipients of exports North-Korean were China (35%), South Korea (24%), the Thailand (9%) and the Japan (9%). At the same date, the leading vendors of the North Korea were China (42%), South Korea (28%), Russia (9%) and Thailand (8%).
In 2007, several associations estimate at 15.000 the numbers of workmen (in majority female) working abroad and transferring part of their wages in the State.
Level of developmentThe level of electrical production is an indicator of the industrialization of the country. It is in 2004 evaluated to 21,71 billion kWh (939 kWh per capita).
Here some indicators of development to locate the living conditions of the North-Koreans:
- the number of phone lines is of: 930000 in 2003 (0,04 per capita), slightly higher than that of the Yemen (0,03 per capita),
- the rate of Infant mortality is estimated at 23,29 per thousand in 2006, slightly lower than that of the Romania (25,50 per thousand).
Food situationThe North Korea had reached and exceeded the food level of self-sufficiency to the beginning of the year 1990, while at the same time the major part of the arable lands were located at the south during the division of Korea.
However, the situation seriously worsened in the Années 1990, under the combined effect of various factors, the operation even of the economic system (centralized and which would encourage the persons in charge of provinces to fake with the rise the results) would have been one of the factors of the Famine between 1995 and 1999, having led the country to make for the first time call to the international assistance. This explanation on the incidence of the economic mode of organization is not retained by other analyzes.
In 2007, UNO evaluates with approximately a fifth of its needs the food deficit for the North Korea and, among foreign aids, South Korea must deliver 400.000 tonnes of rice in six months. The situation could be worsened by the floods of August 2007 which involved " enormous human damage and matériels" according to the official agency North-Korean KCNA: several hundreds of people would have died or disappeared and from tens of thousands of families would be homeless people, the damage being also very important for the communication network and of transport.
See also: Transport in North Korea
Because of the shortage of Oil which limits the motor vehicle traffic, road transport accounts for only 12% of the transport of freight. The number of vehicles is estimated at: 264000 in 1990, mainly used by the army and)
There exist 77 airports in 2006, of which only one international airport, that of Pyongyang, having for principal destination Beijing. By excluding the military use, this means of transport remains marginal.
With the difference of the capitalist countries, the various social statuses of the company strongly hierarchical North-Korean are expressed less in the differences in wages than in attribution by the State of the basic goods (housing, food, clothing, consumer goods). The Liberalization of the prices and the wages since 2002 tends however to call into question the traditional social organization.
The installation of a mode of People's democracy after 1945 reversed the social reports/ratios, placing the old aristocracy Yangban and the Japanese collaborators in bottom of the social scale, while the workmen and the old resistant ones were promoted.
In a context where the family ties and professionals constitute essential networks of sociability, the division of Korea was painfully felt as a sanction imposed on a country which did not form part of the overcome States, unlike Germany. The Guerre of Korea has also affected many Korean families. The reunification constitutes a major goal for all the Koreans who form a very homogeneous Peuple.
Cultural activitiesAll the cultural activities are under the control of the State. Many books, poems, songs or films are impressed of a very strong nationalism, of a vision praising the superiority of socialism North-Korean on the " middle-class corruption and impérialiste" and of important a Worship of the personality of Kim It-sung and her son the current one directing Kim Jong-il.
Information is under the control of the State via single the News agency of the country and national television.
According to Antoine Coppola, the cinema North-Korean is founded on the Soviet socialist Réalisme.
Taking into account the current economic difficulties of the democratic Popular republic of Korea, the production of films by the North Korea decreased by about fifty feature-length films, at the end of the years 1980, with only two films in 2006: Pyongyang Nalpharam of Phyo Kwang and Maeng Chil-min and the Newspaper of a schoolgirl , of Jang In-hak. In 2007, the projected budget for the film production rises to 3 million dollars, corresponding to the production from 5 to 7 feature-length films. Since 1987, the International festival of film of Pyongyang is organized in the capital North-Korean.
See also: Korean Literature
After 1945, the literature North-Korean was initially represented by writers of left who had fought against the Japanese occupation, in particular within the KAPF. O Chang-hwan, Chong Chi-yong, Kim Ki-rim, Kim Tong-hwan and Hong Myong-hi belong to the writers of the generation of the inter-war period which joined the North Korea. Among them, Han So-rya chaired the Federation of arts and the literature of North Korea.
Hong Myong-hi, grandfather of Hong Sok-jung, became Deputy Prime Minister of the democratic Popular republic of Korea, after having embraced the career of writer to protest against the prohibition of the Korean language by the Japanese during the occupation of Korea.
See also: Education system North-Korean
The education system North-Korean is strongly centralized and under the control of the State. Teaching is free and obligatory in North Korea during eleven years, from 6 to 17 years, and is sanctioned by obtaining a diploma of end of secondary studies. According to the official data and other external sources, the rate of Alphabétisation (99%) is as high as in Europe and North America.
The primary products of teaching are Korean, mathematics, the sport, the drawing, the music, sciences, as well as the study of the ideas of the Juche, the thought of Kim Il Sung, strongly developed.
See also: Sport in North Korea
The victory of the North Korea over Italy at the time of the Football world cup of 1966, was the subject of a film of Daniel Gordon, entitled " The range off to their lives" (" The match of their vies"). For the first time, an Asian nation arrived in final stage of a cut of football world. In a country where this sport is very popular, the Rungnado stage in Pyongyang counts 150 000 places, which does of them one of the five greater stages in the world.
CodesThe North Korea has as codes:
- KP, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- PEAK, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports
- TY, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
|Random links:||Sapotillier | Supersessionism | Winver | Cascante | Servant of the Place of Truth | Eric Bergeron|