Norodom Sihanouk is a Kampuchean politician who was king, president then again king of the Kampuchea. He was also poet, novelist, journalist and scenario writer.
Norodom Sihanouk , born the October 31st 1922 with Phnom Penh, follows secondary studies to the College Chasseloup Laubat of Saigon to Vietnam, Kampuchea not having secondary schools. It is the general governor of Indo-China, the admiral Decoux who announces to him at the beginning of 1941 that France nourishes political ambitions for its person and a few months the gold crown of the sovereigns of Angkor gives to him later.
Buddhist, considering that “ monogamy equalizes monotony ”, it takes several wives and their fact of many children. With the beginning of its reign, it occupies also much the royal Ballet.
King of the Kampuchea, of the April 24th 1941 with the March 3rd 1955, elected by the Council of the crown, it succeeds his/her large father the king Sisowath Monivong, and yielding itself the throne to his/her own father Norodom Suramarit.
- Head of the State (without the title of king), of April 1960 with the March 18th 1970, it succeeds his/her father after his death. He itself is reversed, during his absence, by a coup d'etat of the general Lon Nol. and in Beijing a government in exile founds.
- Head of the State symbolic system, in April 1975, real capacity being exerted by the Khmer Rouge taken along by Pol Pot. The April 4th 1976, Norodom Sihanouk was again constrained with the exile in China.
- In 1979, it creates the Confédération of the nationalist Khmers with Pyong Yang (North Korea).
- President of the coalition government of democratic Kampuchea, 1982 with 1989, primarily honorary role, the remaining prince in exile in Beijing.
- Returned in Kampuchea the November 14th 1991, the prince was again Head of the State of the November 20th 1991 with the September 24th 1993.
- Again king of Kampuchea of the September 24th 1993 with the October 7th 2004. He abdicated of his title of king, choosing for successor his son Norodom Sihamoni.
France by supporting Norodom Sihanouk hoped that it would be as flexible as formerly the emperor of Vietnam Bảo Đại.
Become God King , it is made call Samdedh' Euv ( Monseigneur Papa ) and requires that the peasants prosternent themselves with its feet, considering that “ it is the expression of the unit of the kingdom ”.
In 1953, it peacefully obtains France the independence of its country, but the war of Vietnam makes rage at the borders of its kingdom.
In 1956, he becomes cofounder of the Mouvement of the non-aligned countries with the president Yougoslave Josip Broz Tito, the president Égyptien Gamal Abdel Nasser, the president Indonésien Soekarno and Indian the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
In 1960, with died of his/her father, elected official unanimously, it takes again his place of King.
At the beginning of the Years 1960, it approaches the Eastern European countries and Kampuchea accommodates then more than thousand Soviet experts. It also allows forty thousand North-Vietnamese soldiers and Vietcong to settle in its country. In fact under cover of an official neutrality it chooses the communist camp what corresponds to a declaration of war against the Americans. Later he will explain why he had made this alliance to save his monarchy and to muzzle the Kampuchean Communists.
Its continuous police force to pursue the Khmer Communists that it describes as “reds” and that it shows to conspire against him. In 1967, it states to make fun of the Constitution and the laws of the kingdom, and it makes carry out without judgment of the hundreds of Khmer.
With end of Years 1960, it undertakes bringing together with the Chinese expressing his veneration for Cabbage In-lay and Mao Tsé-toung, which could flatter it by saying to him if he were Chinese, he would be the emperor of China. The Russians do not appreciate this bringing together that they regard as a treason.
With the Kampuchea even, many accounting scandals touch the royal family and the population starts to tire its jokes and of its whims. An opposition is done day and the January 6th 1970, terrorized by the fear of being assassinated, it takes refuge in France with Grasse, officially for neuropsychological problems.
The March 18th 1970, whereas Norodom are in visit in the USSR, the general Lon Nol, chief of the government, reverses it. Immediately, the king leaves to Beijing to found a government in exile, and lines up side of the Northern Vietnam hoping for government of Hanoï of the military aid to fight against the dissenting government of Kampuchea. The March 23rd 1970, he becomes President of the FUNC ( national United front of Kampuchea ) and in April, with Canton he is the initiator of the Summit conference of the Indochinese people gathering the Prime Minister North-Vietnamese Pham Van Dong, the President of the National front of release of South-Vietnam Nguyen Huu Tho and President Souphanouvong of the Neo Lao Haksat.
The April 17th 1975: The popular Army of national release of FUNC gains the military victory. The democratic Kampuchea is founded and Norodom Sihanouk becomes the President about it. However in April 1976 it resigns, constrained with the exile in China.
In 1982 it becomes again about it President, primarily honorary role, the remaining prince in exile in Beijing, and he is also the chief of the national Resistance of Kampuchea.
The July 17th 1991, Norodom leaves the Presidency of Kampuchea Démocratique and the R.N.C to place itself at the top of the factions and Cambodgiens political parties. The 11 members of the supreme National council of Kampuchea elect it President.
Opinion and quotations
- According to Kukrit Pramoj, former Prime Minister inhabitant of Thailand: “ Just a wind vane, always of representation. ”
- According to Richard Nixon, the former president of the United States: “ambitious conceited, terribly touch-with-all. ”
- Norodom Sihanouk : “ Captive of the Khmer Rouges ”, ED. Hatchet 1986.
Official site of Norodom Sihanouk (in English, but including a great quantity of French documents)
- Kampuchean Newspapers (Partially in English)
- a cyber culture khmère in the world
- Khmer Poets throughout the French-speaking world
- Gate on Kampuchea
|Random links:||Crim' | programa del Doce-paso | Emile Goué | Revoluçion revolution | Carl Hoefkens | Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy | Ressorts_de_Siloam,_Arkansas|