Nobel Prize of Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize of Physiology or Médecine honors annually, according to the wills of the will of Alfred Nobel, of the personalities of the medical world and research in biology whose work and the scientific work contributed a remarkable and allowed share a considerable progress of the knowledge and techniques in the field. It is allotted by a jury of professors in medicine of the Institut Karolinska which draws up a list of five nominations starting from a choice preliminary of about fifty canditatures worked out by the specific Comité Nobel to this branch. After the revelation of the name of the prize winner beginning October, the medal and the diploma of the Fondation are officially given by the king of Sweden, the December 10th according to, birthday day of died of the founder of the price. Since 2001, the Nobel Prize is equipped with an amount of 10 million Swedish crowns, that is to say a little more than one million Euros.
- 1902 Sir Ronald Ross
- 1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen
- 1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
- 1905 Robert Koch German Empire
- 1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón there Cajal
- 1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran for his discovery of the parasite Protozoon responsible for the Paludism
- 1908 Ilya Ilitch Metchnikov, Paul Ehrlich German Empire
- 1909 Emil Theodor Kocher
- 1911 Allvar Gullstrand
- 1912 Alexis Carrel
- 1913 Charles Robert Richet
- 1914 Robert Bárány Austria-Hungary
- 1919 Jules Bordet
- 1922 Archibald Vivian Hill, Otto Fritz Meyerhof Germany
- 1923 Frederick Banting, John James Richard Macleod
- 1924 Willem Einthoven
- 1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger
- 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg Germany
- 1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicole
- 1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
- 1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany
- 1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, Douglas Edgar Adrian
- 1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan
- 1934 George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Parry Murphy
- 1935 Hans Spemann Germany
- 1936 Sir Henry Hallett Paves, Otto Loewi Germany
- 1937 Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrapolt
- 1938 Crow Jean François Heymans
- 1939 Gerhard Domagk Germany
1943 Henrik Carl Peter Prejudice, Edward Adelbert Doisy
- 1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Spencer Gasser
- 1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, Sir Howard Walter Florey
- 1946 Hermann Joseph Muller
- 1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori, Gerty Theresa Cori born Radnitz, Bernardo Alberto Houssay
- 1948 Paul Hermann Müller
- 1949 Walter Rudolf Hess, António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
- 1951 max Theiler
- 1952 Selman Abraham Waksman
- 1953 Hans Adolf Krebs, Fritz Albert Lipmann
- 1954 Franklin John Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins
- 1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
- 1956 Andre Frederic Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards
- 1957 Daniel Bovet
- 1958 George Wells Beadle, Edward Lawrie Tatum, Joshua Lederberg
- 1959 Severo Ochoa Spain, Arthur Kornberg
- 1961 Georg von Békésy
- 1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
- 1963 Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley
- 1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen
- 1965 François Jacob, Andre Lwoff, Jacques Monod
- 1966 Peyton Rous, Charles Brenton Huggins
- 1967 Ragnar Granite, Haldan Keffer Hartline, George Wald
- 1968 Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
- 1969 max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, El Salvador Luria
1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod, for “their discoveries concerning the humoraux transmitters in the nervous terminations and mechanisms of their storage, salting out and inactivation”.
- 1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., for “its discoveries mechanisms of action of the Hormone S”.
- 1972 Gerald Mr. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter, for “their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of the antibodies”.
- 1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen, for “their discoveries concerning the organization and the incentive of the individual and social behaviors”.
- 1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George Emil Palade for “their discoveries concerning the organization structural and functional of the cell”.
- 1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco Italy, Howard Martin Temin, for “their discoveries concerning the carcinogenic viruses and the genetic material of the cell”.
- 1976 Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek for “their discoveries concerning of new mechanisms for the origin and the dissemination of the infectious illness”.
- 1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally for “their discoveries concerning the production of peptide hormones in the brain”, and Rosalyn Yalow for “the development of the Radio-immuno assay S of the peptide hormones”.
- 1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith, for “the discovery of the enzymes of restrictions and their application to the problems of molecular genetics”.
- 1979 Allan MacLeod Cormack, Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, for “the development of Tomography”.
- 1981 Roger Sperry, David Hubel, Torsten Wiesel for “their discoveries concerning the analysis of information in the visual system”.
- 1982 Sune Bergström, Bengt Samuelsson, John Winnows for “their discoveries concerning the associated Prostaglandine S and biologically active substances”.
- 1983 Barbara McClintock for “her discovery of the Let us transpose”.
- 1984 Niels Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, Cesar Milstein for “the theories concerning specificity in the development and the control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle of production of the monoclonal anticoprs”.
- 1985 Michael Brown, Joseph Goldstein for “their discoveries concerning the regulation of the metabolism of cholesterol”.
- 1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini Italy for “their discoveries of the growth factors”.
- 1987 Susumu Tonegawa for “its discovery of the genetic principles at the origin of the diversity of the antibodies”.
- 1988 Sir James Black, Gertrude Elion, George Hitchings for “their discovery of the important principles of the medicamentous treatments”.
- 1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold Varmus for “their discovery of the cellular origin of the Oncogène S rétroviraux”.
1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas for “their discoveries concerning the Transplantation S of bodies and cellular for the treatment of the human diseases”.
- 1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann for “their discoveries of the functions of the ionic channels isolated in the cells”.
- 1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs for “their discoveries concerning the reversible Phosphorylation S of proteins like a biological mechanism of regulation”.
- 1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp for “their discovery of duplicated genes”.
- 1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell for “their discovery of the Proteins G and the role of these proteins in the transduction of the cellular signals”.
- 1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus for “their discovery concerning the genetic control of the early phases of the embryonic development”.
- 1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf Mr. Zinkernagel for “their discovery concerning the specificity of cellular immunizing defense”.
- 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner for “its discovery of the prion S, a new biological principle of infection”.
- 1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad, for “their discoveries concerning the nitric Oxide, a new molecule of indication in the cardiovascular System”.
- 1999 Günter Blobel for “the discovery which the proteins have an intrinsic signal which controls their transport and their localization in the cell”.
- Arvid Carlsson “to have proven that the Dopamine is the Neurotransmetteur whose déplétion causes the symptoms of the Parkinson's disease”.
- Paul Greengard “to have shown how the Neurotransmetteur S act on the cells and can activate an important molecule known under the name DARPP-32”.
- Eric R. Kandel “to have described the molecular bases of the memory with short term and long run”.
- 2001 Leland H. Hartwell, R. Timothy Hunt, Sir Paul Mr. Nurse for “their discovery of the cycline and the enzymes Kinase S dependant on the cycline, the fundamental molecules of the regulation of the cellular Cycle”.
- 2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston for “their discoveries concerning the genetic regulation of the development of the oragnes and the programmed cellular death”.
- 2003 Paul C. Lauterbur, Sir Peter Mansfield, for “their discoveries concerning the Imagery by magnetic resonance”.
- 2004 Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck for “their discovery of the olfactive receiving and the organization of the olfactive System”.
- 2005 Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren, for “their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and of its role in the Gastrite S and the ulcers of the stomach”.
- 2006 Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello for “their discoveries of the extinction of the form of genes by interfering ARN S double-bits”.
- 2007 Mario Capecchi, Oliver Smithies, Martin Evans for “their discoveries on the principles of specific introduction of a genetic modification in the mice thanks to the use of embryonic cells stocks”.
- List of the prizes winner of the Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine, on the site of the Nobel Prize
Simple: Nobel Prize in Physiology gold Medicine Zh-min-nan: Nobel Seng-lí-ha̍k I-ha̍k Chióng
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