The Nobel Prize is a reward given annually to the people who made progress research or the company, following methods instituted according to the last wishes of Alfred Nobel, inventor of the Dynamite.

The price are currently decreed with the current of October of each year.

The ceremony of handing-over of the prices takes place the December 10th, birthday day of died of Alfred Nobel (deceased on December 10th, 1896).

Alfred Nobel

With its death, Alfred Nobel leaves a heritage of 32 million crowns. Its will, written in 1895, does not envisage any Legs with its direct heirs, but Alfred Nobel asks that an institution be created which will undertake to reward each year for the people who rendered great services to humanity, allowing an improvement or a considerable progress in the field of the knowledge and the culture in five different disciplines: Peace or Diplomacy, Literature, Chemistry, Physiology or Physical Medicine and .

The will specifies moreover that the Nationalité preceded scientists should not play any part in the attribution of the price. The Nobel Foundation is born in June 1900. It is it which manages the execution of the last wills of the testator, controls the compliance with the rules in the prize winner nomination and checks the good progress of their election. It is also in load, by the way of a specific committee to each branch and according to the proposals for eminent personalities in the five fields, to draw up lists preliminary of nominations communicated to the various authorities which allot the price.

The reward and its organization are financed by the incomes coming from the legacy of Alfred Nobel, deceased without Enfant S, this inheritance being placed in actions “of father”.

The first ceremony to allot the Nobel Prize took place in the old royal academy of Musique of Stockholm, on December 10th, 1901. Starting from 1902, the prices were given with the hands of the king of Sweden the December 10th of each year.

The prizes winner of the Nobel Prize receive each one an amount of 10 million Swedish crowns (either more than one million Euro S), they have freely, but which especially enables them to continue their research or work without undergoing financial pressures.

The price cannot be given in a posthumous way: it is obligatorily allotted to personalities of their alive.

Prices

The Nobel Prize are allotted since 1901 in the following fields:

In 1968, with the agreement of the foundation Nobel, the Banque of Sweden ( Sveriges Riksbank ) instituted a new price in:

Since 1968, it was decided not to add more of new category of price.

The absence of mathematics

One was often astonished that the Mathématiques are not also rewarded by a Nobel Prize.

This discipline is rewarded since 1936 by prestigious the Médaille Fields, and more recently (2003) by the Prix Abel.

Alfred Nobel forever explained his motivations concerning the absence of mathematics.

However, one can advance three plausible reasons: the subject did not interest it, or seemed to him inappropriate because too theoretical, the king of Sweden had already founded a price at the request of the Swedish mathematician Gösta Mittag-Leffler.

Lastly, a legend circulates mentioning a sentimental conflict between Nobel and Mittag-Leffler, the woman of Nobel would have had apparently a relation extraconjugale with this last. According to Lars Garding and Lars Hörmander, it is stripped of base.

Statistics (November 2007)

  • Full number of prizes winner : 797

* Women prizes winner: 33
* Men prizes winner: 733
* Organizations: 19
  • Age of the prizes winner at the time of their younger nomination

*le: William Lawrence Bragg, 25 years when it accepted the Nobel Prize of physics in 1915
older *le: Leonid Hurwicz 90 years when it accepted the Nobel Prize of economy in 2007
  • Two prizes winner declined personally the Nobel Prize

* Jean-Paul Sartre declined the Nobel Prize of literature in 1964
* Đức Thọ declined the Nobel Prize of peace in 1973
  • Four prizes winner were obliged by their government to decline the Nobel Prize

* Adolf Hitler constrained the three following prizes winner to refuse this price, but they entered in their possessions after the second world war:
* Richard Kuhn, German, Nobel Prize of chemistry 1938
* Adolf Butenandt, German, Nobel Prize of chemistry 1939
* Gerhard Domagk, German, Nobel Prize of medicine 1939
*Le constrained Soviet government the prize winner following to decline this price:
* Boris Pasternak, Russian, Nobel Prize of literature 1958
  • Prizes winner having received several times the Nobel Prize

* John Bardeen, Nobel Prize of physics 1956 and 1972
* Marie Curie, Nobel Prize of physics 1903 and Nobel Prize of chemistry 1911
* Linus Pauling, Nobel Prize of chemistry 1954 and Nobel Prize of peace 1962
* Frederick Sanger, Nobel Prize of chemistry 1958 and 1980
* International committee of the Red Cross, Nobel Prize of peace 1917, 1944 and 1963
* Office of the High Commission of the United Nations for the refugees, Nobel Prize of Peace 1954 and 1981
  • Families having received several Nobel Prize

* Couples :
* Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, Nobel Prize of physics 1903 (together)
* Gunnar Myrdal, Price of the Bank of Sweden in economic scenes in memory of Alfred Nobel 1974 and Alva Myrdal, Nobel Prize of peace 1982
* Irene Joliot-Curie and Frederic Joliot, Nobel Prize of chemistry 1935 (together)
* Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, Nobel Prize of medicine 1947 (together)

* Mother and girl :

* Marie Curie, Nobel Prize of physics 1903 and Chemistry 1911 and Irene Joliot-Curie Nobel Prize of chemistry 1935

* Father and girl :

* Pierre Curie, Nobel Prize of physics 1903 and Irene Joliot-Curie Nobel Prize of chemistry 1935

* Father and wire :

* J.J. Thomson, Nobel Prize of physics in 1906 and George Paget Thomson, Nobel Prize of physics in 1937.
* William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg, Nobel Prize of physics in 1915 (together).
* Arthur Kornberg, Nobel Prize of medicine 1959 and Roger D. Kornberg, Nobel Prize of chemistry 2006.
* Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize of physics in 1922 and Aage Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize of physics in 1975.
* Karl Basket Georg Siegbahn, Nobel Prize of physics 1924 and Kai Siegbahn, Nobel Prize of physics 1981.
* Hans von Euler-Chelpin, Nobel Prize of chemistry 1929 and Ulf von Euler, Nobel Prize of medicine 1970.

France enters 18 Nobel Prize (including 13 in literature. First country preceded in literature)

See too

  • Prizes winner of the Nobel Prize French, Italian, Swedish and Swiss and Prizes winner of the Nobel Prize.
  • the Price Ig Nobel which is given since 1991 in parody of the Nobel Prize.
  • the Price Abel for the Mathematical (equivalent of the Nobel Prize).
  • the Medal Fields for the Mathematical (equivalent of the Nobel Prize).
  • the Price Turing for the Data-processing since 1966 (equivalent of the Nobel Prize).

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