Nike is an American company specialized in the shoes, clothing and the material of Sport. The name is inspired by the Greek goddess Athéna Nike, represented like a divinity winged, able to move with high speed, symbol of the victory (a famous representation of Athéna Nike, the Victoire de Samothrace, is exposed to the Louvre).
She ensured her notoriety by a logo simple and quickly recognizable: the " Swoosh " , a comma posed with back and the horizontal one; it was created by Carolyn Davidson in 1972 as being the wing of the Nike goddess.
The head office of Nike is with Beaverton, Oregon.
Nike carries out 56% of its sales abroad (figure 2006).
HistoryIn 1950, Bill Bowerman, trainer of Athletics at the university of Oregon, and Phil Knight, studying of accountancy and runner of Semi-bottom, have the idea to import Japan not very expensive shoes of athletics and high-technicality. At that time, in fact the German marks as Adidas dominate this industry. The same year, their company Blue Ribbon Sports sells shoes of the Japanese manufacturer Onitsuka Tiger.
They are joined in 1965 by Jeff Johnson which is the first salesman-representative full-time of the mark: he makes the turn of the stages of athletics to promote these shoes.
However, the desire of Bowerman is to improve the aspect of Tiger and Knight wants to make more than to sell the shoes of other companies. Johnson renames the company Nike and Bowerman deals with the design.
In 1971, for 35 dollars, a coed in graphic art, Carolyn Davidson, conceives the logo in comma of Nike. It deals with the publicity of the firm until the need for employing an agency of communication full-time.
In 1973, Nike launches its famous tennis shoe " Waffle" (English waffle). It was revolutionist because it had a sole able to deaden the shocks and to help to rebound.
In 1979, the shoe of Tailwind race receives new technology “Air”. Pockets filled with gas are included in the sole to improve comfort of the runner.
At the end of the years 1980, the logo receives a slogan: “ Just C it ” (Do it!) and of many sportsmen are under supply agreement.
In 1981, Nike becomes number 1 of the sport shoe in the United States, and benefits from it to enter out of purse.
With the success of the Nike Air, Davidson is rewarded in 1983 by a Nike logo in Or crimped Diamants and Nike actions.
In 1994 Nike makes Bauer a subsidiary company of the group. In 2006 Nike and Bauer become the common mark " Nike Bauer " , becoming with the passage one of the giant of the industry of the equipment of Hockey, in particular in the National league of hockey.
In 1997, it is the black year of Nike, which is shown to make manufacture its products by subcontractors employing of the children.
Nike manages to become the official supplier several sports events: balloons of the League of the champions of Football in Europe, the Tour de France cyclist at the end of the years 1990… In 2003, Nike Inc. repurchase its rival Converse Shoes for 305 million dollars.
In 2005, Phil Knight (chairman and founder of Nike) prepares its succession. It designates its successor: Bill Perez, before pushing this last towards the exit and replacing it in January 2006.
A criticized company
Nike is criticized for the conditions of Travail of the Ouvriers in the Usines of the subcontractors of the mark in Asia and with the Mexico, often employed in free zones of Taxe, whereas the majority of the other marks sporting and being born practice the same type of Délocalisation in order to make profitable to the maximum their products. Among the sources of these criticisms are in the book of Naomi Klein " No Logo" and the documentary ones of Michael Moore.
The company is amended gradually: Nike promises that its products are not manufactured any more by children since documentary the " The Big One" of Moore. The photography of a Pakistani child bending of the Nike balloons was thus useful in several newspapers to illustrate this topic, as well as the handbook of civic education of class 5th of the French editor Hatier in 1996.
It should be known that Nike does not have manufacturing planies and works with subcontractors. The company calls upon external organizations to control the work conditions of paid sub-contracting companies, which is not the case of some of its competitors which have their own team of control, which makes the results less credible. Are the sales of Nike in fall with the the United States, in particular because of the bad image of which suffers (suffered?) the company. Since Nike pledged many to show its intention to mitigate the reproaches which are made to him.
The logo of NikeCreated in 1971 on ordering of the founder of the company (Phil Knight), the logo (named " Swoosh " ) drawn by Carolyn Davidson (then coed in Design), is paid 35,00 $. The price regulated at the time by what was a SME seems ridiculous today compared with the value taken by Nike and its mark. To fight against the bad impression of this spread enough short cut, Nike makes a point of underlining, that it was not there the only remuneration which Carolyn Davidson accepted from the equipment supplier. Thereafter, Carolyn Davidson dealt with the needs for the small company during one moment and in 1983, Nike given to Carolyn Davidson, a ring in Or representing the Nike logo (called " Swoosh") crimped of a Diamond as well as an envelope containing of the actions of Nike. Today, she lives very peacefully with Portland (but no royalties on its creation touch).
The defender and captain of the English football team of London FIFA All Stars (FAST), Liam McCarthy, recently became one of the egeries of the mark by signing an advertizing contract with this one. The mark with the " Swoosh " decided to market a series of tee-shirt to the effigy of the floqués FAST of the name of the robust South-African defender.
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