Nijni-Novgorod ( Russian НижнийНовгород in ) is a town of Russia, administrative center of the Oblast de Nijni-Novgorod and centers economic economic Région the Volga-Vyatka. Its population rises with: 1286000 inhabitants in 2007 what makes the fifth town of Russia of it. The city bore the name of Gorki (in Russian Горький ) of 1932 to 1991 according to the writer Maxime Gorki (to note that it is still the name of use in the Russian stations).
Nijni means low , Novgorod , the new city.
HistoryThe town of Nijni-Novgorod is founded in 1221 with the confluence of the rivers Oka and the Volga by the large-duke Youri Vsévolodovitch of the Principauté of Vladimir-Souzdal to ensure the defense of the Russian borders against the Mordves, Tchérémisses and Tatars.
The destruction of the main cities of Russia which makes following the invasion Mongolian (1223) Nijni-Novgorod saving because it is yet only one agglomeration of small size. This deferment made it possible the town of become of one of the great centers of the Russian polic life under the yoke tatar.
About 1350 the large duke Dimitri Konstantinovitch transfers to Nijni Novgorod the capital from the powerful principality from Vladimir-Souzdal with the intention to make a rival of Moscow of it. He makes build a citadel out of stone and several churches. With its request the oldest chronicle of the Russian history is written by the Laurentius monk in 1377. The principality occupies a very wide territory then: in the east, the borders of the principality are delimited by the Soura (affluent of the the Volga) and in south-east and the south by Piana and Serioga (affluents of the Tioshi); to the west the territory extends to banks from the Oka and to the affluents from the Kliazma, thus including the towns of Souzdal and Chuya.
was the fortress of Kourmich, founded in 1372 was in the middle of the fortifications bordering is territory. Throughout the borders small fortresses located on islands are built, in which the frontier ones lived. Ruins of these fortresses were discovered along the Piana river in the districts of Boutourlinski and Sergatchki.
In 1377 of the hordes tatares and Mongolian takes Nijni-Novgorod. During the battle on banks of the Piana river, the Russian troops undergo heavy losses vis-a-vis the son of the chief of the horde, Arapchi. Dimitri Konstantinovitch Souzdalski takes refuge in the town of Souzdal while Nijni-novgorodiens flee towards the close cities. Nijni-Novgorod is burnt.
For the period of the yoke tatar, Basile Ier links in 1392 the principality of Nijni-Novgorod to the more powerful principality of Moscow. Thereafter Basile III, the successor of the prince de Moscou Dimitri Donski, repurchases with the Horde of Gold part of the grounds of the principality of Nijni Novgorod.
After destroybeing destroyed in 1408 by the chief tatar Ediguei, the city is rebuilt and becomes a fulcrum in the war against the tatars of Kazan. The the Kremlin, enormous red brick fortress, is built between 1508 and 1511: they are one oldest and more important preserved fortresses of Russia. The Kremlin will resist the seats tatars of 1508 and 1531.
In 1612 it is a merchant of Nijni Novgorod, with the head of the national militia, which drives out the Polish troops of fine Moscow putting at the period disorders and allowing the dynasty of Romanov to be installed on the throne of Russia. During the century which follows, the city becomes a prosperous shopping mall in which Stroganov settles, richest of the Russian merchants. A style architectural and pictorial (icon) specific, known under the name of Stroganov style, develops with the end of XVIIe and the beginning of the 18th century.
The fair of Makarievsk, which was held each year with the monastery of Makariev, to its fire in 1816, is moved the following year in the village of Kounavino, on the opposite bank of the Oka. It then takes the name of fair of Nijni-Novgorod. Thanks to this one, which reaches soon a world famous, the city as well as the neighbouring villages know a fast economic development. To the 19th century Saint Petersbourg said is the head of Russia, Moscow is its heart and Nijni Novgorod its porte-monnaie.
The village of Kounavino became a great center of exchanges, and many industries settle there thereafter. The first water supply network is created in the city in 1847. An important industrial center is built in the surroundings of Nijni-Novgorod, in Sormovo in 1849. Later, it will be more known under the name " of factory of Sormovo" , and during the Soviet period under the name of " Sormovo Rouge". Starting from 1850, the factory produces boats, and until the revolution of 1917 diversifies its activities in particular with the production of coaches, engines, trams and various other machines. Thanks to its factory, Sormovo quickly became a great industrial center.
The construction of the railway line Moscow - Nijni-Novgorod is completed in 1862; it is prolonged in 1895 until Sormovo. The city accommodates the Russian exposure of industry and the trade in 1896. At the time of this event, the first tram line of the city is built. It is the second tram built in all the Russian Empire. The first radio receiving set in the world is also presented there by the engineer Popov, as well as other technological advances. Innovating and exquisite constructions of Vladimir Choukhov honor always much with cities through the old Russian empire. Choukhov designs eight houses boot-covers of exposure (the invention of the claimed covers, of structures of thin-shell - regulated surface) for the fair of Nijni-Novgorod of 1896, covering a surface of 27.000 km ² and comprising a hyperboloidal turn.
After the Russian revolution of October 1917, the Soviet capacity settles in the city as of the autumn 1917). In 1919 the agglomerations of Kounavino and Sormovo receive the statute of city. Kounanivo takes shortly after the name of " Kananivo". But in 1929 the 2 cities are dissolved and their territory is amalgamated in large Nijni-Novgorod, which forms today the district (Raion) administrative of Nijni-Novgorod. The old administrative cutting of the country in provinces is abolished. The province of Nijni-Novgorod disappears and is replaced by the " territory of Nijni-Novgorod" ( Nijegorodski kraï ), whose Nijni-Novgorod becomes the capital.
In 1932 Nijni-Novgorod is renamed " Gorki" , of the name of the Soviet writer Maxime Gorki, near to Lénine and painter to misery to the proletariat of this city in which it had been born. The territory éponyme is renamed same manner. The Années 1930 are one period of intense developments of industry: in 1932 the factory of car of Gorki begins its production as well as the manufacturer of MIG planes. The agglomeration, become an important production center of the armament, is then closed the abroads and will remain it until 1991.
The territory of Gorki ( Gorkovski kraj ) is restructured in 1933. Gorki becomes the center of an area bearing its name ( Gorkovskaya oblast' ).
The first permanent bridge between two banks of the river Oka is built joining together the principal districts of the city hitherto separate into two by this river. The first railway bridge is also built on the the Volga. This one allows from now on the connection of the city with the the Ural and the Siberia.
During the second world war, the city becomes the greatest production center of armament of the country. One built there tanks, planes as well as the famous rockets katioucha. German aviation will bombard 47 times the city during the war to destroy the arms factories.
The Sixties to 80, the city increases considerably like all the Soviet cities with the construction of the new residential districts made up of bars of buildings. The Métro of Nijni-Novgorod is inaugurated in 1985. The nuclear physicist Andrei Sakharov, one of the most known Russian dissidents, is assigned with residence in the city between 1980 and 1986 to be itself high against the entry of the Soviet troops in Afghanistan.
In 1991 After the fall of the Soviet Union, the city takes again its initial name: Nijni-Novgorod.
GeographyThe city is to 400 km in the east of Moscow to the confluence of the the Volga and the Oka.
Its population (2005) is of 1,298 million intramural inhabitants what locates it at the 5th rank of the most populated cities Federation of Russia (after Moscow, Saint-Pétersbourg, Novosibirsk and Ekaterinbourg). Large Nijni-Novgorod has a population of 2,020 million inhabitants (5th place after Moscow, Saint-Petersbourg, Samara and Ekaterinbourg).
The city is an important crossroads from the point of view of the river transport, railroads and roads. The city is crossed by the Trans-Siberian highway, has an airport, and a network of subway.
Economy and industryThe city is a great center of auto industry, in particular with the manufacturer GAS who is the economic main actor of the city. The activities of constructions of machines, metallurgical and of light industry (manufacture of boats, radios) also count. It is also known like one of the principal Russian centers of the Complexe Russian militaro-industrialist and counts in particular the manufacturer of planes MiG. The troisème pole is energy, with the derivative products of oil and coal, the refining and the electrical production.
CultureTwo academies are present at Nijni-Novgorod: The opera and the Pouchkine ballet, as well as a puppet theater. Are present also comic theaters, dramatic, museums, showrooms, as well as the Alliance Fran1caise.
The city is classified by UNESCO among the 100 cities belonging to the world heritage of humanity (cultural and artistic Value).
Go of the dissensionNijni-Novgorod was one of the three cities with Moscow and Saint-Pétersbourg where a " was organized; Walk of the dissension " (in Russian, " Маршнесогласных") organized by the homonymous movement of opposition to Vladimir Poutine. March 24th 2007, the demonstration was to start with 12:00 in the place Gorki, one of the places of the downtown area. During the days preceding the demonstration, its organizers had to undergo continuations on behalf of the authorities for unjustified reasons. The " Marche" was prohibited by the local authorities under various pretexts (a festival of children, research archaeological, building work, etc), but the partisans of the most courageous movement tried nevertheless to carry out it. About midday, the downtown area was completely blocked by the police force, much of participants could not come to the place envisaged because of the interpellations everywhere in the city and the area, but a small demonstration succeeded in taking place beside the Gorki place, during approximately 20 minutes, before being repressed by the police officers. According to the data quoted by various sources, including the radio Echo of Moscow, at least a hundred people succeeded in crossing the many obstacles created by the police force, 3000 police officers, buildings and called areas close to the city, were to crush the movement, approximately 200 people were challenged; some chiefs of the movement were stopped and will be continued for terrorism.
University of State Lobatshevskii de Nijni-Novgorod
- University technical of State de Nijni-Novgorod
- Academy of agriculture of Nijni-Novgorod
- linguistic University of State Dobrolioubov de Nijni-Novgorod
- University of State of architecture and construction of Nijni-Novgorod
- Academy of State of the river transport of Nijni-Novgorod
To see in Nijni NovgorodIn the historical center of the city is the the Kremlin built out of stone. Its construction dates from the 16th century, its enclosure made 2 km of circumference and comprises thirteen turns.
The Kremlin shelters a cathedral of the 13th siècle.
Several museums and monuments are inside the Kremlin. One can see also there the flame of the unknown soldier of the Second world war, and the old tanks which were used during the war.
Interior of the Kremlin Nijni-novgorodien one can admire the the Volga, and part of the city.
Between Nijni Novgorod and Dzerjinsk, satellite town of Nijni Novgorod, is a hyperbolic turn 128 meters height. This metal tower was built in 1929 by the scientist and Russian engineer Choukhov. It is one of the two last multistage towers in Russia, the second being with Moscow.
ReligionThe inhabitants are mainly of orthodoxe religion. There exist some mosques, a catholic parish and a synagog in the city.
- Constantin Kousnetzoff, painter born in 1863
- Maxime Gorki, writer born in 1868. The city was renamed in its Gorki honor between 1932 and 1990.
- Nicolaï Lobatchevsky, mathematician born in 1792 father of the nonEuclidean geometry
- Vladimir Achkenazi pianist and leader born in 1937
- Mili Balakirev type-setter born in 1837 member of the " group cinq"
- Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogoliubov mathematician born in 1909
- Sergei Petrovich Novikov mathematician born in 1938
a fact curious - since the publication about the book of Alexandre Griboïedov the trouble of the spirit (" Гореотума"), in 1831, there exists an expression drawn from this play: " mix languages Frenchwoman and nijégorodienne" (" смешениеязыковфранцузскогоснижегородским"), applied to somebody who speaks badly a foreign language but is believed very extremely.
The High-City (bank right of Oka)
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