The Nigeria (or Nigeria ), located in the Gulf of Guinea, is by far the country more populated of Africa with more than 140 million inhabitants. In spite of an important production of Oil, Nigeria remains a relatively poor country, because in particular of a very strong corruption. The value of its total GDP places it at the third position to Africa, behind the South Africa and the Algérie. In spite of the behavior of elections by the vote for all, the democracy is not established, the last poll having given place to massive frauds according to the international observers. Since 1991, the capital of Nigeria is the new Ville of Abuja. Its inhabitants are the Nigerians (those of the Niger are the Natives of Niger ).
See also: History of Nigeria
The Nok S are the dominant civilization of sixth century BC at the 3rd century, it diffuses towards the areas of Ife and the Benin. 7th at the 11th century: installation of civilizations Haoussa in the north of the country, and Yoruba in south-west. The empire of Kanem (until the 14th century), then Kanem-Bornou (with its apogee at the 16th century) near the Lac Chad dominated the north of Nigeria during more than 600 years, thriving over their position of terminal for the North-South exchanges between the Berbère S of North Africa and people of the forest areas. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman daN Fodio brought back the majority of the areas of the north of the country under the control of an Islamic empire directed since Sokoto.
The kingdoms of Oyo in south-west and Benign in south-east conceived political systems worked out during 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The areas of Ife and Benign are also known for their artistic productions out of ivory, wood, bronze and copper. In 1486 the Portuguese establish contacts with the kingdom of the Benign one.
In 1553 the English destroy the Portuguese vessels and of 18th at the 19th century the European merchants establish coasting harbors for the flourishing traffic of Esclave S in direction of the America S. This trade was replaced by that of the raw materials during the 19th century.
The government of the the United Kingdom establishes a legal statute for the royal company of Niger in 1886. In 1900, this territory is cut out in several Protectorat S, and becomes a colony in 1914. In answer to nationalism going up after the Second world war, the British equip the country with a government representative in 1951 then of a federal constitution in 1954.
In 1958, Taiwo Akinkunmi composes the flag Nigerian. Nigeria obtains its total independence in 1960. The country is then divided into 3 areas having a broad autonomy.
The first republican constitution of 1963 leaves the country in the the Commonwealth. In 1966 a coup d'etat fomented by various military groups brings to the capacity the Ironsi general, of origin Ibo, which is assassinated a few months later. The leaders of this new coup d'etat increase the power of the federal government and change the subdivision of the country which from now on consists of 12 States. Ibos, majority ethnos group of the east of the country, are then victims of bloody racial reprisals which lead in 1967 to the secession of the republic of the Biafra. A terrible war follows (cf Guerre of Biafra) which is completed by a capitulation of the freedom fighters the January 12th 1970.
In 1975 a coup d'etat, without bloodshed, brings Murtala Ramat Mohammed to the capacity. He promises a rapid return with the democracy, but he is killed in a fallen through coup d'etat and is replaced by his second Olusegun Obasanjo. A new constitution is established in 1977 and the first elections arrive in 1979, gained by Shehu Shagari.
A new coup d'etat in 1983 replonge country under the dictatorship of the supreme Military council. In 1993, after elections cancelled by the military government, the general Sani Abacha arrives at the report heading. With its sudden death in 1998, Abdulsalami Abubakar seizes the power and restores the constitution of 1979. In 1999, the first democratic elections for 16 years have been gained by Olusegun Obasanjo, which is re-elected at the time of the turbulent elections of 2003. In 2007 of the once again agitated elections bring to the capacity the designated successor of Olusegun Obasanjo: Umaru Yar'Adua .
See also: Political of Nigeria
Nigeria is a federal republic according to the constitution going back to May 1999. The current president, at the same time Head of the State and chief of the government, is Umaru Yar' Adua. He is member of the popular Democratic party. Its vice-president is Goodluck Jonathan.
The country is subjected to strong tensions between Moslems and Christians. Ibos of Nigeria constitute one of the political majorities important. Ijaws, ethnos group living in the delta of Niger from where the hydrocarbons are extracted, were raised against the government which they show in complicity in the pollution of the environment. The MEND, movement of emancipation of the Delta of Niger, armed well and well trained with the tactics commandos, are caught some with the foreign interests by removing engineers against ransoms. For the government, the MEND is a criminal group which has nothing to do with the minority ijaw.
Since the end of 2005, rumors of constitutional modification bruissaient. The modification consisted in making it possible to president Obasanjo to carry out a third successive mandate. In May 2006, the senators carried out inter alia by Uche Chukwumerije push back the constitutional amendment what constitutes one shingling demolished for the People' S Democratic Party of the president. The Abubakar vice-president had opposed this measurement and saw himself returned PDP.
See also: Subdivisions of Nigeria
See also the list of the cities of Nigeria, classified by alphabetical order or population.
See also: Geography of Nigeria
Located at the edge of the Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria has 4047 km of land borders, and 853 km of littoral. It is bordered in the west by the Bénin (773 km), in the east by the Cameroun (1690 km), in north by the Niger (1497 km), and by the Chad in the North-East (84 km).
The country is divided into a south with the equatorial climate where the majority of the important cities is. The central part is made up of areas of savanna and plates; it is in the east of this part of the country that one finds the culminating point: the mount Chappal Waddi (2419m). As for north the climate is arid since one is in the the Sahel, in edge of the desert of the the Sahara.
The basement is rich in natural resources among which oil and the gas constitute the independent source of income of the country. The country is the first producer of black gold of Africa. Nigeria also produces a certain number of metals (tin, iron, lead, zinc…) as well as coal.
See also: Economy of Nigeria
Nigeria is the only country of the world having important oil resources to present a budget deficit. The fault mainly with the corruption, evaluated a long time like most important in the world: the country is still classified second country more corrupted in 2003 according to the organization Transparency International. In fact hardly a quarter of the population profits from the incomes of oil. According to the prize winner of the " Nobel Prize of économie" 2001 Joseph E. Stiglitz, the economic inefficience as caused the escape of one hundred billion dollars, come to invest itself abroad rather as inside the country.
Broadly the standard of living is in the average of the African countries. But thanks to its oil resources and its important population Nigeria is the third economic power of the continent after the South Africa and the Algérie.
The Pétrole is discovered in Nigeria in 1956 in the Delta of Niger. This oil is interesting because it is a crude, known as Bonny Light , softened with low content of Soufre whose refining is easy. The country then joined OPEC in 1970. The town of Port Harcourt is the principal place of production of the country which attracted many workers. Oil Nigerian - product with 40% by the Shell company - accounts for 95% of the export earnings and 80% of the income of the country. It places Nigeria among the first six oil exporting countries with an income of more than 34 billion euro in 2006. But paradoxically, the country is often in shortage of Carburant and of many Raffinerie S under are exploited even unexploited.
It is the 5th producer of OPEC and 10th on a world level with a production of 2,6M barrels/days.
See also: Demography of Nigeria
With a population estimated at 134 inhabitants million in 2003, Nigeria is the country more populated of Africa. It counts for a fifth of the population of the continent on hardly one thirtieth of its surface (surroundings 3%). Although more than 75% of the population lives in the rural areas, at least 24 cities count more than 100.000 inhabitants. The variety of habits, languages and traditions of the 250 ethnos groups composing the country confers a rich person diversity to him.
The north of the country is mainly populated of Haoussa, which is mainly of Moslem confession. The other great ethnicities of this part of the country are the Nupe, Tiv, and the Kanuri. The Yoruba S are the dominant ethnos group of the south of the country, they are Christian for more half, Moslems for approximately a quarter, the remainder generally following indigenous beliefs. Finally the south-east of the country is dominated by the Ibo S mainly Christian.
See also: Culture of Nigeria
- according to the Code list country of the CIO, Nigeria has as a code NGR
- according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), Nigeria has as a code alpha-2 NG
- according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), Nigeria has as a code alpha-3 NGA
- according to the international Code list of the number plates, Nigeria has as a code WAN
- according to the Code list countries used by NATO, Nigeria has as a code alpha-2 NOR
- according to the Code list countries used by NATO, Nigeria have as a code alpha-3 NGA
- according to the Liste of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft, Nigeria has as a code 5N
- according to the Liste of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports, Nigeria has as a code DNN
- according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), Nigeria has as a code alpha-2 NG
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