Nice ( Nissa or Niça in Niçois), Prefecture of the department of the the Alpes-Maritimes, is the larger fifth Ville of France in terms of population (after Paris, Marseilles, Lyon and Toulouse). It is located in the area Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure at the south-eastern point of the France, to about thirty kilometers of the border Italy. The city is the heart of a urban Aire of 968.903 inhabitants (2007), and constitutes the center of large the urban Espace Nice-Coast-in Azur.
Extending between sea and mountains, Nice profits from many natural assets. Metropolis of the Riviera, it also has all the equipment of regional capital (statute regularly claimed by its inhabitants): the second Airport of France, second hotel capacity of the countries with in particular various luxury hotels, different districts from businesses, a Opera, a National theater, many museums (it is the city which counts some more in the hexagon after Paris), a university, one of the most important media libraries of France, two Palais of the congresses, several concert halls and an international, the Promenade of the English, known tourist window in the whole world. The city enorgueillit also of a strong local identity, fruit of a tormented history and institutions a long time autonomous.
Its inhabitants is the Niçois and has as a nickname read Caga-Blea because of their taste supposed for the blette (or Poirée), ingredient of the Tourte of blettes.
NOR is the code of Nice according to the Liste of the maritime districts.
- NCE is code IATA of the airport Nice Riviera.
- LFMN is code ICAO of this same airport.
Etymology and toponymy
Nice just like says Nizza in Italian (more precisely Nizza Marittima to distinguish it from Nizza Monferrato ) in Russian, German and Finnish and " Niza " in Spanish. The panels at the entry of the city are written in French Nice but also in Nissart (Niçois) Nissa (the city being called Nissa Bleated it in Norme mistralienne, Niça Bèla according to its traditional form). The language niçoise is a form of Occitan suitable for the Comté of Nice. There exist two assumptions to explain the origin of the name of the city: most commonly allowed refers to the Greek, in whom Nikaia means that by which arrives the victory (the Latin transcription of the word being Nicæa or Nicaea ); the other theory proposes the language of the Ligurians (Celtic people which lived under these latitudes before the arrival of the Greeks and the Romans) in whom Nis wants to say “source of fresh water”.
SituationAt the beginning of our era, the ancient authors such Strabon and Pline the Old one give the first definition of geographical space niçois. Nice is then located in Ligurie, ninth area of Roman Italy of the Emperor Auguste, with like natural borders in the west the river Var and in the east the river. This geographical description will be taken again with the Renaissance by all the large cartographers. The river “VAr” (only river not to be run in the department which bears its name) constituted besides, until 1860, the border between France and County of Nice.
Nice is located at the extreme south-east of the continental France, not far from the Italian border (30km), at the edge of the the Mediterranean. It is bordered by the Baie of the Angels, and is surrounded by several raised hills from where one can admire a splendid panorama. The city is located at 960 km of Paris, 230 km of Marseilles and 200 km of Genoa. It is about the more big city of the Riviera, territory extending from Hyères to Menton (this name being sometimes wrongly employed to indicate the whole of the French Mediterranean circumference).
The climate of the city corresponds to the standards of the Mediterranean Climat, but it is sometimes described as subtropical expenses, the generally rare gel being (2 to 3 nights per annum), weak (the annual minimum is located at the neighborhoods from -1 to -2°C) and briefs. Thus the winters are soft and dry, and the hot and very dry summers because the city is protected from the winds coming from North and E the West thanks to the the Alps. It often arrives during all the summer season which it rains only two or three days. Contrary, the autumn is one period subjected to strong rains and storms violent one because of the temperature of the Mediterranean still very hot at this season (20° - 24°). The winter as for him is very lenient with a strong sunning and diurnal average temperatures of 15°C. It is even able to be able to stroll out of short sleeves on the Walk of the English in full month of February. The sunning is also exceptional with more than 300 days of sun per annum. What makes of it the second big city of sunniest France after Toulon.
Nice has an exceptional microclimate, which contributes to its famous world, but makes sometimes hazardous the meterologic forecasts. In summer it is frequent that the weather station of the Aéroport Nice Riviera posts temperatures “fraiches” (ex 27°), while on the hills of Nice-West, or even in Nice-Center and Nice-North, the temperature largely exceeds the 30°. It is to be recalled that this difference in temperature is due directly to the localization of this station Weather-France, on the sea, and with the mouth of the Var subjected to strong winds going down from the valley of the VAr and thus an fresh air of the mountains. For example the 1st August 2006, the station of the airport recorded 37,7°, whereas has Nice-West the maximum temperature was of 42°. That appears as especially by “official” temperatures minimum much colder as they are it downtown. Thus, on January 24th, 2007, the weather station of the airport announced 0.9°C in the morning, whereas downtown the thermometer is hardly descended in lower part from 6°C.
Niçois will say that it snows in Nice the every 15-20 years, this to you is not a legend, since the last strong snowfalls took place into 2005,1986… (In 1986 the snowfalls were so strong that one could ski on the Promenade of the English.) In October it often sometimes happens to have a strong heatwave: The scirocco which brings also nuisances since this wind transports sand Saharien.
See also: Climate of the Alpes-Maritimes
TransportBecause of the urbanized relief the long and broad band of the 80 20 km km the Alpes-Maritimes, imposes primarily Western displacements < > Is, which also contributes to a saturation of the traffic close to Paris or London. The first line of the Tramway of Nice was inaugurated on November 24th, 2007. See also: Transport on Nice-Coast-of Azur, transport in commun runs of Nice, the airport Nice Riviera and A8, the bypass of Nice
Truck driversIn Nice the principal fast tracks are, the northern expressway " AUN" (A8) serving the districts north of the city thanks to its 6 exits. The expressway southern " AUS" , known as way Pierre Mathis or fast track, serves as for it the southern districts, with ten exits. For the fast tracks Southern North < >, the RN 202 ensures a complete service road of the plain of the Var the west of the city, and the Penetrating one of the spangle as for it makes it possible to connect the southern districts of the city, with the districts north like the ARIANE and the communes like the Trinity, Contes. Today the Riviera is " bouchée" , the traffic of A8 between Antibes and Nice are one of densest of France, the crossing of the VAr by A8 sees to run out more than 160.000 vehicles/day, that is to say the equivalent of the Parisian peripheral. The walk of the English as for it absorbs 100.000 vehicles/day. The road traffic on the Riviera increases each year of 5%, and the current forecasts envisage a total saturation of the network from here the 2015 from where importance to develop transport in commun runs and to double A8 (AUN) and Fast track (AUS). ,
For the most known ways of Nice we retain, the Promenade of the English, the Avenue Jean Médecin, the avenue of California, the street of France, the Gambetta avenue, the grand boulevards going along the river of the Paillon (covered Today), the boulevard of Cimiez, finally with Nice-North, the Malaussenna avenue, Borriglione, and the boulevards of Cessole and Gorbella.
Transport in commun runsCurrent the shipping company in commun runs in Nice is named Ligne of azure a subsidiary company of Veolia Transport. Line of azure is of course a trade mark which gathers several conveyers like the ST2N (ex Sunbus), or Ant, TAM… The creation of this new grid system in January 2005, with facility life of the travellers allowing to have one Subscription or to unify the prices of the tickets and to ensure a better service for all the cities of the agglomeration of Nice.
Before 2005 the only line of the urban network of Nice (Sunbus), which made it possible to make a correspondence in another city was a line Nocturne (N4). Today the unification of the network with also made it possible to make correspondences in all the department (except mountain) for 1,30 euros. Line 1 of the tram of Nice will be brought into service in November 2007.
October 1st, 2008, the Optima chart will make place in old Suncarte. Also chip this one will make it possible to accomplish voyages for 1€ on the various urban networks of the Alpes-Maritimes, thus Optima will facilitate displacements of the users by offering correspondences between the bus, the Tram, the TER/RER and the Subway. This system will be wide soon with all area PACA.,
November 24th, 2007 will be brought into service line 1 of the Tram.
RailwayThanks to a linear urbanization and continues, all the inhabitants of the urban surface of Nice (933 790 inhabitants) can FOR THE THIRD TIME reach the network Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure. The principal line being line 4 Mandelieu it Napoule < > Vintimille serving 29 stations of which the principal ones like the stations of Cannes, Antibes, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Nice St-Augustin, Nice-City, Nice-Riquier, Monaco, Chin and Vintimille. This line one of the line FOR THE THIRD TIME is used France and is well rythmée. However this line is saturated and the trains must often refuse travellers in spite of FOR THE THIRD TIME on double floor. Currently a third way of railroad is in construction between Antibes and Nice, in order to propose a service of the type the RER given rhythm between 5 and 8 minutes instead of 15 and 20 minutes today. There also exists of other lines attended like the Fatty 4bis Cannes < >, the 5 Nice < Breil > Cunéo and the line of the CFP Worthy Nice < >.
The Station of Nice-City also ensures of the connections with the other French metropolises and the principal European capitals via TGV.
AirOn the communal territory of Nice, there exists one airport, the airport Nice Riviera, however the Chamber of commerce and of industry Nice Riviera also manages the whole close Aéroport to Cannes - Mandelieu. The Airport of Nice makes it possible to bring the city closer to the whole world, since the the Maghreb, the America and the Europe, have daily connections with the airport. The Airport of Nice is the second of France many travellers after those of Paris is 10 million passengers. It is to be recalled that the Airport arrives at saturation since its theoretical capacity is of 13 million travellers, it is thus envisaged once more to increase the airport while gaining on the sea. The airport has two terminals, ( Voir: Companies by terminal). The airport is the third French-speaking airport after the airports of the town of Paris and the International airport Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau of Montreal to the Canada.
There also exists on the Riviera a service road between the two airports azuréens and the station heliport of Monaco.
MaritimeThe port Lympia or wearing of Nice, was built as from 1745, today it ensures mainly of the connections with the Corsica , thanks to NGV (ships at high speed). The NGV would be the cause “of a 16 hour old wave” which each day surprises the tourists and takes along with it various objects close to the beach. It is not rare to see awaiting the children with their boards and buoys at this hour.
The port of the city is managed by the Chamber of commerce and of industry Nice Riviera.
The town of Nice has many carparks, on its Internet site it informs the users. Bond: Carparks of Nice
Located at the bottom of the Bay of the Angels, perfectly sheltered by an amphitheater of hills, in a narrow mountainous basin supported on the Massive of Mercantour, limited to the west by the valley of the VAr and to the east by the Mount Boron. The first site of Nice was the hill of the Castle, which was entirely militarized by Tristan the bastard one before being destroyed by Louis XIV. Nice developed with the foot of this hill in limiting to the part ranging between the Spangle and the sea, which constitutes today the Old man-Nice with the narrow lanes. It is especially after fastening in France that the city extended beyond this torrent with the frightening risings ( Païoun Venn! ) and partially covered today.
Among the hills which dominate the city, most known is that of Cimiez with its ancient vestiges and its Park which shelters the Museum Matisse and celebrates it " Festival of Jazz" in July. Another legendary hill, that of the Castle, which separates the old city from the Port. The various hills obstruct the urban expansion: this one was done either towards North, while following the course of the Spangle, or in the plain of the west until Saint-Laurent-of-VAr.
The city is crossed by two small torrent-like rivers, often dry in summer: the Spangle in the east (34 km), which is born above Coaraze and receives the torrents of Laghet and Saint-Andrew (it receives, also, with height of the bridge of Peille water of the Spangle of Escarène), and the Magnan in the west, much smaller, come from the mountains of Aspremont, which crosses the district of the Madeleine before being thrown in the sea, in the district which bears its name.
The town of Nice is cut out in eight territories which one could confuse with municipal districts, having each one a city hall annex directed by a city council man.
The town of Nice counts more than one forty districts gathered in eight territories.
See also: Districts of Nice
Territory 1: Plain and Slopes 20.753 inhabitants
Districts: Saint-Augustin, Holy-Marguerite, Mills, Arenas, Saint-Isidore, Lingostière, Combes, Bellet, Holy Antoine
Territory 2: Hills Niçoises 38.753 inhabitants
Territory 3: Three Hills 34.158 inhabitants
Territory 4: Banks of the Spangle 32.788 inhabitants
Territory 5: Is Littoral 54.239 inhabitants
Territory 6: North Centers Nice 48.898 inhabitants
- Territory 7: Heart of City 48.333 inhabitants
Territory 8: Littoral west 65.703 inhabitants
Town hall source of Nice
Western Nice: Territories 1,2 and 8. 105.833 inhabitants
Nice City: Territories 5,6 and 7. 124.350 inhabitants
Northern Nice: Territories (Part of 2) and 3. 53.535 inhabitants
Nice Is: Territories (Part of 5) and 4. 59.927 inhabitants
A characteristic niçoise is the great number of buildings and qualified buildings of '' palate '': they are of all times and quality so varied.
Currently (2006), Nice knows one long period of work for the realization of the future Tramway (initiated by the mayor of Nice Jacques Peyrat) which should be finished in October/November 2007.
- doubly of the fast track,
- prolongation of penetrating (Spangle),
- recasting of the network of waste water of the Arson place,
- beginning of reorganization of the Pasteur district, within the framework of a convention of urban renewal signed with ANRU.
- rebuilding of the buildings of the first local company: the Pasteur hospital.
See also: urban Space Nice-Coast-in Azur
PlacesLike any Mediterranean city, the town of Nice has several place S, forums or course; thus allowing to gather, organize great demonstrations, or to sit down with a terrace.
Masséna Place (and Masséna Forum):
The greatest place of the city, before the covering of the river of the spangle, the Pont-neuf was the only access between the hurdy-gurdy-city and themodern one, the place was thus divided into two parts (North and South) in 1824. Today ventilated since the destruction of the Masséna Casino in 1979 it is bordered of buildings of Italian architecture of a red blood stone.
Work of the tram returned this place to the pedestrians, it is not thus more one kind of rectangular roundabout, but well a Mediterranean place with the clean direction of the term, broadside of umbrella pines and palm trees. The Masséna place with always be since its construction the place of the great demonstrations, like concerts during all the year and particularly the festivals of summer, the corso Carnavalesque, military procession of July 14th, like various feasts and local traditional festivals.
Situation: With two steps of the Walk of the English, the hurdy-gurdy-city and city-modern, of the gardens Albert 1st. It is also a large crossroads between the avenues Jean-Doctor, Felix-Faure, Jean-Jaurès (Boulevard), Verdun and of Ponchettes.
See also: Nissa bleated it, Nice Tourisme
The Garibaldi place is also characterized by its architecture and its history, it owes its name to the “saver of the city” Giuseppe Garibaldi. In the center of this rectangular place the statue of this man is. Work of the tram, made it possible this place to become semi-pedestrian, and to be clearing.
Situation: Also meeting place between old man-Nice and Nice-City, it is close to the districts is of Nice, the Lympia port, and the TNL. The Garibaldi place is also the crossroads of the avenues Jean-Jaurès (boulevard), République, Cassini, and Catherine-Ségurane.
See also: Nissa bleated it, Nice Rdv
Entirely closed and pedestrian, this place is located in the middle of Old man-Nice, of these frontages of colors ochers, with her fountain, and the Holy-Reparate church, it is a place impossible to circumvent of the " Vieux". The day, the place is occupied by the terraces of traditional restaurants and the largest glaciers niçois. The night environment changes, young people and the tourists take it by storm, the music resounds between the four walls of this tightened place, and lighting gives him a magic aspect.
Situation: Old Nice, streets of the Jesus, Rossetti, Mascoïnat, and of the Pont-Vieux.
See also: Nice Rdv
In the past place of the upper middle classes, it acts of the most traditional place of the city, with its flower market and its old Municipal Palate (Lou Municipio). Today the Saleya Course is especially a high place of entertainment, between good addresses S to eat Niçois, and the Pubs multiples and Clubs of the city. The Saleya course remains one of the most alive places of Nice.
Situation: Parallel with the Quays of the United States (Prolongation Is Walk of the English), gives on the streets St François of Paule, Louis Gassin, Benoit Bunico.
See also: Nice Tourism, Nice Rdv
Place of the Palate:
As its name indicates it, it is in this place that the Law courts of Nice are located (and the Rusca Palate, head office of the T.I.), emblematic place due to the presence of the clock of the city. Today the place of the palate, alive day and night, is especially appreciated by the young people who assoient themselves the night fallen on the steps from the Palate, alcohol bottles in hand, this place is also the place in concerts and urban animations.
Situation: Communicates with the Saleya Course and the Masséna place.
See also: Nice Rdv 1, Nice Rdv 2, Nice Rdv 3
According to the estimates of INSEE, the population of the town of Nice east of 347.900 inhabitants at January 1st, 2005. Nice thus asserts the place of fifth town of France, behind Paris, Marseilles, Lyon and Toulouse. The agglomeration, defined by INSEE, includes/understands 888.784 inhabitants (fifth of France) and the urban surface adds up 933.080 of them what makes the sixth of France of it.
The city knew a big demographic rise in second half of the XIXe century, period when the population made more than to double, mainly thanks to Italian immigration. At the beginning of the 20th century, this rise intensified with the arrival of populations come from common the close relations (of the County of Nice itself).
After the First World War, the city found a strong increase in population. It is again the immigration which constitutait the essence of this growth. The hotel activity and that of constructions, in full rise in the years 1920, attracted world more and more and thus made it possible Nice to become a town of national importance. In 1921, Nice then became the eleventh town of France, then in 1931, the eighth, before being classified with the sixth rank in 1946.
The population increased then very quickly in the years 1950 with in particular the arrival of sixty thousand people. Thereafter, the city reached its current demographic level thanks to the repatriates of old the French Colonies, in particular of Algérie.
Since the years 1970, the number of inhabitants does not evolve/move practically any more: the Migratory balance, relatively high, being compensated by the Natural increase negative, which had with the strong proportion of elderly.
Currently the population of the city begins again, because undoubtedly of heliotropism. It is projected besides: 350000 citizens for 2005: 360000 per 2008: 370000 per 2012.
- New history of Nice , under the direction of Alain Ruggiero, Privat, 2006.
- Given INSEE.
See also: Chronology of Nice
Currencies and heraldic
The blazon of the city can be summarized in this sentence: Money to the eagle of mouths, lowered flight, posed on three coupeaux of sinople, driving of a sea of azure heavy shower of money . However there exists an alternative with coupeaux which are elements of mountain, of sand , being black and not sinople which are green. Some think that they acts then of the weapons of the Comté of Nice which would be different thus from those of the city of Nice.
Nice Magasine n°125 going back to October 2007 reports that the oldest blazon niçois truly listed as such is gone back to 1431. This one is affixed on a parchment defining the statutes and privileges granted to Nice by the house of Savoy. It is represented there an eagle, animal female into heraldic, imperial symbol, carrying high the colors of Amédée VII, which raised a scarlet armor and which one called “the red count”.
One century later, in 1576, a manuscript still preserved at the municipal files shows a surmounted eagle of a crown to the antique. Will be then added to the blazon the three mounts, the palms, the sea of azure and finally the currency of the city, " Niceae Civitas" , short cut of " Niceae Civitas Fidelissima" , in other words “the very honest town of Nice”. However, this Savoyard heritage failed well to disappear at a certain time, replaced by an exotic animal.
In 1792, the French Army entered with crash the county of Nice. One year later, the department of the Alps Maritimes is created. Napoleon Bonaparte being with the capacity, the eagle niçoise is erased and the official documents from now on are struck of an effigy of the republic. In 1811, an imperial decree comes to insert the nail: the town of Nice is seen allotting new armorial bearings, a surmounted lion of a sun, framed by an olive-tree and an orange tree, themselves dominated by three bees over red bottom.
This decision was made by Napoleon Bonaparte first in Saint-Cloud, being considered to be inadmissible that the symbol of the eagle, representing the emperor in his person, can reign on the town of Nice. However, the tradition of the eagle niçoise perduré with the wire of time. At the 19th century, the eagle again spreads its wings on the city. Gustav Adolphe Mossa gives him in the years 1960 its contemporary face.
Nowadays, the blazon niçois is posted a little everywhere in the city: on the flags, with the Town hall, the war memorial, in the garden Albert Ier, with the castle or on the Garibaldi place. Its gliding flight until in the entrails of the stage of Ray, where the avoided “Eaglets” of red and black still officiate.
There does not exist today any trace of a blazon niçois former to the dédition in Savoy in 1388. But the fact that the Greeks baptized the city “Nike”, meaning “the Victoire”, personified as of this time by an eagle, lets plane the doubt about the exact origin of the armorial bearings.
- Antoine Risso
- Bow (It)
- Catherine Ségurane
- Frederic Mistral
- Henri Matisse
- Jean Giono
- Jean Henri Fabre
- Jean Rostand
- Jules Romans
- Louis Nucera
- Maurice Jaubert
- Imperial Park
- Port Lympia
- Raoul Dufy
- Roland Garros
- Sliding gauge
- Victor Duruy
- Beau Site
- Guillaume Appolinaire
- Honors With estienne Of orves
- the Eucalypti
- the Palm trees
- Imperial Parc
- Paul Augier
- Thierry Maulnier
The city is also equipped with large a Université (Nice Sophia-Antipolis), European Institut of the high international studies, of a observatory.
the Institute Robert Hooke of scientific culture of the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis: * Laboratory of Zététique of the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis: * Proximity of the Océanologique Observatory of Villefranche-sur-Mer (attached to the Pierre University and Marie Curie of Paris)
- the Observatory of Nice, installed for very favorable climatic reasons.
Balneal August 1st
- Tourism - Carnival of the Fatty Tuesday and battles of flowers;
- Second airport of France;
- High technologies (Technopolis of Sophia Antipolis);
- Town of Congress (Acropolis);
- Important marina and shuttles towards Corsica;
- Ville centers urban Espace Nice-Coast-in Azur
Nice is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry Nice Riviera. It manages the Aéroport Nice Riviera, the Aéroport of Cannes - Mandelieu, the port of Villefranche-on-sea, Gulf-Juan and that of Cannes and the Port of Nice.
Nice is the second tourist city French after Paris, which, combined with the difficulties of the terrestrial communications with long distance (because of the the Alps), enables him to have the second Aéroport of France in terms of frequentation (close to 10 000 000 passengers in 2005).
Two palates of the Acropolis congresses and the palate of the congresses of Nice. Several Parks of businesses, the Arenas, Nice the Plain, Nice Méridia, Holy Isidore, Northern Forum. Several Shopping malls, like Nice Star, Nice TNL, Nice Lingostière, Northern Forum, St-Isidore, the Trinity (around the Auchan hypermarket) and Cape 3000 with Saint-Laurent-of-VAr
See also: Districts of businesses Niçois
Culture and inheritance
Remarkable places and monuments
- the Walk of the English : universally known, this broad and long avenue, called " Prom'" by Niçois, skirts the seaside and offers, on Bay of the Angels, various splendid points of view, between sea and mountains. It is bordered by the frontages of the most sumptuous de luxe hotels. Until 1820, the coast, at this place, was difficult access. In order to connect the various masonries which it had built on this magic place, the English, many population since the 18th century, took responsibility for its construction of a bordering path. It is the latter which is at the origin of the current way and which gave him its name. One finds there in particular:
- the Hotel Négresco: internationally famous hotel located in the middle of the Walk of the English and built in 1912. Considered for its opulent frontage, its so characteristic pink roof, its metal cupola carried out by Gustave Eiffel and its interior cossu, Negresco is classified historic building. The whole of the building is decorated many works of art (traditional or modern), accessible to the public. It acts, in addition, of the one of the rare independent de luxe hotels in the world, in the direction where it does not belong to any great hotel group.
- the Palate of the Mediterranean which, since its restoration in 2003, shelters a luxury hotel and a casino,
- the Opera of Nice built by Charles Garnier,
- the West-End Hotel, older of the de luxe hotels of the Walk,
- the Westminster Hotel,
- the Royal Hotel,
- the Hotel the Meridian line and its casino, “Ruhl”, built in the years 1970, instead of old Ruhl which dated of the Beautiful Time…
- the Castle : one thus indicates the hill, high 92 meters on which the fortress of Nice rose. In 1691, one of the French soldiers of the Marshal Catinat makes pass, by a stroke of bad luck, one of its balls through one of the loopholes of the citadel. This one arrives into full in the explosives magazine and the fortress explodes. Very damaged, it is immediately taken by the French troops. A reconstruction project will be presented then by Vauban which wants to benefit from the highly strategic position of the city. However, reticent to again arm a city which resisted the French invader so a long time, Louis XIV refuses the project and orders in 1706 with the Marshal of Berwick to completely destroy it. The site was transformed today into a vast whole of approval, true green lung niçois, from which one can contemplate all the city and his famous Baie of the Angels.
the Port : the digging of the first port (Port Lympia) was ordered in 1750 by Charles-Emmanuel III, duke of Savoy on the site of marsh impaludé S. After 1870 and in 1904, of work of extension and deepening are undertaken; an outer harbor protected by two piers was created. The projected extension, runs up, currently, with problems Environnement with consisted the presence of herbaria with Posidonie S.
the Flower market : the market, which is held the every day of the week on the Saleya course and gathers various local producers come to sell their products at the city, is a splendid spectacle, one of most characteristic of Nice.
the Orthodoxe Cathedral Russian Saint Nicolas : built little before the First World War, at the exact place where Tzaréwitch died (the heir to the tsar of all Russies) Nicolas Alexandrovitch of Russia, ; she is regarded as the most beautiful church of orthodoxe worship of Western Europe. The College of Park-Imperial the, building imposing and richly decorated, is him also heir to this time when an important part of the city spoke Russian, since it acted, before its transformation, of the hotel in which was established the imperial family of Russia and her following.
the Hill of Cimiez : district cossu niçois, it acts of the Roman cradle of the city. Indeed, Cemenelum was, in Antiquity, a city with whole, capital share of the Province of the Alpes-Maritimes (already!) and which cohabited with the Greek Nikaïa of the seaside. Important architectural remainders today there are found (arenas in which each year the International festival of Jazz is organized, thermal baths, Roman ways…). The hill of Cimiez is also decorated many buildings dating from the Beautiful Time, often of old de luxe hotels reconverted in residential buildings, whose celebrates it Hôtel Regina, enormous building, very luxurious, and who accommodated at the time of his glory, the Reine Victoria and his court, who passed all their winters to Nice.
the Old city (or Old man-Nice) : it extends between the Spangle, the castle and the sea. Its streets, completely typical of the old cities having been subject to the Italian influence, narrow, are tangled up, tortuous, often in steep slope, broadsides of high houses and palates sometimes furnished with balconies. The Old man-Nice, from its exiguity, enjoys a natural Ventilation noticed by the modern Urbaniste S. With in particular:
Places of culture
Nice is one of the oldest hearths of settlement in the world. It is in particular on its grounds, on the site of Terra-Amata, which was discovered the remainders of oldest human fire of planet. Greek city then Roman, the hill of Cimiez abounds, moreover, of archaeological treasures of which only one small portion is updated today (thermal baths, arenas, Roman way…).
Since two centuries, the light of the city attracted the most famous painters (Chagall, Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle, Ben, Arman…) and inspired by many artists and intellectuals in various fields (Berlioz, Nietzsche, Rossini…).
Nice also counts a dense network of museums of all kinds: museums Chagall, Matisse, of Art schools ( Jules Cherret ), of Na5ive arts, of Prehistory ( Terra-Amata ), of Arts Asian, Mamac ( Musée of Modern art and Contemporary art which devotes a broad place to famous the École of Nice ), Museum of Natural history, Musée Massena… It is thus about the city which has the most museums in France after Paris.
Vacation resort throughout the year, Nice proposes, in addition, with its inhabitants and its many tourists, various festivals whatever the season: Carnival pluricentenaire, Festivals of but, Jazz festival…
- Museum of the Art schools Jules-Chéret (Flemish Painters, Dufy, Chéret, Mossa, etc)
- Museum of na5ive art (interesting collection of naive artists of the five continents)
- Museum Masséna (reopening at the end of 2007? )
- Natural history museum of natural history of Nice
- National museum of the Navy in Nice or naval museum of Nice
- Museum of Resistance azuréenne: close to Nice the Plain
- Museum of Asian arts: close to the Park Phoenix and airport, collections of Buddhist art and expos devoted to arts of Asia (+ ceremonies of the, concerts etc).
- Gallery of Ponchettes/Gallery of the Navy (contemporary exposures of the municipality)
- Ferrero Gallery: Historical gallery of Arman, César Baldaccini, Ben, Patrick Moya etc
- Museum Chagall (Cimiez): very beautiful museum devoted to contemporary Chagall and expos. Traditional conferences and concerts with the auditorium.
- Museum Matisse, located in the park of the arenas of Cimiez (Roman arenas which one can also see vestiges with the archaeological Museum).
- Russian Church
- In Nice, in March, all the museums are free for the students and less than 26 years. Mars with the Museums exists since 2001 and gathers every year more world in the museums.
- Large Imperial Hotel (1902) then College of Park-Imperial the (1930)
- Theater of the Photograph and the Image: expos prestigious photographs and concert hall.
- Arson Villa: School of art and place of expos of contemporary art on a site of exception
- Arts center " Providence" : old vault which shelters exposures, stage performances and varied concerts.
- National theater of Nice (TNN), directed by Daniel Bénoin. Contemporary programming (theater, dance, concerts, etc)
- Magnan Space: Sympathetic nerve MJC which organize many spectacles of quality, theater, unperceived cinema festivals Italian or Portuguese-speaking, “films” in Nice, etc
- Théâtre Ventura Lino in the ARIANE. Programming current musics of quality.
- Big room in concert (Nikaia) whose capacity can be carried to more than 50.000 spectators. The Nikaia complex - Stage Charles Hermann, was always the high place in the Niçois concerts, thus it accommodated twice Mickael Jackson the August 14th, 1988 and July 27th, 1997, Madonna August 5th, 1990, U2 on August 5th, 2005, the Rolling Stones in 1982 and on August 8th, 2006, and lately Akon on July 27th, 2007. Céline Dion is very awaited in 2008 for its world tour. Often " grands" artists passing to France make only two dates, with Paris and the other in the city azuréenne.
Shortly after the First World War, the scenario writer Alfred Machin opens his studio in the old studio Pathé-Nice , a few kilometres from Nice. In 1919, are created famous the Studios of Victorine. Nice was the framework of feature-length films of all kinds and nationalities. Beside more popular films (the Hand with the collet, the Cage with insane the II, Comp2ere, Brice de Nice…), the film enthusiasts will retain in particular:
In connection with Nice (1930) of Jean Vigo
- the Bay of the Angels (1963) of Jacques Demy
- Nice - In connection with Jean Vigo (1983) of Manoel de Oliveira
- In connection with Nice, the continuation (1995) of Catherine Breillat, Costa-Gavras, Claire Denis, Raymond Depardon, Abbas Kiarostami, Pavel Lungin and Raoul Ruiz
The city formerly laid out of a very significant number dark rooms disseminated in all its districts. However, much closed as from the years 1960 and this sector appears today enough disaster victim. One does not count any more but:
- the Cinema Mercury (Garibaldi place), cinema of art and accommodating test of many festivals (CSF, African cinema, various debates).
- the Pathé Paris, on the northern section of the Which occurred Jean Doctor
- the Pathé Masséna, on the southern section of the Which occurred Jean Doctor
- the Pathé Lingostière, a large multiplexing located in the zone commercial of Crossroads Ingot mould.
- UGC Varieties, located data base Victor Hugo, which proposes recent films in rather convivial small rooms.
- UGC Rialto, located Street of Rivoli, near of the Negresco hotel. Films in VO, small very liked cinema of the film enthusiasts niçois. Accommodate in particular the Festival of the short film of Nice
- a municipal Cineclub.
Conservatory of music: the new ultramodern academy, inaugurated in September 2006.
- Media library Louis Nucéra: close to Mamac, many cultural events: free concerts, conferences, poetry, exposures various.
- Discotheques: To pass insane evenings: The Event (in the past Saramanga); Odace (Large in the past Escurial); Gues' T (old Iguana Coffee) Moonlight (box Spanish concept, repurchased by Erick Morillo); Siesta (enormous concept with associated Casino, periphery of Nice); Modjo; Midnight (Antoine Clamaran is the new DJ reside) etc
- Maison of the Environment inaugurated on June 12th, 2006 and where are held teaching exposures, conferences and workshops, supplements the pallet of the services offered to the population.
Personalities related to the commune
- Romain Gary: writer having lived in Nice as from 14 years.
- Claude Ber, poet and writer.
- max Gallo: historian, writer, political economist and politician, member of the French Academy, born with Nice, biographer of Giuseppe Garibaldi.
- Michel Grisolia, writer.
- Jean-Marie Gustave Clézio, writer.
- Jean-Auguste Nicola, known as Jouan Nicola, founder in 1925 of the group Ciamada nissarda.
- Bernard Morlino, writer, journalist.
- Louis Nucera (1928-2000), writer, Grand Prix of literature of the French Academy.
- Joseph-Rosalinde Peg ladder: (1785-1843), Poet and literary man
- Henri Sappia: (1833-1906): scholar and Historian
- Jean Baptist TOSELLI: (1805 - 1883) Historian niçois.
- Didier Van Cauwelaert: writer born in Nice, price goncourt in 1994 for an one-way ticket .
- Olivia Toja: born with Nice (1973), author of practical books.
- Augustin Balmossiere-Chartroux: (Nice 1729-1813) Apothecary, botanist and politician niçois. It was also called " Chartroux père".
Jean Joseph Dalmas Balmossiere-Chartroux: (Nice 1761-1800) important Public figure in Nice. Member of the Popular Company of Nice, the inspection committee, the Cabin " Friendly Truths Réunis" from Nice. It was also called " Chartroux fils".
- Pierre Gioffredo: (1629-1692) Statesman and historian niçois, his most monumental work; Storia delle Alpi Marittime
- max Gallo: historian, writer, political economist and politician, member of the French Academy, born with Nice, biographer of Napoleon, De Gaulle or of Victor Hugo.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi (Nice-1807-1882). Patriot niçois, father of the fatherlands Uruguyan and Italian, conquering kingdom of Deux-Siciles; separatist elected official appointed niçois and généralissime of the commune of Paris.
- Humbert Ricolfi, vice-president of the Room, deputy.
- Simone Veil, French political woman, first president of the European Parliament, born in Nice.
- Alain Mourguy, president of the Union Right-hand side-Left (UDG), resides at Nice since 1993.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882): born in Nice from Italian family, Généralissime in several countries, conqueror of the kingdom of Deux-Siciles, one of the fathers of the Italian unification, separatist elected official appointed in 1871 and carry-standard of the independence movement niçois.
- Andre Masséna, marshal of Empire, (born in Nice in 1758 † Paris, 1817).
- Bernard Nut, lieutenant-colonel, killed on mission in 1982.
- Alexandre Michaud de Beauretour (1772-1841), patriotic niçois, Russian general.
- Catherine Ségurane, heroin of the Head office of Nice in 1543.
; Men of law
- Jean-Baptiste Barralis, lawyer,
- François Malausséna, lawyer, penitent white, and first mayor of the city after his fastening in France in 1860,
- Louis Genari (1871-1952), lawyer, writer, type-setter,
- Dominique Guillo, actor, made his classes with the Academy of Nice.
- Sophie Duez, actress born in Nice.
- Armand Dutertre, movie actor, professor to the Academy of Nice.
- Michele Laroque, actress and actress of cinema born in Nice.
- Michele Draper, actress born in Nice, interprets famous Angelica character, Marquise of the Angels.
- Jacques Toja, actor, member and administrator of the French Comedy (1979-1983)
- Jean-Paul Moulinot, actor.
- Noëlle Perna, humorist born in Nice, creative of the character of Mado Niçoise.
- Jean-Pierre Mocky, scenario writer born in Nice.
- Ludovic Badat, author and musician.
- Georges Delrieu (1905-1966), editor, musician.
- Eugene Emanuel (1817-1880), notary, poet, type-setter.
- François Guisol (1803-1874), actor, poet, type-setter.
- Lay Francis born in Nice in 1932, type-setter. Biography of Lay Francis.
- Jean-Felix Lalanne musician.
- Joseph Passeron, author and musician.
- Dick Rivers : singer of French rock'n'roll, born in Nice.
- Elton John: singer, author, English type-setter, alive in Nice
- Julien Ribot: singer, author, French type-setter, born in Nice in 1973.
- Jennifer: singer, gaining Star Academy 1 on TF1.
- Rose: singer, born the 5/24/1978 in Nice.
Louis Bréa, primitive painter niçois of the 15th century. Decorated with many retables and vaults between Genova and Nice.
- Maurice Boitel, French figurative painter, born in 1919. It painted with Nice between 1978 and 1982.* Site devoted to the work of Maurice Boitel
- Yves Klein, artist. Its art tends to the immaterial one. It leaves with the posterity celebrates it Monochrome blue (IKB).
- Henri Matisse, 1869-1954, French figurative painter, having lived in Nice the essence of its life and there having died. Its museum is with Cimiez, in the garden of the Arenas.
- Raymond Moretti (1931-2005), painter
- Benjamin Vautier, known as Ben : artist iconoclast niçois, member of the movement Fluxus, which lives on the heights of Nice with Saint-Pancrace.
- Patrick Moya, multi-media and creative Artist of the " Dolly" mascot of the famous evenings techno " Dolly Party"
- Marius Paul Otto (1870-1939), Erudite niçois, built the first factory treating water by ozone.
- Jean-Dominique Cassini, (1625-1712), astronomer born in Nice.
- Henry Cavendish (born in Nice in 1731, † 1810), physicist and chemist English.
- Albert Calmette born in Nice. Inventor of the BCG.
- Stephan Nice (1964), surgeon plastics technician.
- Antoine Risso: (1777-1845), naturalist
- Edmond Baudoin, author of cartoons, born in Nice in 1942.
- Joann Sfar, author of cartoons, born in Nice in 1971.
- Michele Cotta, journalist, former president of SCUMS, born in Nice (girl of the former mayor of the city Jacques Cotta).
- Georges-Marc Benamou, journalist, writer. Near to F. Mitterrand then of NR. Sarkozy.
- Alban Mikoczy, journalist, presenter on France2
- Jean-Bernard Hebey, journalist of arts on France Culture and France 2 in One very tested as a chronicler under the crook of Laurent Ruquier
- Julien Lepers, journalist, radio operator organizer (Rmc, RTL); TV " Question for a champion" , " Intervilles" on France 3
- Hugo Lloris, goalkeeper of the OGC Nice and the team of France hopes, born in Nice
- Christophe Pinna, former world champion of Karate, born in Nice
- Fabien Barel, world champion of VTT descent, born in Nice
- Jean-Pierre Dick, sailor born in Nice, victorious of the transatlantic race Jacques Vabre
- Rene Bocchi, former footballer, born in Nice
- Laurent Sciarra, international basketball player born in Nice
- Roger Ricort, former footballer born in Nice
- Jean-François Tordo, old captain of the team of France of Rugby, born in Nice
- Christophe Moni, former international French of Rugby, born in Nice
- Nicolas Vouilloz, multiple world champion of VTT, champion of France of the rallys, born in Nice
- Jean Behra (1921-1959), racing driver
- Suzanne Lenglen (1899 - 1938), played Tennis Club of Nice before becoming the first star international of female tennis
- Camille Pin, tennis player
- Alizé Horn, tennis player
; Pastrycook & cook
- Rene Fountain, (1946-…), Master-Chocolate seller, Better Workman of France in 1976
The Danse most representative of the Comté of Nice is the Farandole and its alternatives: held up , mourisca (or Moorish), passed will decay (passes-rue ; Spanish passed hold , Passacaille). Other traditional dances were also practiced. Girls and boys danced with the sound of the fifre, of the drum, the petadou , sometimes of the Violon or the Vielle to wheel.
There also exists of many festivals in the country niçois, the first festival of the year being that of the Carnaval of Nice which is followed battle of flowers. Here a list of the traditional festivals niçoises during the year:
feast of let us cougourdons
- feasts of Nice
- festival of the May S
- renewal of the Wish, with procession of the Penitent Brotherhoods
- festival of the Saint-Pierre
- festival of Malonat
- festival of the Assomption
- festival of San-Bertoumiéu
- festival of Catherine Ségurane
- festival of Sainte Réparate
- lou Presèpi - " tradicioun of mariota nissarda" (puppets niçoises)
The costumes carried are the following: for the boys, a black corsair with red and white stripes, a broad red belt and a large white blouse; for the girls, skirts in fabric with red and white stripes, a white short-sleeved shirt, a black velvet corset with apron, black a satin shawl embroidered as well as the capelina (large round and flat hat, in Straw).
The kitchen niçoise is primarily the Mediterranean and sometimes influenced by the proximity of the Italy:
- Fritters of zucchini flowers
- Bagna cauda
- Estocaficada (name niçois) or Stockfish (Marseilles name)
- Olives with Nice (AOC)
- Side bagnat
- Putin (sardine alevins)
- Salad niçoise
- Soup with the pistou
- Torta of broad bean blettes
- Wine of Nice: wine of Bellet
The kitchen niçoise is a kitchen which uses the resources of the County (olive oil, alevins, fruit and vegetables, etc…) but also of more remote regions, in particular from Northern Europe because the ships which came to seek olive oil arrived the holds full with food products. Thus one finds specialities such as the stockfish starting from dried haddock.
The meat comes from the neighbouring valleys such as the sheep of Sisteron or the fish of rocks the such mullets, the anchovy alevins (for the poutine), so much is so that the proverb is known: " the fish are born in the sea and die in the huile" , it will of course have been understood that it is about the olive oil of the hills niçoises. Lastly, the seafood such bugs, sea urchins and nonats also is very snuffed in this at the same time delicate and healthy kitchen.
To live in Nice
Interesting local demonstrations
- festivals of summer of Nice, concerts, demonstration, annimations during all the summer season.
- Naked-Ziq Festival every August to the Open-air theater
- Festival Nice Turn of Scene, festival of the current musics, April.
- Voucalia "Musics of the South " : at the beginning of July with the park of the Castle.
- the festival of the castle, popular holiday organized by the Communist party of the Maritime Alps since 1946.
- " ElectroMania Festival" : Great appointment electro-house with DJ' S. 2 times per annum, Nikaia room. David Guetta; Jeff Millets; Erick Morillo; Carl Cox; Tiesto were present in 2005.
- " Nice Festival" Jazz; : from July 19th to 26th with the arenas of Cimiez (Artists world, rock'n'roll and jazz of foreground).
- Blue October : alternative cultural event organized by the Collective of the Blue Devils .
- a Festival it is too short, festival of the short film of Nice, every year in April
Cultural newspapers niçois: Strada (semi-monthly cultural free), Art-Junction (monthly magazine decentralized on the contemporary art), Niçois (weekly centered on the local cultural life).
Internet site: http://www.nice-premium.com/ on the topicality niçoise
Local televisionThe town of Nice has many means of communication which ensure the cultural life and economic of the Azuréenne Metropolis.
One counts in Nice a local chain NTV Nice TéléVision (in the past Nice Télévision Channel 40), which in addition to proposing appointments of information, the documentary ones, and the report of the municipal council, product of the cultural emissions and entertainments, Watt' S in (tubes of the moment), SportS Nice (devoted to the sport, and the topicality of football niçois), CultureS Nice (great cultural appointments), Point Go (exits, concerts related to the city), One will awake you (ex Nice-Morning) (an emission similar to the morning of the Chains M6 and France 2 Clips, Flash infos, Reports, actu…).
TMC, chain Monegasque diffused on the TNT. TMC had been used before as relay as M6 which did not have emeteurs on the Riviera with its beginnings. TMC regularly diffuses reports on Nice and its area (Our Area), and ensures a diffusion thanks to the TNT of the events of the city (Festivals of summer, concerts…)
France 3 holds today the monopoly of the local information of a national chain, since the closing of the office M6 NICE in April 2007, following financial economies, (impossibility of diffusing publicity and the arrival of the TNT which requires to replace the existing material). M6 Nice remains present nevertheless on the Riviera, " under another forme" as announced it the last JT, by feeding the Nationale drafting of M6, sun and palm trees.
Local radioThe important radio in the long Azuréens congestions is ensured by ten local frequencies:
- KIS FM 90.9/94.6
- Radio operator Azure 91.5
- Contact FM 92.4
- Nice Radio 102.3
- Agora 94.0
- TSF 98.4
- Coast FM 103.2
- Frequency K 103.4
- Vitamin 104.8
- Wink 106.1
- Radio operator Riviera 106.5
- Traffic FM 107.7
Local pressThe written press is mainly dominated by the Group Nice Matin, and its editions Var Morning and Corsica Morning. One also counts in Nice newspapers with more modest diffusion like small Niçois or the News Niçoises Small Niçois is a regional French newspaper weekly pertaining to the Édition group of azure. Creation date: 29 Seven 1879 in Daily newspaper and interruption at the end of 1945 (2nd World war). New Departure it: September 30th, 1996 out of Monthly magazine (10 Number) then in Weekly magazine since June 4th, 1997.
Inter alia, several Internet sites like the Standard, NiceRendezVous, Nice Premium, Nice W' HEBDO, Sophia Hebdo]] and Riviera biz' supplement the Niçoise image on the fabric. The Standard - Azuréenes radios - Nice TV - Nice W' Hebdo - Nice Premium - FR3 Nice in Video
the sport niçois before is very dominated by the football club of the city: Olympic Gymnaste Club of Nice Riviera (OGCN, also called " affectionately; Gym") whose colors are the red and the black. Founded in 1904, Gym gained 4 championships of France (in 1951,1952,1956 and 1959) and 3 Cuts of France (in 1952,1954 and 1997). Its principal club of supporters, the Southern Brigade Nice (BSN), founded in 1985, is among most active of the hexagon and mainly takes part to make of Nice, one of the cities where environment is hottest of the country. The group recently celebrated its 20 years and account more than 2000 members.
- Created in 1976, the Nice Volley-Ball evolves/moves, as for him, since 1996, in Pro has. He plays in the Palmeira Room and its colors are the yellow and blue. * Nice is, in addition, a fortified town of the water polo in France. The city thus gained 12 times the championship of France over the 15 last years. There was initially CACEL of Nice which was champion of France of 1992 to 1995. Victim of a compulsory liquidation, the club took the name, in 1995, of Olympic Nice Natation and quickly recovered the national title which it preserved, without interruption, of 1996 to 2004. The team, moreover, took part in many European cuts. The ONN is today a club gathering five disciplines, sporting swimming, the water polo, the dive, synchronized swimming and the triathlon.
- Nice is also a traditional ground of Rugby. The club " historique" city is the Racing Rugby Club of Nice (RRCN), disappeared in 2001 because of financial problems, but which belonged to the elite very a long time and which even took part in the finale of the championship of France in 1983 (demolishes by Béziers, in a match marked by the invasion of the ground by the Biterrois supporters). Another semi-final will arrive the following year, and finally, a victory in the Challenge Yves of the Manor, only major trophy of the club, in 1985.
- American football also counts its local team with the Dauphins of Nice. * The skating rink of the Sport hall Jean Bouin vibrates as for it, with the exploits of the Eagles of the Nice Hockey Riviera which currently evolve/move in D2, after having been vice-champions of France of D1 in 2003. * The Cavigal Nice Sports is a general sports Club amateur (basketball, football, athletics, fight, baseball, softball, roller…) founded in 1943. The female section of Basket-ball which of it is resulting evolves/moves in NF1 (the 2nd division) under the name of Nice Cavigal Olympic.
- Nice Kendo Club, was founded for him in 1974 per Jean-Pierre Niay, former captain of the team of France. He currently evolves/moves in the 1st Division (Excellence) and 2 of its members are in national team: LISA de Brunel (captain of the Team of France of Kendo) and Axel Diebold. * Nice Tennis shoe Western Association * ASPTT Nice Handball * The table tennis occupies a dominating place at the national level. NICE CPC is located in the 20 better France club of Table tennis, as well by its number of bachelors as by its results, Homologué *** by the FFTT.
- active Twinnings
Pact of friendship
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