See also: History of Nicaragua
Colonized by the Spain in 1524, Nicaragua became an independent State the September 15th 1821 and adhered to the plain Provinces of Central America. It separated from the federation in 1838, becoming a completely sovereign republic in 1854.
The history of the beginnings of the nation was strongly influenced by the military interventions of the the United States of America and was disturbed by prolonged periods of the military dictatorship, hardest being undoubtedly the reign of the family Somoza at the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1979, Somoza are driven out by the insurrection Sandinista in a Civil war which made 40.000 died and a coalition which quickly burst taken the orders of the government. The conflicts in the coalition as well as the strong pressure of Washington had like consequence the behavior of elections.
Ortega and the chiefs of the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN) of orientation Marxiste applied a series of socialist reforms for the country and approached the Eastern bloc, but the projects of the president were undermined because of the issued embargo and by the civil war, in which the the United States, then directed by the president Ronald Reagan, involved, armed, financed and supplied rebellious paramilitary forces, called Contras .
The civil war against the Contras made 57.000 victims, including 29.000 dead. The United States was condemned by the the International Court of Justice in 1986, to have resorted to the force against a Sovereign state and to have encouraged to them Contras to make terrorist acts .
The elections of 1990 which see the victory of Mrs. Violeta Chamorro (54,2% of the voices) over Daniel Ortega put an end to the American embargo. A liberal economic policy of structural adjustments supervised by the the IMF and the the World Bank is implemented.
Arnoldo Alemán (preserving, former somozist) gained the presidential election of 1996 and continued a neoliberal policy. At the end of the mandate, strong suspicions of corruption weighed on him and he was condemned to 20 years of prison for embezzlement in 2003.
Enrique Bolaños, former vice-president of Arnoldo Alemán, reached the presidency in 2002 thanks to a campaign " anti-corruption".
general Augusto Calderon Sandino or Augusto C. Sandino, from its action will be born the " Sandinisme".
- In 1972, a earthquake devastation literally Managua.
- In 1979, the revolution Sandinista puts an end to the dictatorial mode of the family Somoza. Daniel Ortega is one of the craftsmen of the victory and is elected President in 1984 with 63% of the voices.
- Of 1982 with 1989, the the United States finance the fight antirévolutionnaire Contras. Tens of thousands of dead…
- 1990: new presidential election. Daniel Ortega, candidate of FSLN, loses and recognizes its defeat.
- 1996 : election of Arnoldo Alemán with the presidency of the country. Daniel Ortega, candidate of the FSLN, lose and recognize his defeat.
- In 1998, the Ouragan Mitch devastates a good part of the country.
- November 4th 2001: elections, Enrique Bolaños Geyer of PLC ( Liberal Partido Constitucionalista ) is elected, new failure of Daniel Ortega. E.Bolaños begins its mandate the January 10th 2002.
- In November 2006, election of Daniel Ortega. It takes its functions the January 10th 2007 and becomes again president of Nicaragua after three defeats with, as vice-president, old Contra.
See also: Geography of Nicaragua
Nicaragua occupies a surface of 129 494 km ² of which 120 254 km ² of ground. Nicaragua is a small relatively mountainous country in its part, rather flat but is covered with a wet tropical jungle on the Atlantic half. It is located on a tectonic zone difficult and is often shaken by earthquakes and the eruptions of many the Volcan S which it counts.
It is covered on a third with its surface approximately by two big lakes in the West, the Lac Nicaragua and the Lac of Managua (formed by the deformation of the earth's crust under the push of the Pacifique plate) of which emergent of the volcanic islands. The Pacifique coast has a relief more tormented. Nevertheless, more the high summits are at North, close to the border of the Honduras. The south of the country, at the border of the Costa Rica, is marshy.
Around these lakes, rivers which feed them and of the rivers which cross them and along the Pacifique coast saw the majority of the population, in wet valleys, on the mountainsides and the dry plains of bush. The part is country, exposed to strong precipitations, hurricanes and cyclones which cross the Caribbean Sea regularly, is populated very little, except on some ports of the Atlantic coast and the Atlantic islands of the Caribbean Sea.
See also: Department of Nicaragua
The country is divided into 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions:
The 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions are in their turn subdivided in 151 Municipalité S.
See also: List of the municipalities of Nicaragua
See also: Demography of Nicaragua
The country counts approximately 5,3 million inhabitants (July 2004). The majority of the Nicaraguans have European blood, while being Métis or without mixture. Europeans and mongrels form 86% of the population, the blacks 9% and the natives 5%.
See also: Political of Nicaragua
Nicaragua is a parliamentary republic. The Parliament comprises only one room (the National Assembly).
Quatre-vingt-treize appointed sit at the National Assembly. The president is elected for a five years mandate.
Its president is the former revolutionist Sandinista, Daniel Ortega, elected official with the 1st turn of the election in November 2006 against Eduardo Montealegre (candidate of liberal Alliance). The United States of America reacted prudently to the victory of the former Marxist. " The United States (…) will work with their leaders on the basis of intrigue and their engagement their in favor of the democratic future of Nicaragua" , the spokesperson of the Council of the national security declared, Gordon Johndroe. The leaders Venezuelans, Hugo Chavez, and Cuban, Fidel Castro, are, as for them, happiness of this “imposing victory”.
See also: Economy of Nicaragua
Nicaragua is one of the three American countries belonging to the heavily in debt poor Pays.
Culture and folklore
- El Güegüense : folk comedy-ballet.
- the Purísima, which celebrates on December 8th, is a religious holiday in honor of the Virgin Mary. It is the most important festival of the year with Christmas.
- the nacatamales (a complete meal containing pig or of chicken, vegetables, rice and corn paste, cooked with choked in a sheet of banana tree) are a very appreciated national dish which is eaten in end of the week.
- the gallo pinto is the most popular dish, because inexpensive and rather consistent. One prepares it with rice and kidney beans, the two most common food products.
- Carlos Mejía Godoy and Camilo Zapata is the two figures most representative of the its Nicaraguan, typical popular music.
CodesNicaragua has as codes:
- according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports, Nicaragua has as a code MN
- according to the Code list country of the CIO, Nicaragua has there as a code NCA
- according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 (code list country): NOR
- .ni, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), Nicaragua has as a code alpha-3 NIC
- according to the international Code list of the number plates, Nicaragua has as a code NIC
- according to the Code list countries used by NATO, Nicaragua has as a code alpha-3 NIC,
- according to the Code list countries used by NATO, Nicaragua has as a code NAKED alpha-2
- according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft, Nicaragua has as a code YN
- Article in Spanish in Free Enciclopedia
- Art of Nicaraguan Art and literature by Nicaraguans
- Government of Nicaragua
- Official site
- cultural Marcaacme Art, literature and events in Nicaragua
Education & Language schools
- Spanish schools Granada Nicaragua
Beats-smg: Nėkaragva Be-X-old: Нікарагуа Simple: Nicaragua Zh-min-nan: Nicaragua
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