News-Wales of the South
The News-Wales of the South (in English New South Wales , in summary NSW ) is, historically, the first State of Australia. Created in 1788, it covered in the beginning most of the Australian continent as well as the islands Lord Howe and Norfolk, but during the 19th century of great parts were separate to form the British colonies of Tasmanie (1825), of southernmost Australia (1836), of Victoria (1851) and of the Queensland (1859). In March 2005, it counted 6,76 inhabitants million.
The State draws its name from the British area of the country of Wales of the South. The Australian official services write “new” in the singular
Principal cities of News-Wales of the South:
- Sydney (capital of News-Wales of the South)
- Broken Hill
- Byron Bay
- Port Macquarie
News-Wales of the South encircles the Territoire of the Australian capital ( ACT ), where Canberra is, the capital of Australia.
January 26th 1788 - Australian national festival, arrives the First fleet ordered by the captain Arthur Phillip with its 11 boats, its 700 prisoners, its guards. It establishes a British penal colony with Port Jackson, on the site where the town of Sydney is today. He will be the first governor of the state.
The lieutenant Lachlan Macquarie who will be the governor of 1810 to 1821, starts to make build roads, quays, churches, public buildings. He organizes the first forwardings to explore the area.
In 1813, William Wentworth, Gregory Blaxland and William Lawson carry out a forwarding of exploration and succeed in clearing a passage to cross the mountainous region (known under the name of the “Blue Mountains”) to the west of Sydney. They thus open a way at the vast agricultural zones which currently exist there.
In 1851, the gold discovery in the area will attract a crowd of researchers and the population of the area will reach the 100.000 inhabitants in 1860.
The inhabitants quickly will ask for the creation of a local government and will obtain British Parliament the " New South Wales Act" Constitution; in 1855.
January 1st, 1901, News-Wales of the South takes part in the creation of the Australian federation, a British dominion whose first capital will be Melbourne but, in 1911, News-Wales of the South will yield part of its territory which will become the Australian Capital Territory and Canberra will become the federal capital of Australia in 1927.
The three principal cities of News-Wales of the South are Newcastle, Sydney and Wollongong, which all is located in edge of the sea. Albury, Broken Hill, Dubbo, Macquarie Port, Tamworth, Armidale, Inverell, Lismore, Nowra, Griffith, Queanbeyan, Leeton, Wagga Wagga, Goulburn and Coffs Harbor are also major cities.
The form of government of News-Wales of the South is determined by the constitution of 1856, modified with many recoveries since then. Since 1901, News-Wales of the South belongs to the the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Australian constitution regulates the relation with the Commonwealth.
News-Wales of the South is a constitutional monarchy. The queen Elisabeth II is the sovereign one and is represented there by the governor of News-Wales of the South.
The Parliament of News-Wales of the South includes/understands two assemblies: the legislative Parliament and the Legislative council. The government is directed by the Prime Minister, currently, and since August 3rd, 2005, Morris Iemma of ALP (Australian Labor Party).
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