The New Zealand is a moderate country of the south-west of the Pacific Ocean, which belongs to the Oceania. It includes/understands two principal islands (the island of North and the island of the South), and of many islands much smaller, in particular the island Stewart and the islands Chatham. What one names the “Royaume of New Zealand” ( Realm off New Zealand ) includes the islands Cook and Niue, autonomous but in free association, Tokelau, and the Dépendance of Ross (the territorial claim of New Zealand in the Antarctic).
It is known for its geographical insulation, being separated from the Australia from approximately: 2000 km by the Sea of Tasman. Its closest neighbors are the New Caledonia, the islands Fiji and the islands Tonga.
The population is mainly of European origin , Māori being the most minority. The people of Polynesian origin non-māori as well as the Asian are also of important minorities, particularly in the urban areas.
The monarch of the the United Kingdom, currently Elisabeth II, is the Head of State as a monarch of New Zealand. In its absence, it is represented by a General governor. The queen reign but does not control ; she does not have any political influence, her statute being especially symbolic system. The political power is held by the democratically elected Parlement, under the direction of the Prime Minister, the Head of government.
One does not know if Māori had a name to indicate New Zealand before the arrival of Europeans, one knows just that they called the island of North Te Ika-a-Māui ( the fish of Māui ), and the island of the South Te Wai Pounamu ( jade water ) or Te Waka-a-Māui ( the canoe of Māui ). Until the beginning of the 20th century the island of North was also called Aotearoa , often translated like country of the long white cloud . In current māori use this name refers to all the country.
The first European name for New Zealand was Staten Landt , chosen by the explorer Dutch Abel Tasman, which becomes in 1642 the first European to have seen these islands. Tasman supposed that these grounds belonged to a southern continent discovered in 1615 in the south of the South American continent by Isaac the Mayor.
The name New Zealand finds its origins at the cartographers Dutch of the time, which baptized the islands Nova Zeelandia in honor of the Dutch province of Zeeland. The origin of the name for these remote islands is not known with exactitude, but it appears for the first time in 1645 and can have been the choice of the cartographer Johan Blaeu. The explorer English James Cook will anglicize the name in New Zealand , from which comes the French translation New Zealand . The name does not have any bond with the Danish area of Zeeland.
New Zealand constitutes one of the territories most recently populated. The first colonists are Polynésie NS of the east which probably arrive between 800 and 1300 after J.C only, and establish the indigenous culture Māori. The population is divided into Hapū (subgroups) which cooperates, dispute or fight between them. At a time given a group of Māori emigrate with the islands Chatham and develop to with it their own culture Moriori.
The first European explorers are Abel Janszoon Tasman, which arrives of the Netherlands in 1642, and his crew. Several of them are killed by out of Māori. No other European visits New Zealand until the voyage from 1768-1771 of the captain James Cook. It arrives in 1769 and made charts of almost all the coast. It will be followed by many ships of Chasse to the whale, and the seal as well as various merchants. They exchanged European products and vivres, particularly of the metal tools and weapons, against wood, vivres, artefacts and water of Māori. Sometimes Europeans exchanged their products against sexual relationships. At Māori agriculture and the war were radically changed by the arrival of the Potato and of the Mousquet, the Guerres of the mousquets which resulted from it ceased when these weapons were more equitably distributed among Māori. The Christian missionaries arrive to New Zealand at the beginning of the 19th century, converting finally the majority of the population māori, disappointed by their indigenous faith vis-a-vis the invasion of the Western civilization.
Of 1788 with 1840 the islands of New Zealand form officially part of the News-Wales-of-South (Australia). Realizing of the disorganized nature of European colonization in New Zealand and the interest growing of the France for this territory, the British government sends William Hobson in New Zealand to proclaim the British Souveraineté and to negotiate a Traité with Māori. The Traité of Waitangi is signed in the Baie of the Islands on February 6th, 1840. This treaty is written quickly and in confusion; one still disputes on the translation of the document in māori. The treaty is seen like the founding document of New Zealand as a nation and like the document guaranteeing the rights of Māori.
Since 1840 one sees a growing number of European colonists arriving to New Zealand. At the beginning Māori launch out with enthusiasm in the trade with those which they called Pākehā , and of many Iwi (tribes) becomes rich. But of the increasingly many conflicts appear as the number of colonists increases, driving with the New Zealand Guerres of the years 1860 and 1870, which result in the loss of many grounds by Māori. The detail and the interpretation of European colonization and the acquisition of the grounds māori remain discussed today.
In 1854 the first Parliament of New Zealand directs the country towards a Autonomie limited, and towards the end of the century it will be entirely autonomous. In 1893 it becomes the first country to give the right of vote to the women. New Zealand becomes a independent Dominion in 1907 and the country is entirely independent in 1947 during the ratification of the Statut of Westminster of 1931; in practice the United Kingdom had for a long time ceased playing any role in the policy of the country. The more independent it politically became, the more it became it also economically: in the years the 1890 Réfrigération in the transport of the commercial products makes it possible New Zealand to base all its economy on the export of meat and dairy products towards the United Kingdom.
New Zealand is an enthusiastic member of the British colonial Empire, sending men to fight in the Guerre of Boers and the Première and Second world war; it also supports it at the time of the Crise of Suez Canal. The country belongs to the worldwide economy and suffers like the others during the Grande Depression from the years 1930. This depression leads to the election of the first Labor government , which establishes a État-providence and an economy Protectionniste.
New Zealand enters during one boom growing after the end of the Second world war. However, certain social problems develop at the same time. Māori start to migrate towards the cities and give up little by little their rural mode of sight traditional. The Protest movement māori is formed, criticizing the Eurocentrisme and seeking a better recognition of the culture māori and the treaty of Waitangi, which they thought betrayed. In 1975 is created the Tribunal of Waitangi to inquire into the violations of the treaty as of 1985. Just like the other developed countries, manners social and political change during the years 1970; the trade with the United Kingdom is more fragile due to the adhesion of this one with the European Community. Great economic and social changes take place in the years 1980 pennies the fourth worker government, particularly by the Minister for Finance of the time, Roger Douglas.
See also: Political of New Zealand
New Zealand is a independent Démocratie parliamentary and officially a Constitutional monarchy. Its Head of State is Elisabeth II, queen of New Zealand, represented on the spot by a general governor, station occupied at present by Anand Satyanand.
It is the only country in the world where all the highest stations were already occupied by a woman: the queen; old the general governor, Rams Silvia Cartwright; the Prime Minister Helen Clark; the president of the Room of the representatives Margaret Wilson, and the president of the Supreme court, Sian Elias, occupied these stations between March 2005 and August 2006.
The Parlement of New Zealand has only one room (the old Upper House, the Legislative council, was abolished in 1951), the Room of the representatives, which contains normally 120 Député S. the legislative elections are held every three years in a form of Scrutin proportional plurinominal called representation proportional mixed. The legislative elections of 2005 brought the creation of an additional seat ( overhang ) to the Parliament, occupied by the Parti māori; indeed, it obtained more seats with the poll by district than its score with the poll by list would have given some to him (cf the system of calculation in representation proportional mixed).
There is no written Constitution; the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal document which treats constitutional structure of the country. The general governor has the capacity to name and dismiss the Prime Minister and to dissolve the Parliament. He is also with the head of the Executive council, a consistent formal committee in all the Ministers for the Crown. The members of the Council must themselves be members of the Parliament, and the greatest part are with the cabinet. The cabinet is the executive body highest placed; it is directed by the Prime Minister, who is also parliamentary Leader party or coalition in being able.
The Prime Minister is currently, and for the 3rd time - 1999-2005 - Helen Clark, member of the Workers party of center-left, re-elected accuracy in September 2005 for one 3rd mandate. The members of the Labor Party form a formal coalition with Jim Anderton, the only member of Parliament of the progressive Parti. In addition to the parties of this coalition, New Zealand First and United Future committed themselves supporting the executive at the time of the votes of confidence and on the budget, in exchange of posts of minister (except cabinet) for their leaders. The Verts also pledged this. Since the beginning of 2007, the Workers party also has the vote proxy Taito Phillip Field, former member of the Parliament. These agreements ensure the government a majority of seven members of Parliament at the time of the votes of confidence.
The leader of the opposion is John Key national Parti (center-right). The left ACT and the Parti māori are also in the opposition. The Greens, New Zealand First and United Future vote all against the government on certain subjects.
The most court is the Supreme court of New Zealand, since the Supreme Short Act 2003 , which abolished the possibility of call to the legal committee of the private Conseil of London. The president of the Supreme court is Dame Sian Elias. The legal system also includes the High court and the Court of Appeal as well as courses subordinate.
International relations and military forces
It is member of the following geopolitical organizations: the APEC, East Asia Summit, the Commonwealth, OECD, and the the United Nations. It signed many agreements of free trade, of which most important is Closer Economic Relations with the Australia.
During its first century of existence New Zealand followed the steps of the United Kingdom in foreign politics. She declares the war with the Germany on September 3rd, 1939; the Prime Minister for the time, Michael Savage, proclaimed Where it goes, one goes; where it is, we are. . However, after the end of the war one sees a greater influence of the United States; at the same time New Zealand starts to see its national identity more clearly. It signs the treaty ANZUS in 1951 and sends troops to the wars of Korea and Vietnam. The United Kingdom becomes more and more concentrated on Europe following the Crise of Suez Canal. New Zealand sees itself thus forced to develop new markets after the United Kingdom joined the European Community in 1973.
New Zealand worked traditionally much with Australia, whose foreign politics took a similar historical tendency. Many islands in the Pacific, whose Samoa, has in their turn followed the direction of New Zealand. The American influence on New Zealand will be weakened by the failure of the War of Vietnam, the business of the '' Rainbow Warrior '' and the dissensions on the environment and agriculture as well as the policy anti Nucléaire of New Zealand.
Treaty ANZUS was formerly entirely mutual between New Zealand, Australia and the United States, but it is not any more the case. In February 1985 New Zealand refused to give access to its ports to the nuclear ships or transporting nuclear weapons. The country becomes atom-free Territoire in June 1987, the first Western State with this making. In 1986 the United States announces the suspension of its obligations within the treaty towards New Zealand. The New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987 prohibits the provision of nuclear weapons in the territory as well as the New Zealand territorial water entry on behalf of ships nuclear or bearing of the nuclear weapons. This legislation remains a source of controversy and form the base of the continuous refusal of the suspension of the treaty by the United States.
In addition to many wars between Iwi (tribes), and between colonists British and iwi, New Zealand has taken part in War of Boers, First and Second world wars, War of Korea, Malayan Emergency (and sent troops and planes to the conflict which resulted from this with the Indonesia), the Guerre of Vietnam, the Guerre of the Gulf, the Guerre of Afghanistan, and sent a unit of military engineers to improve the Iraqi infrastructure during one year of the Guerre in Iraq.
The New Zealand Defense Force includes/understands three branches: the New Zealand Army , the Royal New Zealand Navy , and the Royal New Zealand Air Force . The country considers that its requirements in national défence must be tiny; it cancelled the programs of combat of the air in 2001. New Zealand contributed of the troops to several maintenance missions of recent peaces, as well regional as international: in Cyprus, Somalia, Bosnia-Herzégovine, with the the Sinai, in Angola, with the Kampuchea, the border Iran - Iraq, with island Bougainville, in Eastern Timor, and with the the Solomon Islands.
Territorial administration and external territories
See also: Areas of New Zealand
The first Européens colonists divided New Zealand into provinces. Those were abolished in 1876 so that the government can be centralized for economic reasons. Result, New Zealand does not have a administrative divisions (provinces, states or territories), besides its territorial Administration. The spirit of the provinces persists however, with a competition marked at the time of the sports events and cultural. Since 1876 the territorial administation managed the areas of New Zealand. In 1989 the government completely reorganized the territorial administration, implementing the current structure on two levels of district councils and territorial authorities. In 1991, the Resource Management Act 1991 replaces the Town and Country Planning Act like principal legislation concerning the territorial administration.
Today New Zealand has twelve district councils for the administration of the Environnement and the Infrastructure and soixante-treize territorial authorities which deals with the roads, the Waste water, construction, and other local subjects. The territorial authorities include/understand sixteen town councils, fifty-seven councils of district, and the council of the county of the islands Chatham. Four of the territorial councils (a city and three districts) and the council of the county of the Chatham islands act also as district councils and are thus called unit authorities. The unit districts of authorities are not subdivisions of the regional councils of district, and some span the borders of district councils.
Other islands are populated and have a lower surface. Most known of these islands are :
the island Stewart (in the south of the island of the South), the third island by its superficie ;
- the island Waiheke, an island of the gulf Hauraki d' Auckland and with approximately 7 000 people (more in summer), the third most populated island of News-Zélande ;
- the island of Great Barrier, in the east of the Gulf of Hauraki.
Surface of New Zealand east of: 268680 km ², i.e. a little less than the Japan or the British Isles, but a little more than the American State of the Colorado. The country extends on more 1 600 km in the northern/north-eastern axis.
New Zealand is relatively insulated geographically. Its nearer close Australia is located at 2 000 km in the North-West. The closest ground masses are the continent the Antarctic located at the south, and the New Caledonia, the islands Fiji and the islands Tonga in north.
More the big lake of New Zealand is the Lac Taupo, located in the island of Nord ; it has a surface of 616 km ².
The climate is soft there, the temperatures generally oscillating in a fork going of 0°C with 30°C. The daily average temperature with Wellington - the capital, in the center of the country - is of 5,9°C in winter and 20,2°C in summer.
Because of its geographical insulation, New Zealand developed single ecosystem S, whose most characteristic feature is not to have counted any Mammifère before Polynesian colonization, except for three species of bats and of the marine mammals: Otary, sea lions, dolphins of Hector, etc
It follows another characteristic of New Zealand fauna from there: in the absence of predatory, certain species of birds ceased flying, it is the case of the Weka, the kiwi, the Kakapo, etc These birds then occupied of the elsewhere occupied ecological niches by mammals. Thus, it is possible to make a parallel between the kiwi and the Blaireau: both are night, solitary and territorial, and occupy of the built burrows in the same way.
New Zealand is also the country of the Tuatara S - an ancestral species of Reptile -, geckos (a lizard with the luminous color), snails giant and wetas - an insect which can exceed 8 cm length.
Lastly, the aquatic environment is also rich endemic species. The Whitebaits are, without any doubt, the fish emblématiques of New Zealand. This generic term gathers the species which lay at sea and whose youthful ones are fished on their return in the estuary. This crackling is regarded as the local caviar and the New Zealanders dedicate a true worship to them. This explains why these species are more known under the name of whitebait than under that their species: Inanga, Banded kokpu, Giant kokopu, etc It is also necessary to announce two endemic eel species, one of lamprey and the very curious mudfish which, as its name indicates it, lives in the boggy mud and zones. The New Zealand coasts are attended by many marine mammals, of which the Dauphin of Hector, the smallest dolphin, of black and white color.
Insularity protected this fauna during centuries until the arrival from human and the animals which travelled with them. Maoris brought with them the dog and the Polynesian mouse (kiore). Two species disappeared with the arrival from the first human ones: the Moa and its natural predator, the Eagle of Haast. Measuring up to 3 meters in height, the moa was a very important food resource for Maoris, so that they organized missions of hunting in all the country.
The second wave of immigration put an end to the insularity of New Zealand. The multiplication of the exchanges between Europe, Australia and New Zealand allowed the propagation of new and invasive species. Some were imported for entertaining reasons (large ongulés and wild boars in particular) and escaped from farms where they were high for their fur or their meat (Opossum, rabbit, hermines, etc) or are descended from the boats by themselves (rats in particular). These species create considerable damage on fauna and the flora and are the emblématiques causes of the disappearance of the birds of New Zealand. Among these species survivors, it is necessary to quote the Perroquet S: very threatened Kakapo (there would remain nothing any more but 200 individuals), the Kaka and the Kéa. It is necessary to also mention the Westland black petrel, the Weka, the Takahé, the Manchot pigmé (or blue pinguin), the Kereru (New Zealand pigeon) or the kiwi. All these animals are victims of predations, of destruction of eggs and/or the habitats by the invasive species.
For this threat, it is also necessary to add the destruction or the modification of habitats by the human ones (which affect inter alia the coastal species, such as the petrels and all the penguins), as well as the destruction of populations because of conflicts of interests (in particular the Dauphin of Hector, the Weka or the Kéa).
To stop the loss of biodiversity in New Zealand, the Department off Conservation protects approximately 30% from the territory. This figure is considerable, but it must be relativized and this for two reasons: first of all, New Zealand is populated little and, in addition, the majority of these territories are at the south, so that Doc. thus avoids the conflicts of use with the users of the territory. These measurements associated with very ambitious research programs start to bear their fruits.
The problems of the protection of the flora are doubly related to the problems of the invasive species. Not only certain species inflict with the plants major damage (in particular the Opossum and ongulés), but of others also threaten of the species which transport seeds, the such Weka or the Kereru (New Zealand pigeon).
The human ones also destroy the mediums and cut down sometimes thousand-year-old trees. Among these giants of the forest, it is necessary to quote the Podocarpus, such as the Remu or the Totara.
Among the other species of remarkable trees, it is necessary to quote the three varieties of Beech tree (species present on the three continents of the southern hemisphere), the Supple jack tree, with which the branches intermingle and form lianas, the Rata which colors the bush crimson in spring and in summer, and the famous Nikau palm, the palm tree which pushes more in the south.
New Zealand is however more known for the richness of its ferns, there are thousands of them. The Silver fern or silver plated Fougère became the emblem of the country, but those which will mark more the traveller will be without any doubt the tree ferns (Ponga).
There are also many flowers, graminaceous and mushrooms which push a little everywhere in the country. We should however mention the Flax because of its importance in the cultures maoris and Pakeha. This plant with the broad red flowers also has very long sheets which Maoris braided to be made of clothing. Europeans also launched out in the fabric clothes industry starting from the flax. After one long period of non-utilization, the flax was not any more but in the wild zones. Its use for control of chronic erosion of the spaces deforested in New Zealand could give him a new future.
See also: Economy of New Zealand, List of New Zealand companies
New Zealand is an industrialized country and modern. It exports primarily the products of sound Agriculture, its Horticulture, its fishing, and its Forêt S. the Tourisme, manufacturing industry and the services are also well developed there. The local currency is the New Zealand dollar (New Zealand Dollar).
More recently, thanks to the New Zealand realizer of the cinematographic trilogy the Lord of the Rings (film) , tourism and New Zealand cinema industry knew a light growth of activity.
New Zealand belongs to the Economic cooperation Pacific Asia (APEC)
See also: Demography of New Zealand
In September 2005, the population according to the Statistical Institute of New Zealand was of 4.105.327 inhabitants. The population is in major part of European origin, more precisely of anglo-Celtic origin . Maoris and the populations of the Pacific are the second and third ethnicities most represented, and the culture maori always holds a very important place at the national level.
On the four million New Zealander, there is of them roughly three million residing in the Île of the North, of which a million and half with Auckland and a million in the Île of the South.
The New Zealand culture is formed of the contributions maori and the European emigrants. The Maoris perpetuate a clean Artisanat (Pirog S, sculptures out of wood, baskets and other objects woven with a plant of flax called " flax" in English or " harekeke" in maori). There exists a Television channel, Maori Chanel. The descendants of the Scottish maintain on their side the tradition of the Cornemuse. In music, the New Zealand Rock knows a certain vitality.
In the song (tendency Folk), a New Zealand author-type-setter-interprête made a beautiful career in France, while starting in the theater company of Jean Dasté, of which he became the son-in-law: Graeme Allwright .
In Literature, following William Pember Reeves, of many writers like Katherine Mansfield, Frank Sargeson or Janet Frame are read and translated in the whole world. Maoris authors as Witi Ihimaera ( The Whale To wrinkle ) realize their culture by means of the literature.
SportThe soft climate and the weak density of population are the reasons for which the leisures in the open air are popular in the country: the Rugby, the Cricket, the Netball, the volley ball, the veil, the trott and the horsemanship there are extremely popular and are sports in which illustrate themselves of the New Zealanders.
- the “Rider of the Century” Mark Todd is New Zealand. The New Zealanders are Olympic champions into 1984,1988 and 1996 in individual complete contest of horsemanship.
- In Rugby with XV, the New Zealand national team is more known under the name of All Blacks . She one of the best teams in the world, is classified number two on a world level in 2007, once victorious of the world cup of Rugby (1987).
- the Zorbing and the Saut with the rubber band are two sports originating in New Zealand.
- In veil, New Zealand gained twice the Coupe of America in 1995 and 2000.
|Random links:||Black river | Lugo-di-Nazza | Jean-Marie Adiaffi | Trava: Fist Planet | Islam in Norway|