The State of the New Jersey , commonly called the New Jersey , is a State the North-East of the the United States, bordered in the west by the Pennsylvania and the Delaware, in north by the State of New York, and in south-east by the Atlantic Ocean.
See also: History of the New Jersey
SBefore the arrival of the first Europeans in the years 1630, the territory of the New Jersey was occupied by the Amerindians Lenape. The Dutch were installed on the site of current the Jersey City. These establishments were integral part of the colony New-Country-Low, which also included the New Amsterdam, i.e. New York.
Then the area was controlled by the Britanniques starting from 1664. They met little resistance, undoubtedly because of the unpopularity of the Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant. The king Charles II of England gave part of the area to his brother (the future Jacques II). This last distributed the grounds located between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained to him faithful during the civil war: Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley off Stratton. The March 18th 1673, Berkeley sold half of the New Jersey with the Quakers which made their colony of it. The New Jersey was divided into two provinces: West Jersey and East Jersey, between 1674 and 1702.
The New Jersey took part at the end of the 18th century to the war of independence. It was the crossing point of the troops on several occasions.
In December 1776, the continental army directed by George Washington crossed the Delaware River and engaged the Bataille of Trenton. This episode was immortalisé by the painter Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze. It is reproduced even on the reverse of the coins of the State. January 3rd 1777, the Bataille of Princeton is an American victory over the troops of Charles Cornwallis. During the summer 1783, the continental congress meets in the university of Princeton which became thus the capital of the country for four months. It is in this place that the news of the signature of the treaty of Paris, in 1783, arrived to the political officials.
Of a surface of 20 168 km ², the New Jersey were populated of 8 414 350 inhabitants with the census of 2000. Its capital is Trenton. The state is located at the center of the American megalopolis BosWash. The New Jersey can be divided into three geographical areas. North Jersey is located mainly in the area of influence of New York, and certain inhabitants work in this city. The area of Jersey Exchange is especially made up of Banlieue S. South Jersey is in the area of the Vallée of Delaware, the urban surface of Philadelphia.
List remarkable places:
- Delaware Toilets Gap
- Musconetcong To rivet
- New Jersey Meadowlands
- The Palisades
- Passaic To rivet
- Prick Barrens
- Rancocas To rivet
- Raritan To rivet
- Sandy Hook
- South Mountain
The state of New Jersey is divided into 21 counties ( counties ).
to *Voir the list of the Counties of the State of the New Jersey
The population density of the New Jersey is highest of all United States (438 inhabitants with the square kilometer).
Cities of more than 100.000 inhabitants in 2000 (estimate 2003 between brackets)
- Newark: 273.546 (278 000)
- Jersey City: 240.055 (242 000)
- Paterson: 149.222 (152 000)
- Elizabeth: 120.568 (152 000
- Edison: 97.687 (101 000)
- Woodbridge: 97.203 (108 000)
- Dover Township: (93 000)
- Hamilton: 87.109
- Toms To rivet: 86.327
- Trenton : 85.403
- Camden : 79.904
- Clifton : 78.672
- Brig Township, New Jersey: 76,119
- Cherry Hill: 69.965
- Orange East: 69.824
- Passaic : 67.861
- Union City: 67.088
- Middletown : 66.327
- Gloucester : 64.350
- Bayonne: 61.842
- Irvington : 60.695
- Old Bridge: 60.456
- Lakewood : 60.352
- Atlantic City
- Batna City
- East Rutherford
PolicyThe New Jersey is an industrial state of the east coast, old republican bastion become democratic in the years 80-90. It is considered to be one of the states more the progressists of the United States.
An old republican bastionPolitically, the New Jersey leans clearly towards the democratic party like the majority of the other states of the North-East. It was however formerly a republican bastion which had strongly supported its candidates with the very disputed presidential elections 1948, 1968 or of 1976. It was even a State pivot in 1960 and 1992.
Since the Eighties, the State started to lean towards the democrats as the Republican party “was droitisait” and was directed towards a policy more centered towards the voters of the south and the West. The last republican to have carried the State is George H.W. Bush in 1988.
At the time of the presidential election of 2004, the surveys gave again in the New Jersey this role of State pivot there because the president George W. Bush had become popular there and seemed to be able to create the surprise. But at the evening of the November 2nd 2004, the democratic candidate John Kerry obtained there 52,92% of the votes compared with 46,24% with president George W. Bush, re-elected with the national plan. It was however about the best republican score since 1988.
The bastions of the democratic party are the county of Mercer including/understanding the capital Trenton and Princeton, the urban county of Essex and that of Hudson including/understanding the towns of Newark and Jersey City, the county of Camden, the urban counties close to the towns of Philadelphia and the town of New York, the counties of Union and Middlesex as well as the town of Atlantic City.
The north-western and south-eastern suburbs of the State like Somerset or Hunterdon are on the other hand republican bastions like length of the Atlantic Ocean or in the mountainous counties of Sussex, Morris and Warren.
The majority of the counties of the New Jersey are however regarded as also divided between democrats and republicans so that they can lean on a side like other with each election. It is the case of the county of Bergen, very republican in rural north and very democrat in the more urban and denser part of the county. The county of Passaic (nearer to the democrats) and that of May Cape (more republican) are also politically divided counties.
Local domination of the democrats
The governor of the State is the democrat Jon Corzine since the January 17th 2006, elected the November 8th 2005 with 54% of the votes compared with 42,8% with the republican business man Doug Forrester.
The current constitution of the New Jersey goes back to 1947. It institutes a bicameral congress including/understanding a senate of 40 members and an assembly of 80 members. At the time of the session 2007-2008, the room of the representatives is controlled by 49 democrats (against 31 republicans) and the senate by 22 democrats (against 18 republicans).
The January 9th 2006, the members of Parliament of the New Jersey voted, by 55 votes against 21 and two abstentions, a Moratoire on the Capital punishment, becoming the first American legislators to suspend the application of the capital punishment since the resumption of the executions in 1976.
The capital punishment is thus suspended until a commission returns a report/ratio on the impact of the capital punishment on criminality. Only ten condemned are in 2006 prisoners in the corridors of dead the.
A national representation mainly democratic
At the federal level, in 2006, the two senators of the State to the Congrès of the United States are the democrats Frank Lautenberg and Robert Menendez whereas six republicans and seven democrats represent the New Jersey with the Chambre of the Representatives of the United States.
The last Republican senator of the State to the Congress of the United States was Clifford Case elected in 1979 (notwithstanding the eight month of the senator Nicholas Brady named by the governor Thomas Kean in 1982 following the resignation of the titular senator Harrison Williams).
Recognition of the rights of the gays as regards marriageIn October 2006, the Supreme court of the New Jersey gave six months to the legislator of the State to modify the legislation on the Mariage in order to recognize the right of the gay couples to profit from all the advantages offered to the married couples Hétérosexuel S. the court left freedom to the legislator to choose between the Homosexual marriage (like the Massachusetts since 2004) and a new system of Civil union (as in the Vermont and the Connecticut). The New Jersey would be however the only State to authorize such unions (or marriage) for the non-residents.
EconomyThe agriculture of the New Jersey is intensive and offers productions périurbaines (bilberries, market gardenings, etc). It is the first American State for the production of chemicals and medicinal. The other industrial activities are the Raffinage oil and the Métallurgie. Industries of high technology rest on a network of SME related to the universities (Princeton…). The tertiary sector developed thanks to the entertaining activities in the seaside resorts of the coast. The casinos of Atlantic City attract the population of the New Yorkean agglomeration near.
CultureThe pianist Bill Evans was born in the New Jersey. The group Bon Jovi is originating in the New Jersey, like Bruce Springsteen and My Chemical Romance. It is in the New Jersey that the action of the televised series the Soprano is located. The actor Zach Braff carried out the film Garden State which is located at the New Jersey ( Garden State is besides the nickname of the State of the New Jersey).
- Nets of the New Jersey (NBA) to East Rutherford
- Devils of the New Jersey (LNH) to Newark
- the town of East Rutherford accommodates the Giants Stadium, stage of two teams of NFL: the New York Giants and the New York Jets; as well as the Red Bull New York (MLS).
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