See also: Guinea (homonymy), New Guinea (homonymy)
The New Guinea-News-Guinea is a country of Oceania occupying the Eastern half of the island of the New Guinea (other half constituting the province Indonesia of New Guinea, called before Irian Barat then Irian Jaya ). It is located in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean, in the north of the Australia, and in the west of the the Solomon Islands.
See also: History of New Guinea-News-Guinea, Settlement of Oceania
Human remainders ( Homo sapiens ) going back to approximately 60 000 years were found in New Guinea. Those probably came from Southeast Asia, through the Wallacea, and established a civilization quickly based on agriculture. They was navigators able to cross the 70 to 100 km of sea which separated them from the islands from which they came. One knows little thing of the country in Europe until the 19th century, although the European explorers discovered the island as of the 16th century. The name of the country comes from " Papou ", that certain authors say to derive from a word Malayan describing the crisp hair of the Mélanésie NS (confused with Papous), and the New Guinea was the name given to the 16th century by a Spanish explorer because of the resemblance in its eyes, with the population of Guinea in Africa.
The northern half of the country is colonized by the Germans towards the end of the 19th century as “a German New Guinea”. At the time of the First World War, it is occupied by the Australia NS which also manage the southernmost part as “a New Guinea” (formerly “British New Guinea”). The two territories are combined to form the “Territoire of New Guinea-News-Guinea”, called more simply thereafter “New Guinea-News-Guinea”.
Independence is proclaimed in 1975. Starting from 1988, a revolt secessionist makes rage on the island of Bougainville, populated mainly by of Mélanésiens. This conflict made 20 000 victims before being solved in 1997.
See also: Political of New Guinea-News-Guinea
New Guinea-News-Guinea is member of the the Commonwealth and the queen Elisabeth II is the Head of State, it is represented by a general governor.
The executive power is held by the Prime Minister, who directs the cabinet. The Parliament unicaméral has 109 seats, of which 20 are occupied by the governors of the 20 provinces. The members of Parliament are elected every five years.
The elections attract a great number of candidates; many members of the Parliament are elected with less 10 % of the voices.
Since the years 1960, tensions Séparatiste S on the island of Bougainville oppose the islanders to the central capacity. This conflict involves confrontations violent one in the years 1980, the failure of the strategy of legal harassment of the landowners of the island (which shelters the Mine of Panguna) led to a toughening of the conflict, with creation in 1988 of the revolutionary Armée with Bougainville.
See also: Subdivisions of New Guinea-News-Guinea
New Guinea-News-Guinea is divided into twenty administrative provinces:
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