See also: History of Nevada
The first inhabitants of Nevada are the Amerindian S: in the first times, they were wandering and drove out hares, the antelopes, the moufflons, the deer and the squirrels. They supplemented their food by the contributions of fishing. They gathered also bays and collected roots. Then these people sédentarisés and left many vestiges of their culture and in particular of the Pétroglyphes (Red Rock Canyon, Vallée of Fire). They lived in adaptation with the natural constraints. In the Large Basin arid, the tribes practiced hunting and cultivated irrigated pieces. They braided the Armoise of America and used the Saule desert to make plaits and loincloths. The Shoshone S (in the middle of the State), the Paiutes of north (in the North-West) and the south (south-eastern) are the most famous tribes. The Washoe S occupy part of the west of the State as well as California.
The Congrès of the United States establishes the territory of Utah the August 14th 1850 which gathered then the Actual positions of the Utah, of the Idaho and Nevada. In 1859, the discovery of the money seam of Comstock ( Comstock Lode ) close to Virginia City caused the surge of adventurers.
In 1860, the Paiute Amerindians, under the command of Numaga, start to tackle the white campings and the connections of the Pony Express. The intervention of the army crushes the movement of rebellion.
The March 2nd 1861, Nevada was separated from the territory of Utah and took its current name, a short cut of Sierra Nevada. The October 31st 1864, Nevada became the 36e State of the United States. It absorbed in 1866 the county of Pah-Ute of the Territoire of Arizona, in the west of the river Colorado. Other money and gold seams were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century (Tonopah, Goldfield and Rhyolite). Other ores also made the richness of the area such as copper, the Molybdène and the Lithium.
With the exhaustion of certain seams and the Great depression of the Years 1930, the industry of the play developed as from the years 1930. Founded in 1905, Las Vegas quickly became the capital of the play.
GeographyOf a surface of 286 353 km ², Nevada are populated of 1 998 257 inhabitants (2000). Its capital is Carson City.
Situation and general characteristics
Nevada is in the west of the the United States in the natural area of the Grand Basin and in the economic area of the Sun Belt . It is about a State Enclavé inside the continent and which does not have an direct access with the Littoral Pacifique. It is bordered by five States: the California in the west, the Oregon and the Idaho in north, the Utah in the east and the Arizona in the south. Its limits represent an overall length of: 2382 km; they are regular because they follow the Méridien S and the parallel, except that which separates it from Arizona and which follows the course of the river Colorado. Nevada extends on seven degrees from Latitude (35/42°N) and six degrees from Longitude (114/120°W). It is located at the same latitude as the Greece. Its form evokes that of a Trapèze whose point corresponds to the south. With a total Surface of: 286351 km ², are approximately half of the territory French subway, Nevada is the seventh vastest State of the United States. The longest North-South distance measures approximately 780 km, for 515 km of is in west. The point low is at 146 meters of altitude, in the south of the State.
Nevada belongs to the Grand Basin which also extends to the east from California. The relief consists of an almost parallel succession of assembly lines. The majority measure a hundred kilometers length. The most stretched are the Schell Creek Range (210 km), the Toiyabe Range (188 km) and the Ruby Mountains (165 km). These chains ( arrange English ) frame basins of longitudinal orientation filled with the Miocène by Alluvion S. One finds also Graben S and Horst S delimited by Faille S typical normals in a Zone of distension. This topography is the result of an intense tectogenèse which creates faults which delimit grabens. The valleys receive the remains of the erosion to the foot of the chains and their glacis.
At altitudes exceeding 3600 meters sometimes, the mountains accommodate luxuriant forests inhabited by many endemic species. The north of Nevada extends in the desert from the Large Basin, where the temperatures are hot in summer and very low in winter. The Eastern area of the State is wetter. The area of Las Vegas is located, as for it, in the Désert of Mojaves. It receives less precipitations in winter but undergoes monsoon arizonienne.
- Spring Mountains
- Large Basin
ClimateThe climate of Nevada is marked by the continentality and altitude. The position of shelter in the east of the Sierra Nevada explains the arid character partly or semi-arid of the State (in general, less than 300 mm annual). The masses of humid air coming from the Pacific have evil to pass the mountainous barrier. Altitude is responsible for the winter cold, but also for an increase in precipitations: for example, the town of Ely is with same the Latitude that Reno but receives more precipitations because it is located more in height (1960 meters compared with 1370 meters above the sea level).
The most sprinkled areas (more than 200 mm annual) are in the area of the Lac Tahoe and with north, particularly in the assembly lines (Montagnes Ruby for example). The south is much drier and more heat: Las Vegas receives each year 104 mm of precipitation and the average temperature is of 19,5°C (against 9,5°C with Winnemucca and 7,5°C with Reno). The winter, snow is not rare on the tops exceeding the 2000 meters, in all the State.
Principal rivers and lakes
The principal river of Nevada is the Humboldt (480 km) which runs entirely inside the State, in the northern part. It is not thrown in any sea, like many rivers of the Large Basin. The Colorado runs in the south. The other rivers are more or less important Affluent S, generally supplied with the snow melt at the top of the mountains in spring. One can thus distinguish three basins: in the west, Truckee To rivet and Carson River are born in the Sierra Nevada and related to lakes from altitude; in north, the Owyhee River is an affluent of the Snake River which traverses the North-West of the United States. Lastly, the Virgin To rivet, the White To rivet and the Muddy River are thrown in the Lac Mead and join the Colorado river. The principal natural lakes are in the west of the State and are lakes of altitude: the Lac Tahoe is with horse on California and Nevada. It measures 502 km ² and is with 1.867 meters of altitude. It is about the third deepest lake of America and the eighth of the world. Pyramid Lake (487 km ²) is a endoreic lake supplied with the Truckee River. Lastly, the Walker Lake is a natural lake of 272 km ². In the south, the Lac Mead is the principal stretch of water. It is about a lake articifiel created by the Barrage Hoover on the Colorado in the Années 1930. It extends on 180 km length upstream from the work, measures 640 km ² and has 885 km of cumulated shores.
Environment, fauna and flora
Natural areasNevada can be cut out in four great natural areas:
- the Sierra Nevada relates to only one sector reduced to the west;
- the Northern Basin and Range extends to north;
- the Central Basin and Range occupies most of the State;
- Lastly, the Mojave Basin and Range relates to the south and part of the Neighboring states.
The Nevada Sierra is a relatively high mountainous chain (several tops exceed: 4000 meters of altitude). It is asymmetrical with a Western slope which go up gradually towards the watershed, and a Eastern Versant which goes down in an abrupt way. It is this slope which concerns a small portion of Nevada, around the Lac Tahoe. This part was strongly eroded by the Glaciation S which followed one another during the quaternary era. The vegetation consists of forests of Conifère S with a prevalence of the Pin twisted and Pin of Jeffrey. With high-altitude, one finds species adapted such as the red Sapin, the Pruche subalpine and the Pin silver plated. This area is strewn with many lakes of altitude, vestiges of the last glaciation, bordered of meadows and aquatic environments. The tops are the field of the alpine lawn, of the Marmotte S, the Pika S and the moufflons.
The north of Nevada is characterized by arid plates and basins, papered plains of magmatic rocks and dispersed mountains. The basic sectors altitude are the field of the Steppe to Armoise. The chains are in general covered with bushes and of graminaceous, except in altitude where one meets the Pseudotsuga and the Tremble. The area is too arid to be able to practice agriculture, except in some irrigated sectors.
The center of Nevada is a vast endoreic zone where the water run-off is lost in the closed depressions and is not permanent. The relief is made of an alternation of chains isolating from the basins, occupied by temporarily flooded salted extents. The climate is marked by the aridity most of the year. The vegetation and fauna are adapted to these natural constraints: Halophyte S, Herbaceous S, Armoise, shrubs are common. However, this area of Nevada is less arid than the south.
The Désert of Mojaves extends to the south from Nevada: it is about a desert of shelter and altitude. It in its greater part is covered with rocky plains, sometimes stopped by mountainous chains. The area receives less than 150 mm of precipitations per annum but is at rather high altitudes, ranging between 1.000 and 2.000 meters. This is why it happens that snow falls in certain places the winter. The thermal amplitude varies in a very important way from one season to another. The vegetation is adapted to the aridity and altitude: the Yucca S, of which emblématique is the Joshua Tree , the Agave S ( Agave utahensis ), the Oponce S and others Cactus ( Echinomastus johnsonii ), the Créosotier are frequent. Spring is the period during which many flowers open out. Fauna is generally night and includes/understands the predatory ones (Puma, Coyote, dwarf Renard) which nourishes rodents (Lièvre, Dipodomys,…). Several animals are poisonous (Monstre of Gila, snakes, spiders…).
Environmental policyThe main issue of Nevada is the aridity. It is posed with acuity in the sectors the most populated, particularly in the agglomeration of Las Vegas where the demand for water is strong.
The Barrage Hoover was built in the years 1930 to meet the needs for the city. Arranged on the Colorado river, the work created an artificial stretch of water, the Lac Mead, which extends on approximately 150 kilometers. Whereas the reserve of the Hoover stopping is not enough any more with the water supply of the Neighboring states, the river Colorado is almost drained downstream. The reduction in the fresh water contribution in the Golfe of California causes a rise in the harmful rate of salinity to the sea life. In the arid medium of Nevada, other rivers are dried up because of the evaporation and the human taking away for the needs for the Irrigation.
The parks and natural reserves were created for the leisure of the townsmen and the tourists, but also to protect fauna and the flora. The National park of the Large Basin was created in 1986 and is in the east of Nevada. It covers 312 km ² with the foot of the Wheeler Peak. There exist of very numerous in addition parks of State.
The State of Nevada aims to reach the threshold of 20% of its consumption in renewable energy, from here at 2015, in particular thanks to the solar power stations installed in the desert. Nevada Solar One , an installation of 64 MW located close to Boulder City in the Deserted of Mojaves, is the third solar power station most important of the world. 14 units produce 1,27/hour Megawatt million of electricity of origin Géothermique (2005) and five new factories are in project. This energy is used in agribusiness industry.
The mining activity involves all kinds of pollution: the mercury lost by gold washing is the first source by far.
The State of Nevada is divided into 16 counties and an independent city, that of Carson City. With a surface of: 47000 km ², the widest county are the county of Nye. Smallest is that of Storey, in the North-West. The county of Clark is populated the most (: 1777539 inhabitants in 2006) because of the agglomeration of Las Vegas. Less populated is that of Esmeralda (790 inhabitants in 2006).
Main citiesPopulation of the main cities of Nevada (2006)
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from: start till: 552.5 text: Las Vegas _ (552 539) from: start till: 224.8 text: Henderson _ (240 614) from: start till: 210.2 text: Reno _ (210 255) from: start till: 197.5 text: North Las Vegas _ (197 567) from: start till: 83.9 text: Sparks _ (83 959) from: start till: 55.2 text: Carson _ (55 289) TextData= fontsize: S pos: (450,20) text: Many inhabitants (in thousands)
In Nevada, the share of the population living in the countryside is lower than the national average (16,7% in 2006): 10,5% of the inhabitants reside downtown ) which concentrates 62% of the population of the State.
- Carson City (52 457 H)
- Reno (180 480 H)
- Henderson City (175 381 H)
- North Las Vegas (115 488 H)
- Sunrise Manor (156 120 H)
- Paradise (186 070 H)
- Spring Valley (117 390 H)
According to the Office of the census of the United States, Nevada had a population of: 1998257 inhabitants in 2000, which placed it in 35e position on 50. For 2005, the population is estimated at: 2414807 inhabitants. The density is lower than that of the United States, because of the natural constraints (aridity, mountains). But average density of Nevada (8 hab. /km ²) mask of important geographical disparities: in the south the county of Clark counts 67 hab. /km ²; but 12 counties out of 17 have a density lower than 5 hab. /km ².
Nevada belongs to the States of the west which know important a population growth. Between 1990 and 2000, it gained: 796424 inhabitants, is the rise of 66,3%, biggest of the United States. The tendency continues between 2000 and 2006 (+ 24,9%). This increase, is explained by a largely positive Migratory balance. The Americans, but also the immigrants, are attracted by the economic development and the climate of this area of the Sun Belt . With more large scales, the situation is contrasted: the population is in strong increase in the counties of the south (counties of Clark and Nye) and of the North-West (counties of Lyon and Pershing).
The population of the agglomeration of Las Vegas increased by 83% between 1990 and 2000, which constitutes the national record. On the contrary, the mountainous, arid and little populated counties west lose inhabitants (counties of Esmeralda and Mineral). At the time of the next census, and if the tendency continues, Nevada at least a seat moreover with the Room of the Representatives will undoubtedly obtain, that is to say a total of 4 (here according to the data of 2005).
Nevada is one of rare the State where the share of the men (50,6%) overrides that of the women (49,4%) 14,1% of the listed people stated to have a German ancestor , 11% Irish, 10,1% English, 6,6% Italy N.
Nevada is a State politically moderated of republican tendency but there exists a strong political resentment between republican north and the democratic south of Nevada, more particularly still between the Comté of Washoe (Reno) and that of Clark (Las Vegas). In fact, the elected officials of the counties of north a long time exerted a political control on the State in spite of the strong growth as much economic than demographic of the county of Clark.
A State with the tuning fork of the presidential national vote
Since 1912, and except for the year 1976, the voters of Nevada always mainly brought their votes (and their Great Electors) to the finally victorious candidate of the presidential election to the national plan.
Cohabitation within the legislature of Nevada
The governor of the state is the republican Jim Gibbons who succeeded in January 2007 the republican Kenny Guinn (governor since 1999). Four of the five others posted elected of the executive are held by republicans.
On the level of the legislature of the State, the assembly of 42 members is dominated by 27 democrats whereas the senate of 21 members is controlled by 11 republicans.
A nationally republican State with three against two
At the federal level, the two senators of the State are the republican John Ensign and the democrat Harry Reid whereas two republicans and a democrat represent Nevada with the room of the representatives. In addition, Harry Reid is the chief of the democratic minority of the Senate.
EconomyAccording to the data of the Office of economic analyzes of the US government, GDP of Nevada rose with: 110158 million $ in 2005, is 0,9% of the American GDP. It was then classified 35e on 50 States. The production per capita was established with: 39555 $, a figure higher than the national average (: 36842 $/hab.). Nevada occupied the 11th place of the country for PIB/hab. in 2005. In 2004-2005, the economic growth reached 7%, strongest of the country. This dynamism is explained by the strong increase in the population which stimulates the Consommation and BTP. Unemployment rate is close to the national average with 4,6% of applicants for work in June 2007 |- bgcolor=" #DDDDDD" align=" center" | || Production
in tons || Production
in million $ || Share of the production
américaine |- bgcolor=" #FFFFFF" align=" center" | Gold ||213||3 014||82,5% |- bgcolor=" #EEEEEE" align=" center" | Money ||309||71||25% |- bgcolor=" #FFFFFF" align=" center" | Copper ||57 300||213||4,9% |- bgcolor=" #EEEEEE" align=" center" | Gypsum ||1 610.000||24,9||9,2% |- bgcolor=" #FFFFFF" align=" center" | Barite ||464 000||17,9||93% |- bgcolor=" #EEEEEE" align=" center" | Sand ||680 000||-||2,1% |}
The mine S of Nevada are exploited since the XIXe century. This sector gets: 10561 direct uses and: 48000 indirect employment in 2005. The breeding occupies 78,6% of the grounds development and provides 43,7% of the agricultural production in value.
Tertiary sectorThe economy of Nevada rests on the tertiary sector, in manpower, as in value. In number of employment, the first three sectors of the economy of Nevada are the leisures (26%), the trade and transport (17,8%) and the finance departments or professionals (12,4%). They are especially the play and the spectacles which make the dynamism of the State. The casinos of Las Vegas, the Lake Tahoe and Reno attract visitors of the whole world.
- Nevada State Railroad Museum: railway museum with Carson City; Virginia and Truckee Railroad : a railway line at the time of the gold rush;
- National Car Museum: automobile museum with Reno;
- Nevada Museum off Art: Reno;
in Las Vegas:
- Atomic Testing Museum;
- Guggenheim Hermitage Museum;
- Mrs Tussauds (Las Vegas);
- The Lost City Museum: archaeological museum of the site of Pueblo Large of Nevada;
- the town of Winnemucca appears in volume 2 of the Chroniques of San Francisco of Armistead Maupin;
- Hunter S. Thompson, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas ;
- Robert Laxalt, Sweet Promised Land (1957), evokes its childhood with Carson City in the inter-war period and the destiny of his/her father, of Basque origin. This book contributed to the creation of the programme of Basque studies to the Université of Nevada. Robert Laxalt founded off the editions University Nevada Close .
List writers born in Nevada:
- Al Bernstein
- Annalee Blysse
- Walter Van Tilburg Clark
- daN DeQuille
- David Eddings
- Nancy Etchemendy
- Terri Farley
- Cecelia Holland
- Cathe Jones
- Brent Jordan
- Robert Laxalt
- Cathy Scott
- Wine Suprynowicz
- Douglas Unger
- Sarah Winnemucca: of Amerindian origin, it published in 1883 Life Among the Paiutes which describes the relations between the white Paiutes and colonists at the XIXe century.
- With Elko, is organized various cultural events:
- around the life of the cow-boys: National Cowboy Poetry Gathering : a festival which takes place in January
- National Basque Festival in July: Basque traditions (dance, specialities culinary, bullfight, showdowns)
- Vegoose: festival during Halloween in Las Vegas
- Festival of Burning Man, in the desert
CinemaMany films take for Las Vegas framework:
- the Unknown of Las Vegas ( Ocean' S eleven ), of Lewis Milestone (1960)
- diamonds are eternal (" Diamonds are forever"), of Guy Hamilton (1971)
- Bugsy ( Bugsy ), of Barry Levinson (1991)
- Casino ( Casino ), of Martin Scorsese (1995)
- Leaving Las Vegas ( Leaving Las Vegas ), of Mike Figgis (1995)
- Las Vegas Parano ( Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas ), of Terry Gilliam (1998)
- Ocean' S Eleven ( Ocean' S Eleven ), of Steven Soderbergh (2001)
- Resident Evil: Extinction of Russell Mulcahy (2007)
- Ocean' S Twelve ( Ocean' S Twelve ), of Steven Soderbergh (2004)
- Ocean' S Thirteen ( Ocean' S Thirteen ), of Steven Soderbergh (2007)
TelevisionTelevised series turned to Las Vegas:
- the Experts ( CSI: Crime Scene Investigation ), (2000)
- Las Vegas ( Las Vegas ), (2003)
- Dr. Vegas ( Dr. Vegas ), (2004)
- the King of Las Vegas ( Father off the Pride ), (2004).
- Bonanza : this Televised series of 430 episodes, created by David Dortort and diffused between the 1959 and 1973 puts in scene the adventures of Ben Cartwright and his three sons which direct a ranch, the Ponderosa , in Nevada in the middle of the 19th century.
Statistical nuns :
Christian - 78%
- Protestant - 44%
- Baptists - 15%
- Méthodistes - 6%
- Lutherans - 3%
- Other Protestants - 21%
- Catholic - 24%
- Mormon - 12%
- Other Christians - 1%
- Other religions - 2%
- Atheistic - 20%
SportThe principal sporting teams play in the big cities, in Las Vegas initially:
- Las Vegas Gladiators (American football in room)
- Las Vegas Wranglers (Hockey)
- Las Vegas 51s (Baseball)
- Las Vegas Stars, the Las Vegas PROLYMs and Henderson All-Starz (Basketball)
- UNLV Rebels (NCAA) defends the colors of the Université of Nevada (Las Vegas)
Great sporting events:
- Las Vegas:
- matches of box
- In February 2007, the Thomas & Mack Center (principal general sports room of the city with approximately 19.000 places) accommodated NBA All-Star Range 2007.
- Since 1986, the city organizes the Open of Las Vegas, it is a male tennis tournament which takes place at the end of February, sometimes also at the beginning of May.
- the Las Vegas Motor Speedway (LVMS) is a traditional circuit located at the north of the city and which accommodates automobile races like NASCAR. The principal events of NASCAR are the UAW-DaimlerChrysler 400 (Nextel Cup), Sam' S Town 300 (Busch Series) and the Las Vegas 350 (Craftsman Truck Series).
- Since 1992, the Sam Boyd Stadium organizes the Las Vegas Bowl, a university match of American football generally opposing teams of the Pacific Ten Conference and Mountain West Conference.
- In December takes place Wrangler National Final Rodeo (NFR), which crowns the world champion of Rodeo since 1985.
- Finale of Dodge Xtreme bulldozers Wrinkles Hardware Turn (rodeo).
- American football in Mackay Stadium
TransportThe Interstate 15 passes through the south of the State, in the area of Las Vegas. The Interstate 80 crosses the north of Nevada, it joined the Utah in the east with the California in the west while passing by Reno. The State is also crossed by federal highways: US-6, US-50, US-93, US-95 and US-395, and operates 189 other roads. However, Reno, Carson and Las Vegas are not connected by Interstate or a primary highway.
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