|----- | colspan=2 align=" center" cellpadding=" 0" bgcolor=white| |----- ! bgcolor=" #ccccff" colspan=" 2" | Statistics |----- | Periphery | Southern of Égée |----- | Names | Cyclades |----- | Chief town | Naxos (Chora) |----- | Surface | 428 km ² |----- | Population | 25.089 (2006) |----- | Density of pop | 34,5 habitants/km ² |----- | zip code | 84300 |----- | Indicative telephone | (00-30) - 22850 |----- | Internet site | http://www.naxos.gr/ |} Naxos (in Greek old Νάξος ) of the Aegean Sea is a Greek island pertaining to the archipelago of the Cyclades. It makes 428 km ² for 14 000 inhabitants, which makes some largest of Cyclades. The chief town and principal port are the town of Naxos (or Hora: 2 900 hab.).
In the Greek Mythology, according to certain legends brought back by the Pseudo-Apollodore, it is the place where Thésée makes stopover after having killed the Minotaure. It gives up there ARIANE, girl of Minos, which is collected the following day by Dionysos, and brought then to Lemnos.
In another version of the legend, briefly reported by Homère in the Odyssey (XI, 321-325), Artémis kills ARIANE with “Dia, the bathed island of the floods”, that Diodore of Sicily compares to Naxos, but which is more probably current the Dia, off the northern coast of the Crete. What is certain, it is that the island dedicated a worship with Dionysos, owner of the vines which were its principal culture.
See also: History of Cyclades
Naxos was inhabited before the end of the first cycladic period (before 2000 before our era). It is then colonized by the Ionie NS at the time antiquated. It quickly becomes prosperous. It is with the apogee of its glory to the S before our era. It dominates all then the Cyclades. It then offers the sphinx known as of Naxiens to Delphes and the famous lions of Naxos with Délos. In -500, the Perse S fail in front of the island, which marks the end of their expansion in Ionie. In -527, a new Persian forwarding is assembled against the Cyclades, with Aristagoras, governor of Milet, at its head. Again, the seat fails. At the end of sixth century BC, it reaches its apogee under the Tyran Lygdamis, installed there, according to Hérodote, by Pisistrate. The historian says that at that time, it “exceeds all the other islands in prosperity” ( Enquêtes , V, 28).
In -491, during the first medic war, it is revenge Perse: Naxos is taken by the general Datis, the inhabitants who could not flee are reduced in slavery, the city and the temples are burnt. Naxiens make then defection and with Salamine, and bring four Trière S to the Greeks.
After the victory, they belong to the Ligue of Délos. Very quickly, it rises against the Athenian imperialism: in -468, Naxos makes defection with its fleet, it then is besieged and controlled by Athens, said Thucydide, “contrary to the rule” (I, 98,4). The Athenians will send thereafter Clérouque S (colonists) in the island, 500 for example after the exile of Thucydide, the adversary of Périclès, in -443. In 338 before our era, it is conquered by the Macedonians, and into -166 by the Romans.
Venetian the Marco Sanudo becomes duke of Naxos and built a castle in top of the hill of the city, of which part of the keep remains. The houses of the Venetian families which encircle it form by their external walls a defensive rampart, the unit being called kastro . This system of fortification is found in many villages of Cyclades, in particular Folegandros and Kastro (on Sifnos).
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