National school of the charters
See also: ENC
The National school of the charters is an university located at Paris, specialized in the auxiliary sciences of the history. Its pupils, historians, philologists, paleographers generally make career like conservatives of files, conservatives of the libraries or teacher-researchers.
History of the school
After several failures under, the royal School of the charters is rested by an ordinance of the February 22nd 1821. A few years before, the revolutionary confiscations brought in the literary deposits then in the libraries of the masses of books which it is necessary to treat, catalog and give to consult. In parallel, the romantic passion for the Moyen-âge invites to train specialists able to renew French historiography, while being based on the files confiscated under the Révolution: the apprehension of the history changed and the religious scholars (especially Benedictines) are not capable to allow the country to join again with its national history. The ordinance provides that twelve pupils are named by the Minister of Interior Department, on proposal of the Académie of the inscriptions and the humanities and remunerated during the two years of their studies: pedagogy (thanks to facsimile of old documents) and the methodology of the historical research are deeply renewed. The pupils receive lesson of paleography, sigillography, numismatics, philology, classification of the files and libraries, historical geography, system of the currencies and weights and measures, history of the political institutions of France, archeology, civil law, canonical right and feudal right. The lesson has at the same time a scientific and professional aiming. The chartists thus allow France to have a dense and effective network of services of departmental records. It is not the same in the libraries: the ordinance of 1829 is never applied and, in spite of the ordinance of 1839 reserving places with the royal Library to them, less than 7% of the chartists work in library in 1867.
The school moves in 1866 with the Hôtel of Breteuil, street of Francs-Bourgeois, in more adapted buildings. Without that affecting much teaching, seven pulpits are create by the decree of the January 30th 1869: paleography; Romance languages; bibliography, classification of the libraries and the files; diplomatic; political institutions, administrative and legal of France; civil law and canonical right of the Middle Ages; archeology of the Middle Ages. Put aside of the modifications of detail, they remain unchanged until 1955. The school is with the Faculty of Law one of the bases of the French Action at the beginning of the 20th century. That does not prevent only with the contest of 1906, for the first time, a woman integrates the school, 17 years before the same thing does not arrive at the ENS, 66 years before the Polytechnic school.
The entrance examination and the examinations are reformed with the beginning of the year 1930 (decrees of the June 19th, 1931, March 16th, 1931 and October 5th, 1932). At that time, the school also takes charges the formation with it with the librarians by preparing with the technical diploma of librarian (DTB), necessary to obtaining a station in classified Public library or College library. The non-chartists are then allowed to follow the courses of history of the book and bibliography to prepare the diploma. This practice ends in 1950 when the higher diploma of librarian (DSB) replaces the DTB.
The middle of the 20th century is one difficult period for the school, which is sclerosed and pains to be renewed. Its teaching is then regarded as growing old, taking only little counts the historical new approaches of them, in particular the revival historiographic of the school of Annals. It is only in the Années 1990, with a reform of the lesson and entrance examination, and new policy that a revival is really felt: the school enters during one time of change under the direction of Yves-Marie Bercé (1992 - 2001) then that Anita Guerreau-Jalabert (2001 - 2006). The current director, Jacques Berlioz, places himself in this same design of the things. A thorough formation with the new technologies applied to the study and the conservation of the cultural heritage on the one hand, relations much closer and structured with the French universities and the similar institutions in the other European countries on the other hand, are the two main axes of the current development.
There has existed for several years a project of removal of the School of the charters street of Richelieu, in part of the buildings in the past occupied by the National library of France on the Richelieu site, in order to create there a pole of excellence in history of art (in relation to the National institute of history of art). This removal is currently announced for 2012.
Missions, statutes, organization
Under article 3 of this decree, “the National school of the charters has the role of ensuring the training of scientific personnel of the Archives and of the Bibliothèque S. It contributes to the training of all the personnel which contributes to the scientific knowledge and the development of the national inheritance. It takes part in the training and the research of the science students of the man and the company, particularly in the disciplines relating to the study criticizes, the exploitation, the conservation and the communication of the historical sources. ”
The specific competence of its graduates is their capacity to mobilize very varied knowledge, distributed contrary to manner fragmented and segmented in the university courses. The formation of the School of the charters makes it possible to react with competence, as well in front of a Romance church as in front of a charter of the 12th century, a shard, a letter of an intendant of Louis XIV or in front of a film of Patrice Chéreau.
The School has the statute of Grand establishment and its bodies are the director, the board of directors and the scientific advice.
The director must be Professor of the universities or the comparable bodies, in particular that of “director of studies of the practical School of the high studies, of the National school of the charters and the French School of the Far East”. He is named by Presidential decree of the Republic for a five years mandate, possibly renewable once. He is assisted of a general secretary also named for five years.
The board of directors, which includes/understands 21 members, consists of four members of right, ten members named by the minister in charge for higher education and of seven members only elected, three teachers, two IATOS and two pupils.
The scientific advice is chaired by the principal and includes/understands of right all the teachers having the title of director of studies, as well as other members of right, fifteen members named, an elected teacher and a representative of the pupils.
The regional unit of formation to the scientific information and technique (URFIST) of Paris and the Comité of historical and scientific work are attached to the School of the charters.
Contest of access
The French pupils are recruited on contests prepared in some literary preparatory classes. Since 1990, it is divided into two sections:
- “modern” Section B known as whose program comprises inter alia matters of the modern history and contemporary and of the living languages.
The contest is prepared in the preparatory classes at the School of the charters (“hypochartes” then “charters”). According to the colleges, the pupils preparing the competitions for A-grade officials and B either are joined together in only one division with distinct options, or distributed in two different sections. Those which prepare the option B can be gathered in khâgne S with additional options.
Moreover, a contest of direct access in second year is opened to the candidates justifying of the minimum level of the license in theory; in practice, recruitment for this contest are addressed to already committed candidates in a course of advanced research, the School pays its attention for example on prizes winner of the contest of aggregation or doctorands.
The number of places to the contests is very limited (approximately 25 per annum for the total of the three contests) and quite lower than the number of vacant posts in the public corporations of files.
A reform of the entrance examination is planned for 2009 in order to bring closer the contest to those of the National universities, with certain common tests.
Statute of the pupils
The pupils recruited by these contests can profit from the statute of civil servant-trainees and are thus remunerated (approximately 1200 euros per month). Foreign pupils also recruited by contest or on titles follow the same course without being remunerated but profit from grants about equivalent to the basic salary of the pupils civils servant.
The schooling lasts three years and nine months. At the conclusion of their schooling, the chartists must write a Thèse establishment, giving right to the diploma of Archiviste paleographer.
The civils servant having fulfilled the obligations of third year can postulate with the reserved contests of two schools of applications, the 3Ecole Nationale Sup3erieure of the library and information sciences (ENSSIB) and the National institute of the inheritance (INP). The direction of the National school of the charters insists particularly so that the pupils direct themselves towards these two schools, which constitute according to it a natural outlet for the chartists as well as a complement essential to their initial training. After their schooling in these schools known as of application, they become preserving preserving inheritance or libraries. Each year, a certain number of pupils pass the aggregation (letters, history, etc) and are directed towards research or teaching.
The monopoly chartist is however called into question: as from 2008, the contest of the speciality “files” of the INP will be opened with all, which should involve a reorganization of the schooling at the school. Consequently, the methods of admission with the ENSSIB could they also be modified.
Formation and lesson
Teaching is cut out in six six-month periods. The lesson consists of a joint base and options chosen by each pupil according to his scientific and professional project. These options are conceived in collaboration with an university.
Thus, the pupils follow in particular lesson of:
- Paleography Latin and French (other languages during seminars)
- Diplomatic Archivistique, and history of the institutions having produced these files (medieval, modern, contemporary)
- history of the civil law and gun
- Romance Philology
- Latin medieval
- history of art (medieval, modern and contemporary times)
- medieval archeology
- History of the critical book
- of the documentary image
- handwritten and medieval literary texts
- statistical and cartography applied to the history
- living languages and data processing.
appropriations ECTS are allocated with the various lesson, which allows pupils of universities or other universities to follow and validate some of these courses. The lesson exempted at the School of the charters can thus fit in the components of the master S; that is made possible by the new framework of the Réforme LMD. The courses are also open under condition to non-registered students.
Since 2006, the School of the charters opened a master research, mention “New technologies applied to the history”, training twenty pupils per annum. In first year, the schooling is organized around a common base and of five options (medieval files; modern and contemporary files; manuscripts and literature of the Middle Ages; history of the book and the media (16th-21e centuries); history of art and archeology). In second year, two courses are proposed, one turned towards research and the other, more professional, towards the inheritance and the diffusion of knowledge. The master takes again for a great part the lesson of the pupils of the school.
The professors of the School of the charters work with a research program (“History, memory and inheritance”, directed by Olivier Guyotjeannin), within the framework of a four-year contract (currently, contract 2006-2009).
Four axes are currently thorough:
- “Methodology and instruments of work” in order to work with the constitution of instrument of reference being used for the scientific world (bibliographies, databases biographical or lexicographical, etc) and put on line.
- “Forms and practices of the medieval documentary writing” aiming to the edition and the study of private acts
- “Sources of the political, administrative and legal history of the Middle Ages at the time modern”: edition and product engineering of the institutions, aiming at lighting the political or legal mechanisms.
- “Writing, delivers, files: transmission of the knowledge and conservation of the inheritance” on the production and the transmission of the written inheritance.
PartnershipsThe opening at other institutions is one of the pillars of the policy of the current direction. It in particular approached the practical École of the high studies, the Research institute and history of the texts and the Center of higher learning of medieval civilization of the Université of Poitiers to create the School of the scholarship in network. It also takes part in the Institute of history of the book with the town of Lyon (public library and Musée of printing works (Lyon)), the National university letters social sciences (ENS-LSH) and the Enssib.
The school also tries to open abroad. Cooperation programs were implemented with institutions as the Files of State of Muscovite Russia and several libraries , the university of Alicante or research centres Italian. Traditionally, from the foreign pupils (often Swiss, Belgian, African) come to be formed at the school. Today, it tries to attract new pupils, for shorter stays, thanks to partnerships with universities. The pupils are also invited to carry out training courses in services of files or library of foreign countries.
The library is created by the ordinance of December 31st, 1846: it then occupies one of the two parts reserved for the school in the hotel of Soubise. She moves with the school in 1897. The library occupies since the second (room of reading, room of history), third (room of the “horseshoe”) and fourth (offices, stores in the attic) floors of the school.
In 1920, its management is entrusted to the secretary of the school, having a guard. It is directed today by a Conservateur of the libraries.
It is conceived like a library of research and work. Its collections thus are particularly provided in the material taught by the school: medieval history, philology, history of the book and bibliography etc to facilitate the work of the readers, the whole of the collections (approximately: 150000 volumes) is in free access. The catalogs is available in line. Very many electronic resources are also available on the spot.
The library currently misses place. It is expected that it joins it also the street of Richelieu.
Diffusion of the knowledgeThe school tries to emphasize its scientific and teaching work through several companies. Among them, the Thélème site proposes teaching files, interactive councils, courses, FAC similé car-to be formed in the material taught at the school.
Editions of the School of the charters
The school also publishes a certain number of work, in form paper or electronics. The “memories and documents of the School of the charters” are monographs, often resulting from a thesis of School of the charters or doctorate. They are published since 1896 and are diffused by Honore Champion and Droz. Two other collections were created more recently, the “Studies and meetings” (acts of conferences, short monographs) and “Materials for the history” (album illustrated, of large size). Lastly, “ELEC” indicates the online editions of the school, which include/understand databases, text-editings, acts of conferences, bibliographies and studies.
The Company of the School of the charters
The Company of the School of the charters gathers the pupils and former students who wish it. It is currently chaired by Bernard Barbiche.
Some famous chartists
See also: List of chartists by promotion, List of chartists alphabetically, : Category: Chartist
Jean Favier, specialist in medieval history
- Robert Fossier, specialist in medieval history
- Arthur Giry, historian, expert of the form in the Business Dreyfus
- Régine Pernoud, specialist in medieval history
Georges Bataille, surrealist writer
- Rene Girard, writer and philosopher, member of the French Academy
- Roger Martin of Gard, prize winner of the Nobel Prize of literature
- François Mauriac, José-Maria de Heredia or Andre-Ferdinand Herold, former students, never completed their schooling. Charles Baudelaire missed the entrance examination.
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