Its inhabitants is called Nanterrois then Nanterriens.
GeographyNanterre is a city of the western suburbs of Paris.
The district of Defense , one of the principal districts of businesses of Europe, extends partly on Nanterre, the remainder being divided between Courbevoie and Puteaux. The town of Nanterre includes/understands also one of the largest universities of the Paris region: the University of Paris X.
Located in edge of the Seine, this city is prefecture of the Hauts-de-Seine (92). In the past a plain, it extends from the Seine to the Mont Valérien and the old hill of Defense.
Graph of the evolution of the population 1794-1999
Origin of “Nanterre”The human presence is attested on the site of Nanterre as of the Neolithic time by the fortuitous discoveries of stone tools. The name of Nanterre appears in the texts as from the 6th century but its Celtic roots “Nemeto-Dor”, reveal an older origin and the existence of an important habitat in military and pertaining to worship matter. Latin ized in Nemetodurum then Nemptodoro, the name will be francized in Nantuerre and Nanturra at the 12th century.
A Gallic villageThe discovery of the Tombe to tank of a character of high ranking establishes the importance of the borough located on the ancient way of Paris at the Normandy. There remains a religious center of the Parisii after the Roman conquest. In 1993, archaeological excavations put at the day the old Gallic village.
Moreover, in 2003, was discovered important a Nécropole Gallic dating from the end of the 6th century - beginning of the 3rd century before our era, in what was at the time a true Gallic city. Because of Gallic importance of the city, a recent theory presents Nanterre as being the Lutèce described by Jules César in his war of Gaules.
Nanterre with the Middle Ages
The “life” of Holy Genevieve, document written at the beginning of the 6th century, mentions the birth of Genevieve to Nanterre towards 426 and allots the miraculous cure of the to him Cécité of his/her mother with the water of the well located close to its house. After the death of holy Genevieve, Clovis and Clotilde create the abbey of Holy-Genevieve whom they equip with vast possessions. Nanterre belongs to the villages whose this abbey becomes the lord. Many sarcophagi Mérovingiens, put at the day at the time of the archaeological excavations carried out under the square of the cathedral in 1973, attest the importance of Nanterre for this period.
In 1247 the king Louis IX confirms the stamping from the Serf S of Nanterre with the agreement of Thibaud, abbot of Genevieve Saint. Freed remain prone abbey and discharge the ordinary royalties and drudgeries. The chronicles mention the horrors of the Guerre One hundred Year old during which the church is several times burnt.
As from the 15th century, one knows with certainty that the miraculous well of holy Genevieve is the subject of important pilgrimages.
A religious high-place
In 1634, a priest-prior, Butter Paul, is charged by the abbey opening a Séminaire and with rectifying the temporal and spiritual situation. It fights the Réforme and will obtain the support of Anne of Austria which went several times in pilgrimage to the well of Holy Genevieve. It makes build a college whose first stone is posed by the queen in 1642.
Another religious community, the priests of the Martyrdom, is established with the Mont Valérien.
The territory, cultivated in Vine S, Cereal S and Vegetable S, is strewn with many reserves with game intended for royal huntings. One exploits many underground stone careers there to be built. Nanterre is the leading vendor of Paris in Charcuterie.
The Collège becomes a military academy. Nanterrois write their register of grievances, they ask in particular the suppression of the rights and privileges of the abbey and the reserves game.
The August 4th 1789, the abolition of the privileges delivers Nanterrois of the seigneuriaux rights of the abbey. The church becomes “temple of the reason”. The first municipality is elected by the vote censitaire the February 7th 1790. The goods of the monks génovéfains are sold like quite national.
Nanterrois do not express a great revolutionary zeal. After the battles of Valmy and Jemappes, the volunteers mutinent themselves to return to the country, their command having refused to them to pass their winter quarters in family. It is under the pressure of the Committee of vigilance that the municipality will make stop the priests of the martyrdom and the hermits of the Valérien Mount, suspectés of counter-revolutionaries activities.
the Revolution stopped the exchanges with Paris depriving Nanterrois of their main resources. The saving in war, the requisitions, the liftings of men weigh too heavily on the daily life. The arrest of Robespierre, Thermidor 9 (July 27th 1794), in spite of the vain attempt at rising of Parisian by François Hanriot, general ordering the National guard of Paris, is accommodated with relief. François Hanriot, born in Nanterre the December 2nd 1759, is guillotine on Thermidor 10 (July 28th 1794).
The Line of Paris with Saint-Germain-in-Bush hammer, first railway line on the basis of Paris, is inaugurated the August 24th 1837. The levelling of the way which divides the territory in two, requires the digging of a trench, the construction of a slope and the construction of bridges.
The Parisian avid ones of pastoral pleasures attend many the festivals of the rosière and go in the flowered island where the accessible Guinguette S await them.
The speed of the means of transport supports the establishment of a new population. Middle-class and investment property villas will be built close to the station.
The gun ton
During the war of 1870, Nanterriens take refuge with Paris. The guns of the fortress of the Mount Valérien built in 1841, contain the enemy beyond the the Seine. Nanterre is seriously damaged by the exchanges of gunfire, then by the occupation and the requisitions of the Prussians.
A commemorative statue will be built with the roundabout of Defense, site which will be transformed later on to accommodate the district of Defense
The first industries are dependant on the breeding: suifery, manufactures Ivory black, manufactures of adhesive. At the end of the 19th century, the industrialists find in Nanterre spaces which they need at a cheap rate on grounds, near important transportation routes: trunk roads, railways, river.
Great consecutive work with the extension of Paris requires great quantities of materials. They offer new outlets by the exploitation many Sablière S.
All the branches of activity will be present at Nanterre: Paper mill S, chemical industries, pharmaceutical, Cosmetic S, Metallurgy, Foundry S, food industries, automotive engineering and its equipment.
Famous brands were born in Nanterre: dietetic melba toasts and products Heudebert, pasta products Milliat brothers, cars Simca, Willème trucks. Other famous brands installed their manufacturing planies there: Covers Cauvin and Yvose, printing inks Lorilleux, toothpastes of Doctor Pierre who will become Forvil, perfumes Lanvin, Roja, aperitifs Campari, carburettors Solex, equipment of cycles Huret, accumulating Dinin…
The energy sector will be represented by the factory of production of coal gas, the installations of distribution of electric current West-Light which will become the Électricité de France and deposits Fina the hydrocarbon, Shell…
Around the large factories, employing thousands of workmen, many small workshops of subcontracting and tools are established, often in family matter.
The urban and industrial residues are exploited to be recycled according to a structured organization. Simple collecting ragmen resell with “local wholesale dealers” which resell with industrialists of the profession, having vast building sites of storages connected to the rail network. Metallurgical industries will induce the occupation of scrap merchant and automotive engineering that of breaker.
The prison one with the social one
As of 1874, the department of the the Seine makes build a vast house of repression to the variation of the borough, in the north of the territory. The establishment occupies 17 hectares. It will lose its prison function gradually to become a reception center of poor with which an old people's home and a hospital will associate. It is managed until in 1989 by the Police headquarter and constitutes a single case in France.
In 1989, it takes the statute of an autonomous public corporation of the Town of Paris in medical and social matter called: “Hospital care and Reception center”.
It is organized in four functional sectors: a reception center, the hospital max Fourestier, an old people's home and an assistance and lodging house to the people without shelter.
The State and the administrations acquire vast grounds: , warehouse railroads of the control of the tobaccos (the SEITA), aeronautical military camp of material (1916).
Nanterre during the First World War
During the war of 1914-1918, 814 Nanterriens are killed. Nanterre accommodates the refugees and of folded up industries of the zones of combat.
Between two wars
In 1935, a municipality is elected on a list “Unit of action antifascist”. The mayor Raymond Barbet is a young person Cheminot Communiste. Nanterriens will join the Popular front created the July 14th 1935 and will elect a communist deputy with the election S of 1936.
The emergence of the Popular front resulted in the arrival of the Communists to the orders of the city.
The Second world war (1939 - 1945)
The Guerre with the Germany is declared the September 9th 1939. The Municipal council east dissolves the October 4th 1939 and Raymond Barbet is stopped the December 19th; internee, it will escape and join the Résistance. The deposits of Carburant are burnt not to be used for the enemy.
The June 15th 1940, Paris is occupied; the Armistice is signed the June 22nd. The city is managed by a special delegation named by the Vichy government. Resistance is organized. Jewish, Communist, antifascists, resistant are stopped, off-set, shot. The Valérien Mount became a high place of the Martyrologe of the Résistance.
After the Release, Raymon Barbet is re-elected with the municipal elections 1945. In 1973 after 38 years of mandate, Raymond Barbet passes the relay to Yves Saudmont. Fifteen years later the doctor Jacqueline Fraysse takes the changing.
The rebuildingThe shortly after the war the priority is given to housing and the social, sporting and cultural equipment. A municipal Office of housing public sector is created in 1951. On its side, the State makes try out the industrial premises of 2600 apartments.
Nanterre makes new industrial great strides and a considerable population growth that the rate/rhythm of housing constructions does not follow.
The waste grounds were covered with Bidonville S where cabin the immigrant labor, mainly come from the the Maghreb; the painful living conditions are worsened by the consecutive police operations to the Guerre of Algeria.
It will be necessary to await the middle of the years 1970 so that these constructions disappear from fortune.
Nanterre in bond with DefenseLocality the “Fontenelles” extends on the trajectory from thorough from Paris towards the Western, subject of very old and many projects.
In 1958 the State creates the Public corporation for the Installation of Defense (EPAD). Architect S and Urbanistes of international repute designs a new district according to the modern tendencies of town planning and architecture, often objects of polemics.
The thickening of the turns of offices and residences will require equipment and important infrastructures.
The operations of the EPAD will give place to strong reactions of the municipality which makes a point of keeping the control of its territory and will seek to make take part the developer more largely in the financing of the utility services necessary, of which it with the load.
Vast building sites continue with the installation of the axis Seine-Arch.
The district is well equipped in public transport, around the station Defense:
Nanterre, its prefecture, its university, its cathedral
Nanterre will know several significant events during the Sixties:
As from the year 1964 - 1965, the Université of Paris X moves gradually into its new buildings, built on the site of the old military camp of aeronautical material of the Madness. It that will be born the dispute coed, is joined there by the working claims, of May 1968.
The district is served by the Gare of Nanterre - University which replaced old the halt of the Madness .1972 in the tower of the Préfecture of the Hauts-de-Seine conceived by the architect André Wogenscky; it is served by a line of the Réseau regional express. In the same sector will be established the Hôtel of the department, the Law courts and the Departmental records. The prison will be built with the variation, in edge of the the Seine.
The district is served by the Gare of Nanterre - Prefecture.
In the years 1970, start the great changes of the economic activities characterized by a strong disindustrialization.
However, the geographical location of Nanterre and the organization of zones of economic activities, support the maintenance of industrial employment and the development of the sectors of the tertiary sector, the trade, the services and data processing. Nanterre counts 86.219 inhabitants listed in 1999.
The district is served by the Gare of Nanterre - City.
The Seine Arch
Resulting from a long political battle, the Public corporation of Installation Seine-Arch organizes the construction of the last free grounds of the city, which does of it one of the principal urban operations of France by its size, its volume and its importance. On the old project of highway A14, demolished then buried, the developer continues a “soft” extension of Defense along the historical Axe or “main roads”; sharp controversies subject, the Royal roads thought of the 19th century in the continuity of the Fields-Elysées continues on the town of Nanterre, symbolized by a “green casting” of 17 terraces pedestrians and landscape. Along this unit, offices and residences will be built. This project covers 20% of the territory of the city.
This project made following nearly 30 years of debates after fallen through proposals of Paul Chemetov in 1992. Today still, the installation of the historical Axe makes debate in particular on the cogency of this real estate transaction.
March 26th 2002, Richard Durn is introduced with weapons into the Town hall of Nanterre. It kills eight people of the municipal council and wounds 14 others seriously of them. March 28th, it commits suicide by défenestrant 4th stage of the “Quai of the goldsmiths”, in Paris, whereas it was questioned by two police officers.
Nanterre accommodates many companies on its territory.
the seat of PepsiCo France is located place of the Ball. The ices " Motta" its front place occupied.
- the Port authority of Paris in Nanterre is located in the north of the City.
- part of the district of businesses of Defense is located on the territory of the city, in particular future the Tour Granite of the General society.
- the seat of AXA France has its new seat in the Seine-Arch project.
- Of many companies has offices in the zone theStony one, along the Main road 13, of which Véolia.
- a Center drunk the RATP is located in edge of the Seine.
- Delegation of the Chamber of commerce and industry of Paris.
the deputy of the 4th district of the Hauts-de-Seine (Nanterre-Suresnes) is Jacqueline Fraysse (2007-2012).
Nanterre is divided into three cantons:
- the Canton of Nanterre-North account 33 173 inhabitants;
- the Canton of Nanterre-South-Is account 22 350 inhabitants;
- the Canton of Nanterre-South-West account 28 758 inhabitants.
- the 3 elected officials (PCF) at the General advice are Michel Laubier (2001-2008), Nadine Garcia (2004-2010) and Marie-Claude Garel (2004-2010).
But also in nine districts:
- District of the Center
- District of the Old man-Bridge
- District of the Mount-Valérien
- District of the Plate
- District of the Northern Park
- District of the Southern Park
- District of Small-Nanterre
- District of the University
- District of the Way of the Island
Nanterre is equipped with many primary education and secondary educational establishments public:
(*): Vocational school
Nanterre also accommodates the campus of the Université Paris X.
- Robert Camelot established overall plans of collective dwellings there.
- Holy Genevieve: nun, born in Nanterre. Holy owner of the Diocese of Nanterre and the town of Paris.
- Alexandre Savérien: philosopher arlésien, died in Nanterre.
Tourist monuments and places
- departmental Park Andre-Malraux
- House of the Music
- Theater of the Almond trees
TwinningsThe town of Nanterre is twinned with the cities of:
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