The République of Namibia is a State located in Southern Africa.
Formerly known under the name of South-western African, colony German E (1884-1919) then proctorat of the South Africa which illegally annexes it in 1968-1969. Thirty years of civil war lead it to a process of independence (of April 1989 in March 1990). Namibia is an independent state since March 1990.
It is surrounded geographically in the west by the Atlantic Ocean, in north by the Angola, in the south by the République of South Africa, in the east by the Botswana and in the North-East by the Zimbabwe and the Zambia.
See also: History of Namibia
- 1500 av. J. - C.: the ancestors of the Boschimans, the first inhabitants of the country, make cave paintings. Boschimans were driven out in the Désert by the Khoïsan S, which has their turn were driven out by the bantous (Ovambo S, Herero S) in the second part of the 1st millenium
- 1836 - 1884: Progressive discovery of the " Transgariep " (or South-western African - SWA) by the Exploring S British S and German S.
- 1840 - 1870: Domination of the Hereroland and the Damaraland by the Oorlam S of the chief Jonker Afrikaner.
- 1884 : Foundation of Lüderitz by a German trader of Bremen. African South-west becomes a German Protectorat.
- 1885 : Heinrich Göring becomes the governor of the news German colony and undertakes to sign treaties with the local tribes.
- 1890 : Foundation of Windhuk (Windhoek) by the German army directed by Curt von François.
- 1894 : Foundation of Swakopmund on the Atlantic coast to about fifty kilometers in the north of the British Enclave of Walvis Bay, only Port out of deep water of the coast.
- 1904 : Rising of the indigenous S Herero S and severe German repression under the command of the General Lothar von Trotha. Concentration camps are created, inspired by those done by the British in South Africa at the time of the revolt of the Boers a few years earlier.
- 1915 : Conquest of the German colony by the South-African S.
- 1920: The South-western African passes under South-African Mandat by decision of SDN.
- 1946 : The South Africa request the annexation of African South-west.
- 1959 : Massacre " Old location" in Windhoek (57 killed) at the time of a protest demonstration against the installation of the Apartheid
- 1960: Foundation of SWAPO.
- 1966 : African South-west is placed under supervision of UNO.
- 1967 : Beginning of the Guerilla of SWAPO against the South-African presence.
- 1968 : African South-west is renamed Namibia by UNO.
- 1971 : The the International Court of Justice recognizes the illegality of the South-African presence in Namibia
- 1975 - 1978: constitutional Conference of Turnhalle
- 1978: First multiracial elections according to the principle " a man, a voix" , boycotted by the SWAPO and not recognized by the United Nations, are gained by the democratic Alliance of Turnhalle. Installation of the Namibian National Assembly and the Council of Ministers Namibian.
- 1979 : Official abolition of apartheid. The United Nations vote for resolution 435 demanding the withdrawal of South Africa and the independence of Namibia.
- 1983 : Resignation of the Council of Ministers Namibian and dissolution of the National Assembly. The South-African administrator cumulates the executive powers, administrative and legislative.
- 1985 : Reinstallation of a temporary government and an assembly by South Africa.
- 1988 - 1989: Agreements under the aegis of the United Nations for a transition towards independence from African South-west/Namibia.
- 1989 : The SWAPO gains the first general elections in which it takes part.
- March 21st 1990: Independence . Sam Nujoma becomes the 1st president of Namibia. The SWAPO is majority and its representatives direct since the country.
- 1992 : First municipal elections post-independence.
- 1994 : Return of the South-African Enclave of Walvis Bay (main port of the country) to Namibia.
- 2005 : Sam Nujoma passes the hand to his successor. The SWAPO is the ultra party dominating with the National Assembly.
- 2007 : OMC authorizes Consortium equal CNTRM to be ruled henceforth before the Namibian Parliament on the project of constitutional recasting before the next elections.
See also: Political of Namibia
Namibia is a parliamentary republic.
The president of the republic is elected by the universal direct suffrage for a five years renewable mandate once. An exception was made for the first president, who had not been elected by the direct suffrage for its first mandate, because it had been indicated by the National Assembly.
He is the chief of the executive.
The Prime Minister is named by the President of the republic.
See also: Presidents de Namibie
See also: Subdivisions of Namibia
Since 1990, Namibia is divided into 13 areas:
- Caprivi, capital: Katima Mulilo
- Erongo, capital: Swakopmund
- Hardap, capital: Mariental
- Karas, capital: Keetmanshoop
- Khomas, capital: Windhoek
- Kunene, capital: Opuwo
- Oshikoto, capital: Tsumeb
- Ohangwena, capital: Oshikango
- Okavango, capital: Rundu
- Omaheke, capital: Gobabis
- Omusati, capital: Outapi
- Oshana, capital: Oshakati
- Otjozondjupa, capital: Grootfontein
See also: Geography of Namibia
Old the South-western African is divided into 4 great sectors:
- the Deserted of Namib and the rather inhospitable coastal plains skirt the Atlantic on approximately 2.000 km
- the central plate culminates to 2.606 m; it is there that are concentrated the cities
- the Kalahari Desert in the east
- the wooded Bushveld of the Kavango and Caprivi, in north
- Walvis Bay
- Katima Mulilo
The summer Austral (October at April) is the Rain season characterized by torrid heats inside the grounds (fresh nights) and temperatures definitely more pleasant in seaside. The more one goes down towards the south and the less the rain season is marked.
The winter (May at September) is the dry Saison; the temperatures are more pleasant there and the nights are always fresh.
The sea is also fresh at the year in the southern part of the country (thanks to the cold current of Benguela, which skirts the coast) and the fogs are frequent on the coast.
See also: Economy of Namibia
Thus, the production of diamonds accounts for some 40% of the Gross domestic product (PIB), followed by the fishing industry. In the other sectors, Namibia remains dependant on its South-African neighbor.
In 2005, unemployment rate turns around the 35%.
Since 1990, the highway networks and communications were extended to the four corners of the country.
In 1999, Namibia is the first country of Africa to propose the opening of its natural reserves to the fortunate hunters of the whole world. This activity allows huntings the species in the process of disappearance the such Gnou or the elephant. The activity being considered to be very lucrative by the government and the CNTRM, of the experiments are tried since 2005 in order to make it possible a larger audience to take up this activity without to lower the prices of the licenses of demolition.
According to official figures, for the year 2005, water and electricity are accessible to 80% from the population, the rate of elimination of illiteracy reaches 80% and more than 90% of the children are provided education for.
According to the Onusida, Namibia is confronted with the one of the rates of the highest VIH-AIDS of the world with 21,3% of the contaminated adults.
See also: Demography of Namibia
The population is mainly black (Bantou S) with minorities Afrikaners and German (7% of White) and mongrels. On the whole, the population is approximately 2.2 million inhabitants in 2007 for 842 000 km ². For comparison, the town of Paris: 2.1 million inhabitants for 105 km ². Namibia is one of the least populated countries most arid and world.
The English is the only official language of Namibia, but the Afrikaans, the German and other languages are usually spoken there. It is the ethnos group Ovambo which is majority within the bantous and which monopolizes the political stations. Bochimans, of language Khoïsan, form the indigenous population but are very minority, even if the Nama are nearly 200.000.
See also: Culture of Namibia
The Republic of Namibia has as codes:
- FY, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- NA, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- .na, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain)
- NAM, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- NAM, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- NAM, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- NAM, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3,
- V5, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- WA, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- V5, according to the List of the prefixes radio hams,
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