Nagasaki (長崎市; Nagasaki-shi where - shi means city) is a Japanese city, capital of the Préfecture of Nagasaki.
For the atomic explosion to see atomic Bombardments of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
In 2005, Nagasaki counts 423.160 inhabitants. Telephone code: 095.
HistoryFounded there is a little less than 500 years by the Portuguese, it was in the beginning an insolated village. It is the arrival of European explorers in the middle of the 16th century, when a ship Portuguese accidentally ran aground on banks of the prefecture of Kagoshima in 1542, which caused the birth and rise of it. The missionary Jesuit François Xavier arrived at the Japan in 1549, but although it left for the China in 1551 and died there little of time after, its disciples remained with the Japan and converted several Daimyō there (war leaders). Most important was Sumitada Ōmura which made a great profit of its conversion, because it accepted a share commercial of the Portuguese ships in a port which they established in Nagasaki in 1571, date of foundation of the city, with its assistance.
The harbor small village grows quickly, and the imported products with Nagasaki (like the Tabac, the Pain, the fritters - Tenpura, cakes and clothing Western) were assimilated in the Japanese popular culture - the majority of them preserved besides their name of Portuguese origin like the famous cakes of Nagasaki, the will kasutera ( castella ). The Portuguese also brought with them goods of Chinese origin and the firearms.
The prosperity of Nagasaki was threatened in 1587 when new the Shogun, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, arrived at the capacity. Worried by the influence of the Christian in the south of the Japan, it ordered the expulsion of all the missionaries. Ōmura had given to the Jesuits an administrative control partial of Nagasaki, and the city turned over under imperial control. The Japanese and foreign Christians were persecuted. In 1596, Hideyoshi made to crucifier 26 Christians with Nagasaki to destroy any attempt to usurp its capacity. However, as the emperor did not make banish the Portuguese merchants, the economy of the city continued to thrive.
When almost twenty years after, Ieyasu Tokugawa seized the power, the situation did not improve. The Christianisme was interdict in 1614 and all the missionaries were off-set, as well as the Daimyō which did not give up their religion. A brutal persecution campaign followed, with hundreds of killed or tortured in Nagasaki and in other parts of Japan. The Christians offered a certain resistance, in 1637 at the time the insurrection of the enclave of Nagasaki Shimabara. 40.000, they captured the castle of Hara and humiliated the local Daimyō. In answer, the Shogun sent 120.000 soldiers. It was the end of the short “Christian century” in Japan. They had to practice their religion in secrecy, always victims of occasional enquiries. (see the Sixteen martyrs of Nagasaki)
During this time the Dutch, called in Japan Dutch ( Orando-jin ), discreetly continued to exert their business in Japan, in addition to the trade they brought back with them of the Japanese women to Holland. In spite of the official policy of the Shogun, eager to put an end to the foreign influence in the country. The Dutchmen showed that they were especially interested by the trade, and proved their engagement during the rebellion of Shimabara by opening fire on the Christians in assistance with the Shogun. In 1641, one granted Dejima to them, an artificial island in bay of Nagasaki in which they were confined, to be used as a basis for their trade. Since this date and until in 1855, the contacts of Japan with the outside world were strictly limited to Nagasaki. In 1720, the censure which struck the Dutch books was raised. Hundreds of students benefitted from it to flow towards Nagasaki to study European sciences and arts.
After the commodore Matthew Perry unloaded in 1853, the shogunat disaggregated and the Japan then opened again its doors. Nagasaki became a free port in 1859. With the restoration Meiji, Nagasaki was quickly to dominate from an economic point of view, in particular thanks to the construction of ships. During the first rebuilding of a church, Japanese Christians left the secrecy during which they had been put since the 17th century: they nevertheless, initially, were persecuted before being able to exert their worship freely
Atomic bombardment of 1945
During the Second world war, the August 9th 1945 with 11:02 of the morning, the B-29 Bockscar controlled by Charles Sweeney, party of Tinian in the islands Northern Mariana Islands, released the atomic bomb Fat Man on the city: it exploded to 580 m of altitude, plumb with the Urakami district. It was the nuclear second explosion with the Japan, three days after that of Hiroshima.
The scenario of Hiroshima reproduces, hardly less fatal. Indeed, the topography of Nagasaki in fact a more open site whereas the hills girding Hiroshima had amplified the devastators effects of the explosion.
75 000 of the 240.000 inhabitants of Nagasaki were killed on the blow, and at least as many inhabitants died of the continuations of their diseases or their wounds - not only of the Japanese but also 13.000 Korea NS (workers forced for the majority) and 200 prisoner of war allied. The Christian cathedral of Urakami, the principal place of catholic worship of Japan, almost plumb with the dropping (known as Hypocentre ), confused with a harbor building, is entirely destroyed. The bomber was to aim at the quays Mitsubishi. But the initial objective of the B-29 was Kokura, become since a district of Kitakyushu, in the north of Kyushu: in spite of three overflights of Bockscar , the clouds saved this city.
The city was rebuilt after the war, though radically different. New temples were built as well as church S, because the Christian presence never disappeared in fact. There was even, after the war, an increase in the number of faithful. Among those, Doctor Nagai Takashi (1908-1951), the first honorary citizen of the city, died of Leukemia. Some remains were let in place remember the bombardment it: as a door (Torii) of which there remains nothing any more but one drawn up post.
Like Hiroshima, Nagasaki presents its park of Peace and the two cities are associated in the protests against the atomic weapons and their essais.
De new buildings were created to be used as memorial, the such museum of the Atomic bomb; but Nagasaki remains a port city, with a flourishing naval construction, offering an example of perseverance. The building sites naval of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries are most important of the world with those of Hyundai with Ulsan (South Korea). The city is served since 1975 by the Aéroport of Nagasaki, installed on an artificial island.
" Hiroshima-Nagasaki, the war of Pacifique" , R. Oberlé, S. Woelffel, NR. Helped, appeared with Editions Hirlé, 2005, ISBN 2914729405 www.editions-hirle.com
- Testimony: Tamiki Hara atomized in Nagasaki on August 9th, 1945
- Hiroshima and Nagasaki
- the atomic bombs (Hiroshima, August 6th, 1945 - Nagasaki, August 9th, 1945) Cliotexte.
- Lucadea.com - Much of recent photographs about Nagasaki
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