Mosul (in Arab rear RTL الموصل ʾal mawṣil ), town of Iraq on two banks of the Tiger, with five bridges which connect the two sides. Chief town of the province of Ninawa, into High-Mésopotamie, it counts approximately 1,5 million inhabitants, which makes of it the second Iraqi city in terms of population, after Baghdad and before Al Basra.
The Al-Mawssil name was given by the Arabs when the Moslem combatants seized the power on the area of High Mésopotamie in 7th century. The true name of this beautiful city was Ninawa, transcribed in Ninive in French and English Ninevah. The name of Ninawa is mentioned with 34 recoveries in the Bible. Because this city was the capital of the Assyrian Empire, was very known and was it a long time in the history. Ninawa knew its Golden age during 8th before Jesus Christ. She sheltered the throne of several Assyrian kings who traced a glorious history of the Assyrians. The archaeological heritage of Ninawa testifies indeed to the richness of the Assyrians, their fertile artistic capacities, of their gigantic warlike power, their unlimited taste of the capacity, and of their intellectualism without similar of which the large library of Assourbanipal fur the illustration. Ninawa fell into the hands from Chaldéens in year 611 before Jesus Christ and it was the end of the Assyrian empire. Today, the name of Ninawa is given at the same time to the archeological site of the city to the province which extends on a vast plain in the surrounding from Mosul. And since, currently, the majority of the inhabitants of Ninive are Arab, name Al-Moussel is retained and used in the place of Ninive.
One calls also this city of the name of Oumou Rabïain which wants to say " literally; mother of two printemps" because it profits in autumn from the second spring.
Its Arab name Mosul or Al-Moussel comes from an old bridge of boats on the Tigre and comes from the Arab verb waSala : to connect. From Mosul the name derives from Mousseline, initially a fine and transparent fabric originating in this city then, by analogy, very light mashed potatoes.
Important layers of Pétrole in the vicinity ensure a good part of its activity (refineries). It is also the agricultural main market of the area (Céréale S, fiber plants, Fruit S).
Mosul is located on the ruins of Ninive. It is the city which succeeded to him like regional metropolis at the time Christian. It is then of obedience nestorienne, and shelters the tombs of several evangelists. Taken in 641 by the Arab S, it becomes the principal commercial pole of the area because of its site, with the crossroads of the roads of caravans between the Syria and the Perse. It is at that time that it becomes famous for its fine fabrics of Coton, the muslins , like for its Marbre. At the 10th century, the emirate of Mosul acquires an quasi-independence before becoming at the 11th century the capital of a State seldjoukide. At the 13th century, it is conquered and plundered by the Mongolian . In 1262, it passes under domination Perse, then Othoman.
In 1918, it is occupied by the Britanniques which then integrate it into the Iraq, on which they have Mandat then. The Turkey protests at the time against this annexation, but the Société of the Nations confirms the British action in 1925.
Mosul then suffered from the Guerre Iran-Iraq. The April 15th 2003, the American troops open fire on demonstrators denouncing their presence in Iraq, the shooting makes at least ten victims. It is also in Mosul that are killed in July 2003 the two wire of Saddam Hussein, the former Iraqi dictator.
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