A monolith (of the Greek μόνος monos , " only one " and λίθος lithographies , " pierre" ) is a block of stone of great dimension, consisted of only one element.
Monoliths cut or moved by the man
A monolith can only constitute a monument with him (Statue, monolithic stone). One finds monolithic stones crowned as of the Préhistoire (Menhir) and in many civilizations, as civilizations Maya (the monolith of Coatlicue represents the goddess of dead) and Aztèque (the monolith decorated with Tixoc representing the fifteen victories of this chief). The first buildings made up of monoliths are the Dolmen S, from - 5th millenium.
A monolith can also constitute an architectural element of a building made up of only one element (column, lintel, etc). One regards a building in Reinforced concrete as monolith (in opposition to a Mur in brick S or concrete blocks).
Largest monoliths of anthropic origin
Largest stone ever moved by the man
The Pedestal of Granite of the Riding bronze , transported with Saint-Pétersbourg in 1770, is famous to be the largest stone ever moved by the man. The following figures are quoted: 7 × 14 × 9 m, for 1500 tons.
Largest stone ever cut by the man
The unfinished Obélisque of Assouan is given for 1200 tons. But it never left its career. It is not detached from the rock base.
Largest stone cut ever moved by the man
The stone of Baalbek known as Hadjar-el-Qoublé (stone of the South) is given for 21.50 m × 4,80 X 4.20 m is from 900 to 1100 tons, according to rather constant estimates. It left the career, but it remained planted in oblique, not far from the place of its extraction.
Largest of all the Egyptian obelisks
The Obelisk of Lateran, with Rome was broken in three pieces, but was reconstituted and réérigé (or opposite) by the pope Sixte Quint. One gives variable figures, undoubtedly 32 m in height for a weight of 400±50 tons.
Other famous monoliths
the Colossi of Memnon, with Thèbes (Egypt) weigh each one 1300 tons (statue 750 T, pedestal 550 T).
the stones having been used with construction of the foundation of the Temple as Jerusalem (Moriah mount, Shetiyah ha Kotel) are given for 800 tons each one.
the Large broken menhir of er Grah of Locmariaquer: broken in five pieces, it measured approximately 25 m and weighed approximately 300 tons.
the mausoleum of Théodoric to Ravenne is covered with a Coupole monolith 10 m in diameter, weighing approximately 300 tons.
the Obelisk of Louxor, (Place of the Harmony in Paris), is less large: it is only a Brochette (small pin, according to the etymological direction of the word Obélisque: in diminutive Greek ὀϐελίσκος of ὀϐελός) about 230 tons for 23 m in height.
Monolith with the cinema
In 2001: the odyssey of space and its continuations (films and books), a strange black monolith of origin Extra-terrestre plays a big role.
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