The Principality of Monaco , or Monaco in short form, is a city-State as well as common occupying the same surface as the State itself. Wedged in the French territory, Monaco is located at the edge of the Mediterranean, along the Riviera, with a score of kilometers in the east of Nice.
Practically entirely urbanized, the principality of Monaco profits from a Mediterranean Climat particularly lenient and has many hotel installations of luxury. Many international events (Grand Prix of Formula 1, Tournoi of Monte Carlo, Masters of Monte Carlo, Rallye of Monte Carlo) proceed there in addition to attractions present throughout the year (Casino of Monte Carlo, oceanographical Musée, princely Palais), which makes a privileged destination for the tourists of it.
The first traces of life in Monaco go back to approximately 300.000 years before J. - C. protection which the Rocher of Monaco as well as the natural port brings and sheltered attracted many tribes: Ligure, Phéniciens, Greek, Roman, Buckwheats. The modern history of Monaco was strongly marked by the family Grimaldi which reigns without discontinuity on the Principality since the 13th century.
PrehistoryMonaco was used as shelter to the first inhabitants of the area starting from the end of the lower Paléolithique, approximately - 300.000 years. Bones of animals having been used as food with these prehistoric men were found in a cave of the exotic Jardin. Excavations also revealed the presence of a basin in the cave of the Observatory and the cave of the Prince. The human presence is attested with the Paléolithique means (- 50.000 years) and with the Paléolithique superior (- 20.000 years). From 1500 before J. - C., the traces of work of art (engraving, sculpture) are found in caves. The funerary, individual or collective burials, become increasingly numerous. The burial of the subjects known as “of Grimaldi” goes back to this time and contains a woman and a teenager.
AntiquityAccording to the historian Diodore of Sicily and the geographer Strabon, the first sedentary inhabitants were Ligures which emigrated from the towns of Genoa in Italy. However, old the ligure Language, not exit of the Indo-European Languages, was related neither with the Italian dialect spoken ajourd' today by the inhabitants about Ligurie, nor with the modern Monégasque. This projection in Monaco could have been the maritime opening of ligure people located inside the grounds.
The Phocéen S of Marseilles (then Massalia) founded the colony of Monoïkos at sixth century BC at the place or is now Monaco. Monoïkos was associated with Hercules, adored under the name Hercules Monoecus . According to the Work of Hercules but also according to Diodore of Sicily and Strabon, the Greeks and the Ligurians reported that Hercules had passed by the area.
After the War of Gaules, Monoecus, where Jules César stopped while going to Greece, passed under Roman control within the province of Gaulle Narbonnese. In Énéide (VI.831), the poet Virgile mentioned already the rock of Monaco. The grammairien Maurus Servius Honoratus affirms that the Monaco term derives from this origin: ( Hercules drew aside everyone and lived alone there ) and ( in its temple, no one another god is not venerated at the same moment ). The name of the wearing of Monaco is also mentioned in the Natural history of Pline Old the (III.V) and in the Historiae of Tacite (III.XLII) when the Empereur Valens was forced to make stopover there ( Fabius Valens, at the exit of the gulf of Pisa, was, by a calm sea or a head wind, forced to make slackening with the port of Hercules Monoecus ).
The Middle AgesMonaco remained under Roman domination until the collapse of the Roman Empire of Occident in 476. The place was then occupied and devastated by the Sarrasins and various tribes Barbare S. Whereas Monaco was practically depopulated, Buckwheats were expelled by it in 975 and at the 11th century, the place was again populated by Ligurians (this time, populations should be included/understood speaking a Romance language about the north of Italy).
In 1191, the Germanic Roman Emperor Henry VI conceded the Souveraineté on Monaco at the town of Genoa in Italy, from where the Ligurians are originating. June 10th, 1215, a detachment of Gibelins carried out by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress on the Rocher of Monaco. This date marks the beginning of the modern history of the Principality of Monaco.
Gibelins built their fortress to make a military strategic position of it and a means of controlling the area, they also established dwellings at the base of the Rock in order to support the garrisons. To attract the inhabitants of Genoa and the surrounding cities, they offered grounds and exonerated taxes the new arrivals.
Reign of GrimaldiMonaco is controlled by the dynasty of the Grimaldi since January 8th, 1297, date on which François Grimaldi says Malizia (François Mischievousness) seized the fortress under a disguise of Moine Franciscain. One finds on the blazon of the principality the traces of this origin with the two monks holding a sword.
The authority of Grimaldi was definitively recognized in 1314, and remained until today with the only exception of the period of 1793 - 1814 during which Monaco was integrated into France, under the name of Extremely-Hercules . The city is then placed under protectorate of the kingdom of Sardinia by the Congrès of Vienna until in 1860. Lastly, in 1861, a treaty free-Monegasque ensures the sovereignty of Monaco.
In 1847, the principality of Monaco occupied an total surface area of 24 km and included/understood three communes: Monaco (1 250 inhabitants), Roquebrune (850 inhabitants) and Chin (4 900 inhabitants). The vastest part and richest of the principality was the plain mentonnaise, with its cultures of citrus fruits and olive-trees, the foreign trade resting primarily on lemon and oil exports. But, in 1848, Chin and Roquebrune proclaimed the forfeiture of Grimaldi and proclaimed “free cities” under the protection of the Royaume of Sardinia. In 1860, they voted their fastening in France, which was ratified by the treaty free-Monegasque of 1861.
At this point in time the prince Charles III had the idea to create gambling (interdicts in the adjoining countries), which was going to allow the principality, while growing rich, to develop quickly. In 1863, it granted the privilege to exploit the casino with François Blanc, founder of the Public limit company of the Sea bathings. In 1866, the district of Spélugues (where the casino was) took the name of Monte Carlo. Lastly, in 1869, Charles III removed the taxes personal, land and movable, which involved an intense activity of construction. The Prince de Monaco had the full powerss (absolute monarchy) until the granting of the constitution of 1911, which makes country a Constitutional monarchy. In July 1918, a treaty granting a limited protection of the principality by France is signed between the two countries. The treaty belongs to the Traité of Versailles and establishes that the small State will have to be aligned on the political interests, military and economic of France.
Second world war
Recent historyPrince Rainier III reaches the throne after the death of his grandfather Prince Louis II (the stage of the ACE Monaco bears its name besides), in 1949. A new constitution is written in 1962, abolishing the capital punishment, authorizing the vote of the women and setting up a supreme court guaranteeing fundamental freedoms.
In 1982, the principality is endeuillée by learning death from the princess Grace of Monaco, wife of Rainier III and mother of current prince de Monaco (Albert II), victim of an accident on the road which connects Turbie to Cape d' Ail and not on that where it had formerly turned in the film the Hand to the collet , as that is often believed. His/her daughter Stéphanie of Monaco survives this accident.
In 1993, Monaco becomes officially member of the the United Nations.
In 2004, the principality of Monaco joined the the Council of Europe after many negociations and a modification of the electoral law returning systematic a representation of the opposition to the National council by a way of voting having a component proportional.
With died of Prince Rainier III, occurred on April 6th, 2005, it is his/her son Albert II (born in 1958), up to that point hereditary prince and marquis of the Beams, which becomes sovereign prince. The ceremonies marking its advent proceeded on July 12th, 2005, those of its official establishment on November 19th, 2005. The prince being unmarried and without legitimate child, the heiress of the throne is from now on his older sister Caroline, born in 1957, wife of the prince Ernst-August of Hanover.
Geography and climate
See also: Geography of Monaco
Monaco is located along the Mediterranean, on the Riviera, halfway between Nice and the Italian border. The geographical coordinates of the Principality (on the level of the oceanographical Museum) are. In 1965, on an initiative of Prince Rainier III and in order to diversify the activities of the city, the construction of the district of Fontvieille allowed the creation of 220.000 m new additional constructible grounds as well as new port. This district accommodates amongst other things the Stade Louis-II as well as a large surface. The extension of the Port of Monaco was also done towards the sea. The construction of a 352 m length semi-floating dam for a total weight of 163.000 tons in 2003 allowed the construction of 360 parking spaces, 25.000 m ² of storage, 2 harbor stations as well as administrative and commercial buildings. The artificial quay level to which the dam is connected made it possible to gain one hectare of ground and saw the creation of an housing stock of 15.000 Mr. In 2006, Albert II de Monaco officially launched a new project of extension at sea in the long term making it possible to gain 10 new hectares on the sea. This project, estimated at 5 billion euros will allow the construction of 275.000 m ² of floors. The first buildings should be delivered in 2014. The ligure tribe of Monoïkos, present on the rock at fifth century BC, could have been at the origin of the name at the city.
There exists also another origin for the Monoïkos term which would go back to times when Monaco was a counter phenician. Everywhere where the Phéniciens went, they raised vaults with their divinities, of which the god Melkart, associated with Hercules or Héraclès by the Romans or the Greeks.
Throughout the Antiquity, the wearing of Monaco was associated with Hercules (Héraclès in Greek), often designated under the name of Héraklès Monoïkos (Ἡρακλῆς Μόνοικος), meaning “solitary Héraklès” or “Héraklès having a single temple”. This port was also called Portus Herculis Monoeci in Latin. The modern port of Monaco is called besides Port Hercules.
See also: Districts of Monaco
Monaco is divided into ten districts:
ClimateThe Climate of Monaco Mediterranean east of standard with soft and wet winters and hot and dry summers but without excess of heat. The 60 last years average temperature of observation is of more than 16°C. The average temperature varies 11°C in winter with 26,5°C in full summer. The average annual sunning is 2.583 hours and the number of days of rain does not exceed 62 per annum.
PopulationAt the time of the last recencement carried out in 2000, the Principality of Monaco counted 30.020 inhabitants. The last estimates of 2006 evaluate the population with: 32543.
Nationality Monegasque is obtained by sovereign decision of the Prince. The criteria of admission (necessary but nonsufficient, the decision belonging to the Prince) have been, in particular, to be resident for 10 years (after the age of 18 years) and to give up its former nationality.
LanguagesAccording to the Constitution of Monaco of 1962, only the French is Official language and for this reason, all the official documents of the political institutions and legal are published in this language. It is also the dominant language of the Principality, spoken by approximately 58 % of the population, Monegasque, called Ligure Monegasque ( munegascu ), of which the number of speakers is estimated between 5.000 (mainly elderly), is close to the Intémélien, speech of Vintimille. The Monegasque is spoken since the Moyen-Âge (13th century), when the Génois were established in Monaco to make a fortified town of it and called upon Vintimillois. The first traces of texts in this language go up with 1484 in an extract of short notarial of Jean de Porta. At the 19th century, approximately a thousand of people spoke the Monegasque but the daily use of this language moved back much after the Second world war and the Monegasque, only spoken by one score about people in the years 1960-70, was regarded as in process of extinction. In order to dam up this decline, the teaching of the Monegasque became obligatory in the public elementary schools of the Principality in 1976, thanks to an initiative of the prince Rainier III.
The territory of Monaco is a linguistic peninsula in field Occitan. The Monegasque is besides a language containing the génois still of use in Ligurie but influenced by the occitan Provençal. The unquestionable certificates of the occitan in Monaco date Des. the presence from the Occitan niçois (a variety of the occitan of Provence) was established in the Années 1940 by Raymond Arveiller (a score of speakers originating in Nice or neighborhoods and established in the districts of Monte Carlo and Condamine. Christianity could be practiced in Monaco as from the 4th century but the archaeological data only attest presence of this religion as from the 9th century. The Saint Martin's day vault in Carnolès goes up with 1061. In 2000,93,2 % of the population would be Christian of which 89,3 % appartenent with the Roman Catholic church. Monaco shelters five catholic vaults (including one built at the 16th century, three at the 17th century and one at the 19th century) on the Rock. Four other churches and two vaults of the 19th century and the 20th century are in the other districts.
Few Jews (mainly of the Ashkénaze S of France) resided at Monaco before the Second world war. After the war, some pensioners practitioner the Judaism settled, coming mainly from France or the the United Kingdom, but also of North Africa and Turkey. The Jewish community of Monaco was founded in 1948 with the Religious organization Jew of Monaco and the Jewish population is estimated at 1,7 %. One finds only one Synagog in the principality. Some residents Monegasques practice Islam but the principality does not count a Mosquée.
See also: Political of Monaco
Independent principality, Monaco is a Constitutional monarchy since 1911, with a Prince with the report heading. The Executive power consists of a minister of state, which chairs a government council of six members, persons in charge only in front of the Prince. According to a convention with France, signed in 1930, the minister of state was a French citizen (in general a Préfet or a Ambassadeur) designated by the Prince. Since the recent modification of this convention, the Prince can name a minister of state, Monegasque or French, approved by the French government.
According to the Constitution of 1962, the Prince shares the legislative power with the National council which is a Parliament Unicaméral. The twenty-four members of this body Législatif are elected for five years by a nominal poll pluri and with the Vote for all. Eighteen advisers are elected by simple individual classification of the number of votes collected, and the six remaining advisers according to a mode proportional of list.
The local businesses are spring of the Town council, an assembly of fifteen members elected for four years with the Vote for all direct and the list system plurinominal with two turns with possibility of mixing and without preferential vote, chaired by the mayor (currently Georges Marsan).
It should be noted that:
- the people who work with the princely palate make allegiance in Prince ; they are revocable constantly by the Prince of Monaco.
- It is in Monaco that each year since 1997 the Forum of Montana Notches, the Monaco World Summit and the Euro-Mediterranean Forum are held - to see www.cmf.ch
See also: Saving in Monaco
Monaco draws the major part of its incomes from the Industrie, of the Commerce, the services, tourism and the hotel trade as of the real estate which generate approximately: 40000 employment for a turnover of more than 11 billion euros. Contrary to a tough legend, tourism arrives only in third position in the sources of revenue and the famous casino of Monte Carlo takes part only for less 4 % with the budget of the State.
Starting from January 1st, 1999, the euro is introduced on the territory Monegasque and since January 1st, 2002 the parts and the tickets made out in euro have legal tender in Principality as well as the national parts.
Statistically the GDP of Monaco east of 3,441 Billion Euros, is 49900 €/habitants. However it is interesting to see this nonofficial article
TourismThe geographical location of Monaco like its Mediterranean climate with always made principality a destination appraisal of the tourists. The hotel sector proposes more: 2800 rooms for a total of: 900000 nuities in 2006 (19 % of Italians, 18 % of French, 15 % of British, 13 % of North-Americans, 5 % of Germans, 4 % of Russians). Tourism was always mainly directed towards the customers of luxury, attracted by the many sporting and cultural events, the casinos (whose Casino of Monte Carlo celebrates it) but the tourist sector recently redeployed towards tourism of business, congress and seminars which represents 25  today; % of the nuities.
IndustryIndustry represents approximately 8 % of the turnover of Monaco. A hundred small nonpolluting industries and high added value employ approximately: 3800 people, is approximately 9 % of the paid population. The first companies (industrial companies of the Brewery of Monaco, the flour mill and the chocolate factory) started to be installed on the first quay level of Fontvieille, starting from 1906. These companies concentrate mainly on: 250000 m ² of ground gained on the sea during the construction of the quay level of Fontvieille.
The sector " Chemistry - Pharmacy - Beauty care " seems more represented with 49,21 % of the incomes of industry and: 1200 employees but industries of manufacture of electrical material and electronics (10,2 % of the incomes) as well as plastic transformation (21,6 %) are also present. The Printing works and the Cartonnage also contribute to height of 6 %.
The number of employment reported to that of the inhabitants is particularly high. The pendular ones/navetteurs are approximately forty thousand.
Real estateAccording to the classification of the real group Knight Frank and bank ISIC Private Bank, Monaco is the second most expensive city of the world (behind London) with regard to the prices of the real estate (: 35000 euros per square meter in the smartest districts, like the Gold Square with Monte Carlo).
The Cooperation organization and of development economic (OECD) thus emitted in 1998 a first report/ratio on the consequences of the financial systems of the Tax shelters. Monaco does not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, where OECD is indignant at the situation Monegasque and denounces it in his last report/ratio at the sides of the Andorre, of the Principauté of Liechtenstein, the Liberia and the République of the Marshall Islands, underlining its absence of co-operation as regards division of financial information.
In 2000, the Action group financial on the bleaching of capital (GAFI) underlines for Monaco its lack of means implemented. It leaves the principality its list at the time of his ratio of 2005, just as all the other territories in 2006
Since 2003, the Fonds international currency (the IMF) identifies Monaco like 36 other jurisdictions like tax shelter
The the Council of Europe also decided to publish reports where the tax shelters appear by name. 22 territories, whose Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first phase of tests. Monaco is the only one has not to be still subjected to the second phase, initially envisaged between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories are already in the course of completion of the third and last phase taking seat between 2005 and 2007
Moreover, owing to the fact that the principality is wedged in the French territory, the impact of its taxation and the use of its financial system at ends of tax avoidance, of Tax evasion and Money laundering, was often the object of missions carried out by the French members of Parliament. The reports/ratios of these missions which unanimously denounce the role of the principality in the financial Criminalité are then denounced by the princely capacity which sees libelous charges there.
See also: Culture of Monaco
The Days of the Inheritance constitute an excellent occasion to discover the principal sites of interest, in particular the large apartments of the Princely Palate, the residence of the Minister of state, the National council. The Oceanographical Musée as for him proposes a right of admission to cheap rate.
The Principality lodges three radio stations (two in French, the other in Italian) and two television channels. Several Webradios are also present on the ground Monégasque MC one Radio Of Mr. Gildo Pallanca-Pastor, which also emits into hertzian on Principality 98.2, Radio Ethic of Mrs. Evelyne Tonelli, girl of Mr. Schick, old directing of antenna of RMC; and to finish Radio Frequency Escape. One of these television channels is a local chain exclusively diffused on the cable, alone average authorized in Principality to receive television. Its name is Monaco Info. The hertzian radios or televisions are thus addressed more to public French or Italian. One of the projects in the course of SAS Albert II de Monaco is to create a radio typically Monegasque, “Radio operator Monaco”, which would sprinkle Chin in Toulouse. Initially planned for June 2006, its inauguration is currently deferred sine die .
- Monaco Morning (local edition of Nice Morning ')
- the Small Newspaper of Daily Monaco on line, the newspaper of the French abroad
- Monaco Hebdo
- the Observer of Monaco
- the Gazette of Monaco
- Radio operator Monaco: 98,2 MHz
- RMC: 98,8 MHz
- Radio operator Monaco Star: 92,4 MHz
- Radio Frequency Escape
- Radio Monte Carlo: 106,8/107,3 MHz
- RMC 2: 92,7/101,6 MHz
- Radio operator Riviera: 106,3/106,5 MHz
See also: Transport in Monaco
Sporting eventsThe Principality is used as framework with various demonstrations, among which:
- the automobile Grand Prix of Monaco
- the Car rally Monte Carlo
- the Open of Tennis in prestigious Monte Carlo Country Club
- the Athletics meeting “Herculis”; the first Herculis meeting was organized in 1987 and after an interruption of 2002 to 2005, the 20th edition took place on August 20th, 2006, at the stage Louis II.
- the International festival of the Circus
- the marathon of Monaco and of Riviera, which short in December, between Vintimille and Monaco. At the same time the race of the 10 kilometers Monte Carlo takes place.
- the Supercoupe of the UEFA (Super Cup), football game opposing the winner of the League of the Champions to the winner of the UEFA Cup.
Sporting clubsA club omnisport, the ACE Monaco, whose team first of Football plays in League 1 of the French championship. The professional section is called ACE Monaco FC since the change of status operated in 2002 (passage in S.A.M.). A.S. Monaco F.C takes part in the Championship of France of football of League 1 (formerly the First Division). It started to be illustrated in the years 1960 by gaining 4 national titles in 3 seasons (2 championships and 2 Cuts of France including one doubled in 1963) under the orders of its legendary trainer Lucien Leduc. Then, under the presidency of Dr. Jean-Louis Campora, the club was going to become large of Europe again multiplying the national titles and the beautiful European courses. The team plays in residence at the stage Louis II, splendid sports complex carried out in 1985 on the quay level of Fontvieille and designed by Henry Pottier, with: 18500 sitted places and a lawn which pushes on an immense flagstone of concrete to 13 meters height.
On the other hand, the drives take place on a sports complex located at Turbie, in France, with more than 500 meters of altitude. A club of Karate, Karate Shotokan Club of Monaco with as Main trainer SATO 6th daN. Former student of Master Tanaka, it also directs advanced training courses in Germany, Italy, England, France, Belgium, Suisse.
The Monegasque federation of athletics is chaired by S.A.S. the prince Albert II.
Ballet dancingMonaco shelters one of the largest dancing school Classique in the World directed since nearly 35 years by the Russian Marika Besobrasova of the name of Traditional Dancing school Princess founded Grace in 1968.
CodesMonaco has as codes:
- 3A, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- CO, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- LN, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- MC, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- MC, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- MCO, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- MCO, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3,
- MN, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-2,
- MY, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
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