See also: Moldavie (homonymy)
The Republic of Moldavie (in French), Republica Moldova in Rumanian and Republic of Moldova for the United Nations and other political bodies, is a country of Eastern Europe wedged between the Romania and the Ukraine, occupying the areas of Bessarabia and Transnistrie.
Toponymy and Gentilé S
The name of Moldavie indicates the territory of old the Principauté of Moldavie (1359 - 1859) today divided between the Republic of Moldavie, successor of the Soviet socialist République of Moldavie, the Région of Moldavie in close Romania (8 departments) and the Ukraine (oblast of Cernivtsy and part in the west of Dniestr of the oblast of Odessa).
On the other hand, the heritage of the old principality maintains an argument between the authorities Chisinau and those of Bucharest to know if the inhabitants autochtones of the historical Moldavie are or are not Rumanian. Since the XIXème century, these populations are defined by the Russian Empire, the USSR and since 1991 by the Republic of Moldavie like " Moldavian s" (in their denying their character roumanophone), whereas they are indicated like " Rumanian s" by Romania, like are also the autochtones majorities of Transylvania, of the Banat, Dobrogée or Dobroudja, the Valachie and the Rumanian part of the Moldavie.
the scientific linguists, who refer to the concept of Isoglosse, recognize only one language: Rumanian, and thus designate the indigenous majority of Bessarabia like " roumanophone" (to distinguish it from the citizens of Romania, called simply " Roumains"). The authorities of the Republic of Moldavie, by article 12 of the constitution, challenge this qualifier, to impose on its place that " language moldave" and of " Moldaves" (in spite of the annual demonstrations of the body teaching years since).
This choice has the quadruple disadvantage of being a anti-scientist, to prohibit in the majority the free development of its culture across the borders of the state (as the slavophones can do it), to exclude the minorities from the political community " Moldave" (with the result that they do not testify to any attachment in this state) and to block the bringing together of the Republic of Moldavie with the European Union (because Romania will not ratify any document denying the roumanophonie autochtones of the Republic of Moldavie). The solution (vainly) recommended by Gunther Verheugen, representative of the U.E., would be to adopt the Droit of the ground according to which " Moldave" would indicate either an ethnos group, but a geographical membership and a citizenship, without reference of language or religion, while the communities would be indicated like " roumanophones" , " russophones" , " ukrainophones" , " bulgarophones" , Gagaouzes, Rroms, Jews, etc, the official language remaining that of the indigenous majority.
Russian, Soviet authors and of the Republic of Moldavie supporting the thesis of the identity " Moldavian non-roumaine" themselves are divided besides on the question of knowing if the Moldavians of the Région of Moldavie in Romania (regiunea Moldova) are them also " non-Roumains" , or if they are Roumanians, then different from the " Moldaves" republic of Moldavie (republica Moldova).
the Rumanian authors, like those of the Republic of Moldavie supporting the thesis of the Rumanian identity of the autochtones of the Republic of Moldavie, affirm, like the linguists, who they are well Roumanians like the others (there is no isoglossal between the areas roumanophones) but with regional specificities, of the same order than those clean with the various areas of Romania. These authors recognize however, in Republic of Moldavie and at the roumanophones of Ukraine, a recent Russian influence in the vocabulary and the culture.
Ainsi each country supports a thesis which touches with the population of the other country. It should however be noted that the Moldavians of Romania express all the same opinion as their administration, whereas those of Republic of Moldavie are divided when it is about the thesis of their own administration: some are against (especially young people), of aucuns really do not know, others are of agreement with their authorities (rather the old ones and populations of Russian language and Ukrainian).
In France, the political discourse chose like official name in French that of Republic of Moldova. This speech has authority on the agents of the diplomatic apparatus of state, but not on the French language. It is the French Academy which has authority on the language. The name " Moldova" is Rumanian and not French. However in France, according to the French Academy, one speaks French and not Rumanian. And in French one says " Moldavie". The dictionaries thus specify: " Republic of Moldavie, in Rumanian Republica Moldova".
See also: History of the Republic of Moldavie
there is more than 18 centuries: populated by the septentrional Daces or Thraces (according to Hérodote), the area escapes the conquest from the Dacie by the Roman Empire: only the south (departments of Cahul and Taraclia) is integrated into the Roman province of Scythia minor
- with the Moyen-âge: it forms part since 1359 of the Principauté of Moldavie and as from 1538 it must pay tribute with the Ottoman Empire to be able to keep autonomy interns
- 1812: it is conquered by the Russian which aim at the control of the mouths of the Danube
- December 2nd 1917: independence of the Democratic republic of Moldavie (to the Black Sea)
- during the First World War, the March 27th 1918, its Parliament votes fastening in Romania - but fine 1918, it passes under communist control and the Parliament calls with the rescue a Rumanian division supported by the French Army Berthelot
- August 2nd 1940: pursuant to the Hitler-Stalin Pact, at the beginning of the Second world war the USSR invades the territory, that the Roumanians evacuate without fighting (the king Charles II, pro-ally, is still with the capacity): deportation of the educated roumanophones
- in June 1941, Romania, this time directed by Antonescu, the " Pétain roumain" , the USSR on the side of the Axis attacks and recovers the territory: deportation of 140.000 Jews (210.000 others flee towards the USSR: the majority will be caught up with by Wehrmacht or the army Rumanian and killed in Ukraine) and some rroms
- in March - August 1944 the USSR recovers in its turn the territory: deportation of 120.000 roumanophones shown collaboration of September 1944 to May 1945
- under the Soviet mode, an intense Slavic colonization develops: in 1978,86% of the leaders are not-Roumanians (Ukrainian for the majority)
- 1985-91: under Gorbatchev, the policy of perestroika is translated into Moldavie by a claim of recognition of the Rumanian identity of the autochtones and by a return to the Latin alphabet, Rumanian becoming official beside Russian
- August 27th 1991: the Republic of Moldavie proclaims its independence, immediately recognized by Romania, then by the international community
- in December 1991, the Moldavian Republic Pridnistréenne known as Transnistrie proclaims its independence compared to Chisinau (not recognized by the international community), and requires its fastening of Russia or the Ukraine; 500 " cosaques" Russian speakers framed by the 14th Russian army (stationed in Tiraspol) take the control of left bank of Dniestr where 80% of industries are, the arsenal of Colbasna and the hydroelectric station of Dubasari; a thousand of armed Moldavian volunteers pass in Transnistrie to take again control of it, but are pushed back (250 killed)
- since 1992, under the constant threat to cut gas and electricity, Russia which, in agreement with the Westerners, regards Moldavie as concerning its exclusive sphere of influence, convinces the Moldavian voters to vote for the friendly parties of Russia; it is the case of the current Communist government, chaired by a Russian speaker and elected official a large majority (61 deputies out of 101) at the time of free elections validated by the international community. The parties considering, in the future, a possible fastening in Romania (thus with the European Union) made less than 10% of the voices.
See also: Geography of Moldavie
, within the framework of its National strategy and its Action plan in the field of the protection of the biological diversity, which includes the local variation of the ecological Réseau paneuropéen (Plane approval on April 27th, 2001).
In 2001, the cores of the ecological network covered 73.145 ha there, including five scientific reserves (19 378 ha), nearly 30 natural reserves (22 278 ha), 13 territories having another statute of protection (4 350 ha), 13 wet habitats being located, but still without statute of protection (24 592 ha). biological Corridors of national and/or international importance were distinguished and charted in this Plan.
See also: Demography of the Republic of Moldavie
The Republic of Moldavie (out the " république" autoproclamée Pridniestréenne known as Transnistrie) account 3.388.000 inhabitants, according to the census of 2004, in fall of 208.000 inhabitants (for the majority, expatriates) compared to 1989. On the whole, one can suppose that the population of the Republic of Moldavie, reached in 2005 a little less than 3.455.000 inhabitants.
The area is with the crossroads of two cultures: that Latin E of the Rumanian majority and that Slavic of the Minority S Russian and Ukrainian. This situation is translated since 1812 (year when the Russia tsarist occupies Moldavie following a treaty with the Ottoman Empire) by an ethnic diversity, linguistic and cultural. According to the last census of 2004 there is in Rumanian Moldavie of the S, the Ukrainian S, the Russian S, the Gagaouze S, the Tzigane S, the Bulgare S, the Juif S, the Armenian S, the Greek S), etc. To the mixing of cultures and the migratory waves were added to the 20th century century the tragedies of the Déportation organized against the rroms and the Jews by the mode Antonescu (the " Pétain roumain" as it qualified itself) and against Rumanian by the the USSR which also intensified the Russian Colonisation. The Recensement does not hold account owing to the fact that 70% of the population are bilingual (Rumanian - Russian), 30% only being unilingual (Rumanian alone or Russian alone). This is why, according to the censuses and the authors, since 1910, the proportion of the Rumanian majority varies from 56% to 79%.
The National office of Statistics of Chişinău published the official results of the census, which made it possible to the citizens roumanophones to choose between " roumain" and " moldave". According to Moldpres, only 2,2% declared Rumanian S, which arranges them beside the other minorities: 8% of the citizens are declared Ukrainian, 5,9% Russian, 4,4% gagaouzes (Turkish-speaking population Christian), and the very great majority (nearly 80%) are indicated like “Moldavian S” (whereas with the preceding censuses, the roumanophones always oscillated between 63 and 67%, it seems that they suddenly disappeared!). It would thus seem, with the great satisfaction of the Gouvernement current Communiste (president Voronin is itself an Ukrainian, former member of the PC of the USSR), that the very large majority of the roumanophones and part of the slavophones chose to declare " language moldave" (political language not recognized by the linguists): an example which, transposed to Belgium for example, would give to 99% speakers of the " language belge" (another political language) among the Walloons, and 20% among the Flemings. These results do not relate to the " république" Pridniestréenne or Transnistrie.
If the criterion Linguistique seems to lend to a great confusion because of the policy options, that Ethnique is a little clearer, according to the popular Tradition S, the habits of the villages, the claims of the inhabitants themselves and the history. In the République of Moldavie (without the Transdniestrie) 3 million lives Rumanian S, 250.000 Ukrainian S, 100.000 Gagaouze S and 90.0000 Russian S. In the republic Séparatiste of Transdniestrie live 300.000 Rumanian S, 250.000 Russian S, 200.000 Ukrainian S and several thousands of Jews, tatars, Bulgarian, gagouzes, etc
On the whole of the inhabitants of the Moldavian territory, 3,3 million is Rumanian (77%), 450.000 are Ukrainian (10%), 340.000 are Russian (8%), a little more than 100.000 are gagaouzes (2,3%) and almost 100.000 are smaller minorities (gypsies, Bulgare S, Jews, Tatar S, etc). These figures also correspond to the claims of these ethnic communities. Obviously, the great majority of the inhabitants are Bilingue S, sometimes trilingual (like Corsican, the Catalans or the Alsatian ones in France).
According to semi-official figures, approximately 1/4 of the active population emigrated abroad (Country of Western Europe mainly, Russia and Ukraine) that is to say a migratory rate Net of -25%. The roumanophones choose especially Romania, Italy, Spain and Portugal, the slavophones especially the countries ex-Soviet, Poland and Germany. In addition, approximately 150.000 Moldavian citizens also obtained the Rumanian and/or Russian or Ukrainian citizenship.
See also: Culture of the Republic of Moldavie
- Hermitage of Butuceni
- Fortresses: Cetatea Albă, Hotin, Orhei, Soroca, Tighina
- Archeological site of Orheiul Vechi
See also: Economy of the Republic of Moldavie
The country, out the Transnistrie, is circumscribed by two rivers: the Prout and the Dniestr: the first is not navigable, second is blocked by the " république" Pridniestréenne, which accentuates its insulation.
The Republic of Transnistrie, located between the Dniestr and the Ukraine and the Gök-Oguz country or Gagaouzie, are " territorial units autonomes". " Capitale" of Transnistrie: Tiraspol. President: Igor Smirnov . These two territories, where the authority of the state is not exerted, alone have 85% of the economic power of Moldavie, whereas they account for only 18% of its territory.
Having lost in August 1940 the 4 ports of the Bessarabia: Reni, Izmail, Chilia or Kilia and Cetatea-Alba or Bilhorod-Dnisterski, attached to the Ukraine, the Republic of Moldavie are an enclave, with the economic direction of the term. By a territorial exchange with the Ukraine in 2002, it however obtained 500 meters of shore on the Danube, where it plans to build the port of Giurgiulesti, whereas by simple economic agreements, it could have access to the Rumanian or Ukrainian ports directly connected to its highway network and railway. The obstacles which slow down the exchanges are physical (insufficiency of the infrastructures), policies (railway blocking by Transnistrie, abandonment of the project of lines with three compatible rails at the same time with the European network and Russian, abandonment of the rail link Cahul-Reni), and structural (controls prolonged at the borders, prohibitory costs of transport, underdevelopment).
The Republic of Moldavie (which was the leading vendor of Vin (Vignoble of Moldavie), of Légume S and Fruit S for the former Soviet republics) became after the fall of the the USSR in 1991 one of the poorest countries of Europe.
The loss of certain traditional markets, energy dependence with Russian gas, and secession of the " république" autoproclamée Pridniestréenne known as Transnistrie, caused the dramatic fall of the GDP which is in 2006 lower than that of the Bangladesh, and low of Europe, in spite of an economic strong growth (more than 8% in 2005 since the year 2000).
That is due to the lack of structural reforms and an underground economy evaluated with nearly 40% of the GDP, causing a two-digit inflation (between 12% and 15% per annum) and an important trade deficit (financed partly by the transfers of money of the Moldavians which work abroad).
Moldavie is regarded as being the country poorest of Europe in 2007. The Moldavian government ensures a minimum wage of only 28€.
See also: Political of the Republic of Moldavie
ModeOf swears, it is a parliamentary democracy member of the the Council of Europe.
The Left the Communists of the Republic of Moldavie (PCRM), of “pro-Russian” at the time of the last elections, carried out a Net turn pro-European at the time of the elections of the March 6th 2005. The PCRM collected 46% of the votes and gains 56 seats out of 101. It is however in retreat of 4% and loses 15 seats compared to the preceding poll of the February 25th 2001. The Block " Moldavie démocratique" (BMD) arrives in second position and obtains 28,5% of the voices and 34 seats. This coalition of center be made up of three formations: the Alliance " Our Moldavie" chaired by Serafim Urechean, mayor of the Chişinău capital, the Democratic party of Moldavie, chaired by Dumitru Diacov, former president of the Parliament and the Left social-liberal, directed by the political economist Oleg Serebrian. The Popular party Christian Democrat, right-wing grouping, directed by Iurie Rosca, collects 9,1% of the votes and gains 11 seats.
Without surprise, the President of the Republic of Moldavie, the Communist Vladimir Voronin, was re-elected the April 4th 2005, with secret bulletins, by the Parliament for second a four years mandate to the report heading. Since the constitutional reform of 2000, the President of the republic must, to be elected, collect at least the majority of the three fifths of the hundred deputies, that is to say sixty and one votes.
The Communist party counting only fifty six deputies, Vladimir Voronin had to gather beyond its own training, collecting 75 votes, that is to say 14 of more than the necessary minimum threshold. Its only opponent, the president of the Academy of Science, Gheorghe Duca obtained only one vote. This last had been presented by the Communist party so that the poll can proceed (the democratic Moldavie Block and the Popular party Christian Democrat having given up introducing a candidate).
Twenty-three members of Parliament of the group of Alliance “Our Moldavie”, member of the democratic Moldavie Block, followed the watchword of Serafim Urechean, and refused to take part in the election. 22 deputies belonging to the two other formations of this Block - the Democratic party and the Party social-liberal and the members of Parliament of the group of Popular party Christian Democrat, took share with the election. Lastly, two ballot papers were declared invalid.
De facto the political regime of Moldavie is a " Communism of marché" where dominant political training is a Communist party which tolerates unfavourable candidatures but is based on the Russian support (whose the energy supply depends on the country), and where the structure of the economy is a mixture of ultra-liberalism and protectionism far from social.
Amnesty International does not regard Moldavie as a rule of law and raises of many violations of the human rights during the interpellations and of the imprisonments, of many irregularities in the legal procedures, many distorsions to the freedom of the press and an immoderate use of the clientelism, intimidation and blackmail (in particular economic) in the political life. The reports/ratios of Amnesty International state however not taken into account in the policy of the States, Moldavie is considered by the sufficiently democratic international community as so that 99% of the requests for political asylum emanating Moldavian citizens are rejected.
- the list of the Presidents of the Republic of Moldavie
- the list of the Prime Ministers for the Republic of Moldavie
Union with Romania
Asserted by the almost unanimous roumanophones at the time of the great demonstrations of 1990, but fought by the Russian speakers to which the ultra-nationalists pro-Rumanian promised " the bag or the cercueil" , this union was finally rejected by referendum in 1992, in a context of conflict with Russia, leading vendor of cheap energy for Moldavie. Currently, the rare parties which still assert it represent less than 10% of the voices.
The linguistic quarrel
Officially, the object of the linguistic quarrel which opposes the " roumanistes" with the " moldavistes" is knowto know if the Rumanian and the Moldavian are two alternatives of a common language or if they are the same language. But actually, truths stakes are purely political: the speakers, them, include themselves/understand spontaneously and completely, and no distinction is made between these two languages by the scientific linguists. Those agree to admit that the basic lexical bottom and the grammatical structure of the languages are common, even if it exists a regional accent and some specific expressions (which are found besides on the two sides of Prut (Prout), the river separating Romania and Moldavie.
A dictionary Moldavian-Rumanian of 347 pages appeared with more than 19.000 entries in July 2003 with Chişinău, under the direction of Vasile Stati, president of the department of the Culture of the Parti the Communists of the Republic of Moldavie (PCRM).
History of the " moldavisme" begin the October 12th 1924 with the creation of the Moldavian Soviet socialist Republic autonomous (CLOSE-CROPPED of Moldavie) in Podolie, on bank is Dniestr, within the Soviet socialist Republic of Ukraine. The RASSM is one of these " Bantustans soviétiques" where the authorities try out " novlangues" , as Lyssenko tried out a new biology by creating genetic rules without any connection with what really occurs in the chromosomes. Thus will appear “a language and a new literature” in the CLOSE-CROPPED ones of Moldavie (of which the majority of the inhabitants can neither read nor to write), first stage of bringing together of the languages (thus of the populations) “Moldavian” and Russian, with the detriment of Rumanian, considered as a dangereous element because of the Soviet capacity (Romania is a democracy parlamentaire of 1921 to 1938). The prohibition of the Latin alphabet in 1938 (whereas since 1859 Rumanian is written in Latin characters, also officialized in the RASSM in 1932) and its replacement by the Cyrillic Russian (whereas before 1859, Rumanian was written in characters slavons, that the Bessarabia had preserved until in 1919), shows the intention russificatrice of the authorities of Moscow. In August 1940, at the time of the annexation of the Bessarabia by the USSR, pursuant to the Hitler-Stalin Pact, the RASSM is set up in Republic unionale with equality with the Ukraine, but the new Republic, officially created " pour" the romanophones of the USSR, actually proves to be directed " contre" them, and this is why at the time of the " perestroika" of Gorbatchev, the autochtones will assert in mass their fastening in Romania.
In 1989-1991, with the return to the Latin alphabet, the adoption of the flag, an anthem and a name of currency Rumanian, the " moldavisme" seemed dead. Moldavian president Mircea Snegur (agrarian) developed the doctrines " only one people, two États" to affirm the independence of Moldavie without denying the Rumanian identity of its autochtones (not more than the Russian identity of its Russian speakers, etc). It was to count without Moscow (nationalist the Moscow news of Eltsine and Putin) and without Rumanian president Iliescu, who declared in 1992: " we will not break our agreements with Russia for some Moldavians moreover, and then Romania has already two million Magyars and a million rroms, it does not have no need for a million and half of Russian speakers! ". The result was a return in strength of the " moldavisme" at the time of the elections of 1994, when the Rumanian language was again officially defined like " moldave" as at the time Soviet. Since, " moldavistes" the experts align to accredit the thesis of a " difference fondamentale" that there would be between:
- the Roumanians of Romania who speak Rumanian, resulting from people speaking a Romance bottom very little influenced by Slavic, the since localized ones in a Balkan space (in spite of 20% of Slavic Rumanian words)
- and of the Moldavians of Republic of Moldavie, speaking Moldavian, resulting from people speaking the same Romance bottom but very influenced by the Slavic one, taking into account their membership of a Russo-pontique space.
The linguistic question is thus a question of geopolitics, and it poisons the relations between Romania and the Republic of Moldavie since the elections of 1994. It even took again strength, since the border of the European Union was established on Prout, in 2007.
- Presidency of the Republic
- Government of the Republic of Moldavie
- Parliament of the Republic of Moldavie
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