Minister of education main road
The organization of competences of different the ministry S, delegated ministers or secretariats of State education research is not always identical and can vary from one government to another. In various governments, the same ministry was in charge at the same time with secondary education and higher education. In this case, the minister is often assisted of one deputy secretary to higher education and research. Sometimes Research is gathered with the Industrie. In other governments, the same ministry was also in charge with the Sport or Youth.
Current the government Fillon entrusts to two ministries distinct the organization from the teaching in France. ''' The decree of the bearing May 18th, 2007 composition of the government ''' created two autonomous structures:Secondary education;
If this ministry does not have necessarily same political prestige as the departments known as kingly (Défense, Foreign affairs, Justice, Finances, Intérieur), its social importance is large. On the one hand, education is regarded as being in the middle of the Republican pact. In addition, the requirements out of educational matter make of this ministry the first employer of the State. So State education to date represents the largest budget heading of the Nation.
During the Old Mode, the royal capacity was worried relatively little teaching, leaving the local authorities and especially the Église to organize it. Except a project of Turgot to constitute a council charged to control the universities, colleges and small schools, the need for a treating service of these questions was not thus felt. This situation remained during the first years of the Révolution, the more so as the reform of teaching did not seem a priority. However, the legislative Assemblée creates in 1791 a committee of the state education which decides in particular, on August 18th, 1792, which the monks will not have to deal any more with education. Under the Convention, there exists also a Comité of state education. It is him which will be on the initiative of the creation of the central schools and will contribute to the creation or the reorganization of several universities. With the Directory, the committees are removed and the questions of education allotted to the Ministère of the Interior. This ministry will preserve the instruction in its attributions until in 1824, although the management of teaching is entrusted, as from 1806-1808, at another institution.
Imperial University with the royal Council of the state education
Arrived at the capacity, Napoleon Bonaparte undertakes as of 1802 important reforms, in particular marked by the creation of the colleges. These reforms lead to creation, by the law of the May 10th 1806, of the imperial Université like “a single body of teachers”.
However, this law, very short, does not include/understand an institutional provision. The organization of the University gives place to several projects which lead to the publication of the decree organizing the University, the March 17th 1808. The imperial University is entrusted to a large-Master of the University named by the Emperor and assisted of a chancellor. France is divided into as many academies that of course of call and a Recteur of academy is named with the head of each one of it.
The large-Master chairs a council of the University made up of forty members, whose role is purely advisory and who intervenes only in very limited fields. In the same way each vice-chancellor is assisted of an academic council. In the whole of the organization, the large-Master has a paramount role.
The government of the Restauration engages a reform, whose first version is not implemented because of the Hundred Days. After the second abdication of Napoleon, the idea is taken up but the reform, less ambitious, is presented like provisional.
Actually, Louis XVIII preserves the broad outlines of the Napoleonean University, in particular the academies, which take sometimes the name of “universities”. The council of the University is replaced by a Commission of state education then, in 1820, by the royal Council of the state education, reduced to five members; the function of large-Master is replaced by a simple “president of the royal Council”. The capacities formerly concentrated near the large Master are partly transferred, is towards the council which, on certain subjects, decides “with pluralities of the voices”, that is to say towards the faculties, whose autonomy is however very relative.
In the years which follow, several ordinances come to amend the device, by increasing the number of the members of the Council and by giving again capacity with its president, who decides only individual questions, after “to have only taken the opinion” of this Council. The title of large-Master is finally restored in 1822.
During all these years, the ministry for the Interior continuous to ensure the management of the questions of instruction, whereas the reality of the decision-making power returns to the authorities of the University (then council of the Instruction).
Ministry for the State education at the Minister of education main road
In August 1824, an ordinance creates a ministry for the ecclesiastical Businesses and State education, entrusted to Mgr Denis-Luc Frayssinous, which was already large-Master of the University. This ministry is organized in the form of two directions, for each of the two fields entrusted to the new department. The Management of the State education, after several dismemberments and reorganizations, will give rise to the various services of the central administration (see further). The January 4th 1828, the ministry for the State education, separated from the ecclesiastical Businesses, becomes for the first time independent, but the State education will be again attached to the ministry for the Worships on several occasions during the 19th century.
Starting from 1832, attributions of the ministry for the State education increase little by little, by transfer of services which depended on the Interior, in particular the Théâtre S, the Art S, the Archives (Public records as of 1838, other types of public records in 1884 only).
With measurement of advanced XIXe century, manpower of the ministry are packed especially with the development of the efforts of the capacity in favor of teaching (laws Guizot, Falloux, Duruy). The phenomenon is still accentuated with the introduction of the obligatory education (laws Ferry, 1881 and 1882), which makes necessary the development of the administration decentralized to facilitate the management of primary school education. The prolongation of the compulsory schooling will also come to reinforce the weight of the administration.
The academic organization undergoes also revisions. In 1850, the law Falloux founds an academy in each department, that is to say nearly a hundred. However, this experiment is quickly called into question: as of 1854, a new chart of the academies is organized, envisaging a particularly reduced number of academies (less than in 1808). Academies will be gradually recreated during the 20th century, leading to the current chart.
As for attributions of the ministry, famous in State education in 1932, they were modified again, with the profit of the Ministère of Youth and the Sports but especially, starting from 1958, of the Ministère of the Culture.
The development of the Decentralization and the increased autonomy of the universities, contribute to decrease administrative manpower of the ministry, while the central administration tends to to decentralize more and more competences with the vice-chancellorships and the school inspectorates.
A central actor for education
“The Nation guarantees the equal access of the child and the adult to the instruction, the culture and professional training. The organization of free and laic public education to all the degrees is a duty of the State”.
This constitutional principle devotes the long heritage of the public service of education in France, abundant service by the State, in a centralized and unit way, in optics to guarantee to all the citizens the same rights of access with teaching.
In France, the organization and the management of teaching are entrusted to the Minister of education main road, jointly with the Ministère of Higher education and Research. The minister of education main road more particularly has the responsibility for the organization and the administration of the education system, of the nursery school with the baccalaureat. However, the agricultural training concerns the ministry for Agriculture and the ministry for Defense maintains the colleges of defense. Lastly, other ministries (Finances…) have establishments suitable for the secondary level intended to train the pupils intending for certain careers specific to the administrations concerned (See École of the French public office.) .
Moreover, the laws of Decentralization of 1982-83 and 2003-04 transferred certain competences to the territorial collectivities, according to the principle of shared competences. The competences thus assumed by the territorial collectivities are especially those relating to the buildings and the working and technical personnel. Within this framework, and under the control of the Vice-chancellor of academy, the common manage the primary , the departments the colleges, and the areas the colleges and the training centres of apprentices.
Attributions of the minister of education main road
The minister of education main road is qualified for the secondary education, which include/understand teaching préélémentaire (nursery school), the elementary teaching and the Secondary education (college, college, training centres of apprentices). Decree 2007-991 of May 25th, 2007 requires of him to prepare and implement “the policy of the Government relating to the access of each one to the knowledge”.
It ensures the equality in front of the public service of education and the right distribution of the means on the national territory.
The ministry is the exclusive person in charge of the development and the implementation of the contents of the lesson and the school programs, whose it controls the application. It defines the organization of the school courses, of the dies, It defines the methods of the orientation of the pupils, and management ensures some. It holds of this fact the total control of teaching competences. It defines and delivers the Diplôme S nationals, and preserves the monopoly of the collation of the ranks and university degrees.
He plays a big role of evaluation and control of the public and private establishments of secondary education. He signs contract with certain establishments “contributing to the public service of teaching” and a financial support brings to them.
The State assumes recruitment, the remuneration and the management of the career of the teaching and comparable personnel, just as for administrative staffs and of health (school doctors and male nurses).
The ministry ensures the investment at all the levels of teaching, often with the assistance financial of the local government agencies. The ministry also pays the teaching operating expenses of the schools, colleges and colleges.
The minister of education main road also assumes a certain number of competences in social matter, such attribution of purses or the social action and medical in school. It also intervenes in the school orientation.
The agricultural training concerns the ministry for Agriculture, but the minister of education main road adopts the general organization of the schooling and fixes the common rules at mainstream education and agricultural training.
The general administration of State education, the evaluation, the statstiques ones, are exerted jointly with the Ministère of Higher education and Research.
The seat of the minister of education main road is located Rue of Grenelle at Paris, in the Hôtel of Rochechouart, 1776. This is why it is often called Grenelle or street of Grenelle in the media. However, the Accords of Grenelle refer, not with this ministry, but with that of the Travail, located in the same street. It is in these places that are installed the cabinet of the Minister, as well as the majority of the Directorates and Departments of the central administration. Other services are localized with 34, rue de Châteaudun.
The Ministry is organized in several levels.
The minister and the Cabinet
It is the political heart of the ministry, where are worked out the direct broad outlines of the ministerial action in agreement with the priorities and directives of the Prime Minister. The cabinet prepares the files of the ministers, which can involve conflicts with the central administration.
The ministers have a Principal private secretary , which carries out the administrative life of the cabinet and makes sure of his good performance, and is in charge of the relations between this one and the various administrations with the ministry. The Principal private secretary is, him, the narrowest collaborator political of the minister, in particular charged to support this last in its policy options and to maintain the dialog with the General secretary the government in Matignon, the other ministries and the media.
The Cabinet is also composed of various advisers and technical advisers chosen by the ministers, in order to bring the elements necessary to them to their decision makings in the various fields concerned with its competences.
Contrary to the cabinet, composed members chosen by the minister, the central administration is only made up of titular civils servant (or trainees) or of contractual, in order to get a certain stability with the unit, and to guarantee a continuity in management as well as a solid experiment of the files within the administration. Because the central administration indicates the whole of the services and public agents - gathered in offices and directions - charged with making function the educational public service (finances, administration…) and to apply the lawful or legislative educational matter decisions.
The current organization of the ministry was established by the decree 2006-572 of May 17th, 2006 and the decree of the same day, which had been conceived for a ministry in charge also of higher education and research. New architecture was organized around a general secretary and of three direction general.
Of the three head offices instituted in 2006, the minister of education main road preserves only one into clean of them, the Head office of secondary education, but the head office of higher education and research is placed at its disposal and several services, whose general secretary, are united with the two ministries.
The head office of secondary education and the general secretary are divided into Departments and Directorates. The general secretary, the head office of secondary education, the Departments and the Directorates are directed each one by a director named by decree. The Directorates, subdirectorates and Departments are composed of various specific offices as an operations manager.
Head office of secondary education
The Head office of secondary education (DGESCO) works out and implements the policy relating to the schools, the colleges, the colleges and the vocational schools. It allots to the academic authorities the equipments as a personnel and appropriations intended for the schools and works out the regulation relating to the operation of the latter. It ensures the teaching supervision of the French establishments abroad and private establishments under contract of secondary education. In the teaching field, it develops the use of new technologies. It is qualified insertion initial and continuous professional training in the establishments of the second degree. It lays down the policy of the zones of priority education, school life, and medical and social action. It leads the actions as regards integration of the pupils and specialist education. It lays down the general orientations of the continuous training policy of the teachers of the first and the second degree and contributes to the definition of the orientations of their initial training and to their implementation, in connection with the direction of higher education.
- service of the lesson and the formations;
- service of the budget and the equal opportunity.
The general secretary gathers various services in transverse matter:
the Head office of human resources (DGRH) manages the whole of the personnel of the ministry, but also, by delegation, that of the Ministère of Health, Youth and the Sports. It itself is divided:
- the Direction of the framing (OF) carries out recruitment, the formation and the staff management of higher framing of the central services, the decentralized services and the public corporations concerned with the ministries in charge with youth, State education, the Sports and Higher education, and of the personnel of inspection and it manages their employment. It implements the statutory policy and the estimated management of employment, manpower, the careers and competences of this personnel.
- service of the teaching personnel of higher education and research;
- service of the teaching personnel of secondary education;
- personnel department of engineers, administrative, technical, working, social and of health, the libraries and the museums.
- the subdirectorate of recruitment.
the Direction of the evaluation, the futurology and the performance (EPD) implements the device of evaluation of the education system and contributes to the evaluation of the policies of the ministry, in particular through the statistical tools which it manages and makes, and through the various studies that it carries out in collaboration with all the actors of the education system. It is in charge with the forecast in the short and medium term and, in relation to the research organizations, of the long-term forecast. It prepares the assistance systems with the evaluation, piloting and the decision and manages the databases of the ministry.
the Direction of the financial businesses (DAF) is responsible for financial management and accountant for the Ministry. It prepares the budget of the ministry, the execution follows from there and holds some central accountancy. It ensures the installation of the methods and instruments of control of management. It ensures the coordination of the statutory businesses and indemnitees for the whole of the personnel. It deals with problems relating to the pensions for the whole of the personnel. It manages the appropriations of personnel of secondary education and higher education and ensures the budgetary control of employment.
the Direction of the legal affairs (DAJ) exerts a function of council, expertise and assistance near the central administration of the ministry, the decentralized services and the establishments. She is consulted on the legislative or lawful text projects prepared by the other directions and ensures the follow-up of the procedures of adoption of these texts. She is responsible for the coding legislative texts and lawful. She represents the minister in front of the jurisdictions of the orders administrative and legal in the authorities not raising of the dispute of the pensions or the competence of the decentralized services. She ensures the diffusion of competences and knowledge legal the profit of the central administration, the decentralized services and the public corporations under the supervision of the minister. She distributes the quotas of special permits of absence and discharges of service between the trade-union organizations taking into account their representativeness.
the Direction of the European and international relations and the co-operation (DREIC) ensures and coordinates the development of the exchanges and the co-operation with the school systems, academics and of research foreigners. It supports the international opening of the French education system.
the Délégation with the communication is in charge of the internal and external communication as well as relations with the press.
the Service of the administrative action and modernization is in load of the development of the electronic administration, of the personnel and means of the central administration and the control of management. It ensures the behavior of the files of the ministry.
Other services common or put to provision
In addition to the general secretary, the senior official of defense and safety and the Mediator of state education and higher education are common to the minister of education main road and that of Higher education and Research.
To perform his functions, the Minister for State education also lays out of the Head office of higher education (DGES).
This faculty of the minister must in particular enable him to exert its competences as regards training of the Masters of the lesson primary education and secondary, orientation of the high-school pupils, organization of the classes post-baccalaureat of college (CPGE, STS), etc
The minister can still call upon the Délégation for the use of the Internet.
The ministry has authority into clean on a Service of inspection and, jointly with the Minister for Higher education and research, on another general inspection.
the General inspection of State education (IGEN) exerts near the Minister for the functions of expertise, framing and evaluation. The mission of evaluation entrusted to the general inspection of State education relates to the types of training, the contents of teaching, the programs, the methods teaching, the procedures and the means implemented. It takes part in the control of the personnel of inspection, direction, teaching, education and orientation (primary and secondary education, but not higher). It takes part in their recruitment, their formation and the evaluation of their activity. It coordinates, in connection, with the academic authorities, the action of all the bodies of inspection to teaching competence. The general inspection formulates for the minister, for the implementation of the educational policy, the opinions and proposals concerned with its competences.
the General inspection of the administration of State education and research (IGAENR), divided between the two ministries, exerts missions of expertise and evaluation on the whole of the people and the structures - public and deprived - convergent at the public service of state education and research (police headquarters and decentralized, service and research, educational establishments…). She exerts her competences in all the fields (apart from the purely teaching aspects, reserved for the IGEN): administrative, financial, countable, organization, activities… It evaluates, control and advises the organizations auprès of which it intervenes, according to an annual program fixed by the minister, to which the IGAENR submits an annual report.
State education has a decentralized administration enabling him to manage closest to the ground certain competences of daily management. The capacities of these lower levels are increasingly broad, the central administration centering more and more its missions on the orientation of the educational policy and the definition of the national great principles (programs, recruitment of the teachers…), development of the executives legislature and lawful, the evaluation and prospection, the coordination of the educational action…
One finds two great levels, in which the territorial collectivities are associated thanks to councils of state education.
At the level of the academies, the Vice-chancellorship, directed by the vice-chancellor, ensures the operation of higher education, the recruitment and the teaching staff management as well as the teaching control of the second degree. It is assisted of a academic Conseil of state education. In each department, a Inspector of Academy, director of the departmental services of State education, is in load of primary school education and, in connection with the communities, of the material organization of the colleges and colleges. He directs the School inspectorate east is assisted of a departmental Conseil of state education.
In the communities of overseas, the ministry is represented by:
- a Vice-vice-chancellorship, to which the capacities are close to those to a vice-chancellor and those of an inspector of academy, with Mayotte, in New Caledonia, in French Polynésie and with Wallis-and-Futuna;
- a service of education, attached administratively to the academy of Caen, for Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon.
Moreover, the establishments enjoy a greater autonomy than in the past.
Public corporations under supervision of the ministry
The minister of education main road exerts its supervision on several public corporations.
In the areas, they are the regional centres of university and school works and the regional centres of teaching documentation.
The following national public corporations, classified alphabetically, also concern the national supervision of the minister of education, possibly in common with that of Higher education and research:
- Center of studies and research on the qualifications
- international Center of teaching studies
- National center of remote teaching
- teaching National center of documentation
- teaching National research institute
- National office of information on the lesson and the professions
Personnel of the ministry
See also: Contenu=Voir also it [[: Category: Trade of State education (France)]], [[category “Trade of State education”]]
The minister of education main road employs approximately 1,1 million civils servant of which: 850000 teachers.
It is not easy to count the civils servant and contract employees of State education, and this for several reasons:
- Since the laws of decentralization, part of the personnel, although carrying on his activity in the schools of 1st and the 2nd degree is not any more of the civils servant of the State but territorial agents;
- Some body civils servant are managed by the minister of education main road while exerting within other ministries or even of local government agencies even of private organizations (of educational associations until the mutual );
- Conversely, the ministry employs civils servant concerned with other ministries or with interdepartmental management.
If the trades of State education are very numerous, the principal distinction is done between the teaching and assimilated personnel, on the one hand, and the nonteaching personnel, on the other hand. Separation with the ministry in charge of higher education, coupled with the transfer of working personnel and service towards the territorial collectivities, tend to strongly reduce the number of nonteaching personnel within the ministry.
Teachers and comparable
The documents of the ministry speak about the personnel “of teaching, education and orientation”. Certain people ensuring of the functions of framing or inspection are also comparable to the teaching personnel.
In the second degree exert qualified schoolteachers, certified professors and professors of vocational school (PLP), Professors of mainstream education of college (PEGC, in extinction) and teachers of EPS which belong to specific bodies (professors of EPS and responsible for teaching of EPS, this last body being in extinction).
The primary education is entrusted to professors of the schools, the body of the Instituteur S having been put in extinction.
The teachers of the private establishments under contract are remunerated by the services of the minister of education main road, but work under the authority of the director of private establishment. For the establishments under simple contracts, the teachers are personnel of private law. For the establishments under contracts of association, the teachers are either of the civils servant (far from many), or of the contractual public agents (by far, most).
In the teachers the personnel of education and orientation is also counted which are often in contact with the pupils. The first are especially the principal advisers of education which exert in the colleges and colleges for the monitoring of the pupils or the participation in the school life. The seconds are the psychological careers adviser (COP) which exert either directly in the schools, or in CIO.
The inspection and supervisory staff is often of former teachers and is thus regarded as teaching personnel. They are initially the chiefs of schools of the second degree (headmasters in the colleges, principal in the colleges) and their assistants. The people in charge of the inspection of the teachers and comparable are, in the first degree, the inspectors of State education and, in the second degree, the inspectors of academy, teaching inspectors regional (IA-IPR). The vice-chancellors and the inspectors of academy are generally also of former teachers.
See also: IATOS
The nonteaching personnel is mainly gathered under term ATOSS. The partition with the ministry in charge of higher education and the movements of decentralization of the nonteaching personnel tend to reduce the manpower attached to the ministry. The ATOSS (Administrative, technicians, workmen, social and of health) ensure of the functions of support in the administrative domain and technical, in the material organization, like in the support for health and the social security in favor of the personnel and of the pupils and students.
Only concern from now on ministry the personnel the central administration, bodies decentralized (vice-chancellorships, school inspectorates), information centers and orientation and certain public corporations. The agents which exert within the establishments of secondary education raise from now on territorial collectivities.
Reduction of manpower
The government Fillon plans to remove: 10000 with: 17000 stations in State education. State education could thus contribute for “a good half” to the efforts required by this government, which wishes not to replace a departure with the retirement on two in the public office since 2008.
Ministers for State education
|Random links:||TIGCC | Sirenia | Jean-Baptiste Lestiboudois | Sarepta | Hypostomus | Sandborn,_Indiana|