Military Cross 1939-1945
The Military Cross 1939-1945 is a Décoration military Frenchwoman intended to distinguish from the people (civil and military), units, cities or institutions having been the subject of a quotation for act of war during the Second world war.
HistoryThe events very confused of this period justify the creation of several Military Crosses.
First Military CrossIt is on the initiative of Edouard Daladier, President of the Council and Ministre for the War which was instituted the Military Cross by a Décret-loi of the September 26th 1939. Realized on the same model as that of 1914-1918, but with the date 1939 registered with the reverse, and suspended with a new ribbon of two external red bands framing four green bands separated by three fine red stripes.
Military Cross of the French StateThe Vichy government decides by the decree of the March 23rd 1941, to remove the Military Cross of 1939 and to establish of it a news, granted to the holders of old after study of their quotations. The cross remains the same one, but marked with the reverse of the dates 1939 - 1940. The ribbon is green with seven black edgings. Thereafter, a gray ribbon with edgings dark blue created.
Military Cross known as “Giraud”To Algiers, the general Giraud, by decision of the March 16th 1943, into force gives the Military Cross with the ribbon of 1914 - 1918, with the reverse the inscription 1943 and with the avers two flags crossed to replace the effigy of the Republic.
Free Military Cross FranceThe September 30th 1942, the general De Gaulle creates a quotation with the order of the Free French Forces giving right to the port of the Military Cross with a palm in vermeil. The ordinance of the January 7th 1944 defines the methods which differentiate this Cross from the preceding one.
MedalMedal: bronzes of It florentine with four branches with two cross swords. The center represents, with the avers, the head of the Republic with Phrygian cap, decorated bay-trees with the inscription French Republic . With the reverse, the dates 1939 or 1939 - 1945.
Ribbon: Red, divided by four green bands, separated between them and laid out so as to leave three external red bands.
Quotations: Identical to those of 1914-1918.
- Quotation with the order of the regiment: bronze
- Citation with the order of the brigade: bronze
- Citation with the order of division: money
- Quotation with the order of the army corps: vermeil
- Mention in dispatches: bronze
- Five mentions in dispatches: money
DecoratedIn addition to the combatants and non-combatant decorated for acts of war, a certain number of quotations are decreed on a purely collective basis with regiments, warships, cities (: 1548 were decorated between 1948 and 1949 - is 209 communes decorated with the two Military Crosses).
Nevertheless, taking into account the events of the time (occupation, deportation), the Military Cross 1939-1945 nowadays continues to be decreed.
- Ribbons of military and civil decorations French
- : Category: Holder of the Military Cross 1939-1945
- Ways of memory, '' Of decorations, in recognition of the nation ''
- Military Cross 1939-1945, '' historical and methods of attribution ''
- Military Cross 39-45
- Military Cross, information about the French and Belgian medals
Sourcethe mark of courage , collective, Editions LBM, Paris, 2005
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