Military Cross 1914-1918
CreationDuring the First World War, the need to create a reward for the combatants was felt very quickly. There existed well the “quotation with the day order”, but it was only one written testimony, in the official statements, the states of service and the military record. This administrative decoration was to leave room to a clear and visible distinctive sign, which made it possible to the chief to decorate most valiant with its soldiers on the spot even of the engagements.
In March 1914, before the beginning of the war, the deputy Tournade had already deposited a private bill in order to institute, for the combatants, a medal known as of the military value . But this project had then been pushed back by the commission of the War.
With the end of the year 1914, the General Boëlle, ordering IVe Body then, tries to convince the administration of the need for the creation of such a decoration. It will succeed in rejoining a deputy, the writer Maurice Barrès, appointed Paris and cantor of patriotism, to propose a project of medal to decorate the soldiers after a particular exploit.
The December 23rd 1914, the deputy Georges Bonnefous files in a bill, signed by 66 deputies aiming at creating a medal known as of the military Valeur . The Député Emile Driant, which sits then at the Parliament between two stays with the face, is quite naturally made the spokesperson of a project which it had already outlined whereas it was aide-de-camp of the Minister for the War, the general Boulanger.
The January 18th 1915, the deputy Emile Driant, present and support, with the National Assembly, the Commission Report of the army. It then indicates this decoration by “Military Cross”. After rough discussions within the two parliamentary rooms, the law creating the Military Cross is voted on April 2nd 1915 and promulgated the 8 of the same month.
BadgeMedal: It is to the sculptor Paul-Albert Bartholomé that is due the final model:
“The Military Cross instituted by the law of April 8th, 1915 is out of Florentin bronze of the model of 37mm, with four branches, two swords cross. The center represents with the avers, a head of République to the Phrygian cap decorated of a laurel wreath with forward “French Republic”. It carries to the reverse the inscription 1914 - 1915” ( Article 1st of the decree of April 23rd, 1915 )
Ribbon: green with red edging on each board and cash five vertical red branches of 1,5 Misters. Origin of the ribbon: the ribbon of the Military Cross of 1914-1918 is that of the medal of Saint-Helene. Napoleon III rewarded, thanks to it, the veterans of the army of the First Empire.
- Medal of Grey waxbill '''
- Quotation with the order of the regiment: bronze
- Citation with the order of the brigade: bronze
- Citation with the order of division: money
- Quotation with the order of the army corps: vermeil
- Mention in dispatches: bronze
- 5 mentions in dispatches: money
DecoratedThe number of holders of the Military Cross 1914 - 1918 is not known of anybody. The information of the ministry for the war estimates at: 2055000 quotations allotted to March 1st 1920. This figure does not take account of the quotations on a purely posthumous basis and the Military Crosses accompanying by office the Légion of honor and the Military decoration.
The Military Cross 1914-1918 more “charged” is that of the As of the Aces French Rene Fonck with 28 palms and 1 star.
The Military Cross was sometimes decreed on a purely collective basis, with common S (: 2952 communes are decorated with the Military Cross 1914-1918 between 1917 and 1926), of the Régiment S, the Navire S (the Bouvet for example) or of the organizations (Police headquarter of Paris, Barreau of Paris, Université S, Universities, etc)
First regiments and units on which the fouragère of the Military Cross was conferred
- 152e, 224e, 329e regiments of infantry
- 1st, 22e, 27e battalions of hunters
- 3rd battalion of walk of light infantry of Africa
- 3rd and 8th regiments of walk of zouaves
- 4th and 8th regiments of walk of riflemen
- 2nd regiment from 1st abroad
- 2nd regiment from 2nd abroad
- Companies 14/5 and 14/15 of the 4th genius
- Companies 10/2 and 10/3 of the 6th genius
- 61e regiment of field artillery
- Flotilla MF1
- Flotilla N67
- 1st group of aviation of bombardment
- 3rd goum with horse of Morocco
- 1st regiment of colonial infantry of Morocco
- Titular of the Military Cross 1914-1918
- very complete Site treating military and civil decorations French
- Information about the French and Belgian medals
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