Mikhaïl Sergueïevitch Gorbatchev , more rarely Gorbatchov while following more closely the Russian pronunciation (Russian: МихаилСергеевичГорбачёв ,), is a Soviet politician and Russian, born the March 2nd 1931. It directed the USSR between 1985 and 1991.
Resolutely reforming, it outside engaged towards the end of the Cold war, and launched inside economic liberalization, cultural and policy known under the names of Perestroïka and Glasnost. Impotent to control the evolutions which it itself had engaged, its resignation marked the final point of the implosion of two years the Soviet Union, preceded by the collapse of the People's democracies in Eastern Europe.
BiographyBorn kolkhoz parents (Sergeï Andreïevitch Gorbatchev (1909-1976) and Maria Panteleïevna born Gopkalo (1911-1993)), it is originating in the the Caucasus north (it was born in the Krai de Stavropol) and studies the Droit to the university Lomonossov of Moscow where it meets his future wife Raissa. It adheres to the Communist party in 1952 and becomes about it leading for the town of Stavropol in 1962. Between 1964 and 1967, he studies at the Institute agronomist of Stavropol and specializes in the agricultural problems. He is noticed by Iouri Andropov which spends its holidays in the area; consequently, its career accelerates: he is elected with the Central committee in 1971 to 40 years and with the Politburo in 1980 to 49 years.
Causes of its come to power
At the end of the the Seventies, the KGB directed by Iouri Andropov, diligenta a confidential investigation to evaluate Soviet GNP according to the Western qualitative criteria and either only in volume like wanted it the Soviet tradition. The result was very unfavourable and brought the proof of the decline of the Soviet Union which had seen its economy exceeded by those of the Japan and the FRG, former enemies of the USSR. In addition, as from 1978, the China directed by Deng Xiaoping, undertook a true economic revolution which restored in fact of the capitalist rules and of market economy in the Chinese economy what will cause to give him a considerable dynamism.
The USSR was thus confronted with a new geopolitical situation, more serious than in the Années 1930:
- Japan and FRG laid out from now on each one of an economy more powerful than his;
- China started an exceptional economic growth;
- the United States, always so hostile, increased the difference between the two countries.
However, some of these countries were bordering on the USSR and maintained a serious territorial dispute with it (except the United States).
Its come to power and beginnings of the Perestroika
Conscious of the danger, the growing old direction of PCUS carries to the capacity the representative of a new generation - Gorbatchev is 54 years old - but trained and tested to the school of the party. As of December 1984, Gorbatchev had been able to make his entry on the international diplomatic scene, while going in Great Britain, visit with Margaret Thatcher: the number two Soviet had dissociated other leaders of Moscow there, by his image of opening and by announcing that the USSR was ready with a bilateral reduction of the nuclear armaments.
Arrived at the position of secretary general of the Communist party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, Gorbatchev tries to insufflate a new youth with the economy of the USSR. He endeavors to save the system by very major structural reforms compared to the traditional Leninist principles.
Gorbatchev draws his inspiration from Alexandr Iakovlev, former ambassador in Canada, which made him become aware of the bankruptcy of the Soviet system in the agricultural domain then, in a more general way, in his strategy of confrontation with the Occident. This one became little by little its 3eminence grise and successively the Glasnost inspires to him then the Pérestroïka and, finally, the German reunification.
Gorbatchev proposes to open the dialog with Ronald Reagan. In a message of New year, the US president addresses a short message televised to all USSR, while the president of the USSR makes in the same way on an American television channel. The allured project; each of the two presidents is shown very moderate in its message; the gorbymania starts to touch the United States. A survey will even reveal, at one time, which Gorbatchev is more popular in the United States than Reagan itself. The Magazine Time decrees the title of to him Man of the year in 1987, then of Man of the Decade in 1989 after the Fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1989, in official visit in China during the Manifestations of the place Tian' anmen (before their repression), one requests his opinion on the wall of China: “Very beautiful work”, says it, “but there are already too many walls between the men”. A journalist asks him: “Would you Like that one eliminates that from Berlin”? Does Gorbatchev answer very seriously “Why not? ”. In connection with the democratic demonstrators who disturb his stay, he declares: “the USSR also has its burned heads which want to change the socialism of the day at the following day. ”
In 1990, it receives the Nobel Prize of peace for its contribution at the end of the Cold war. However, on May 1st of the same year, he is hooted by certain his fellow-citizens. Indeed it is very unpopular with the eyes of faithful Communism which regard it as the grave-digger of the Soviet mode.
The attempts at reforms of the Soviet economy worsen the economic difficulties of the country (cf economy of Russia), and Gorbatchev becomes definitely more unpopular at his place than in Occident.
At the time of the coup d'etat of August 1991, left on vacation in its datcha the Crimea, it is there a time locked up and drawn aside of the capacity by the extremists of the Soviet Communist party. The support of Helmut Kohl proves to be insufficient whereas the president François Mitterrand states to want to await the intentions of “new the Soviet leaders”, grateful de facto the government resulting from the Putsch, and not hesitating then on television to read on line a letter sent by Guennadi Ianaïev, the author of the coup d'etat. This one falls through finally and Boris Eltsine, then president of the Soviet federative socialist République of Russia, becomes the large recipient of this failure after having received the support as of the first hours of the putsch of the president George H.W. Bush and of John Major.
In his Memories , Gorbatchev will write bitterly: " De Foros (in the Crimea, where it is retained) I had a conversation with president Bush. François Mitterrand was to call me, it does not have it fait."
With one, the Republics of the USSR declare their independence. Gorbatchev resigns of his position of president of the USSR the 25 December 1991, after Boris Eltsine proclaimed authority, at a meeting at the Parliament, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the independence de facto of Russia which it directs from now on.
After the fall
In 1996 it is represented with the presidential election of the Fédération of Russia, but its score is very weak. Besides there remains one of the leaders of the 20th century the mostliked Russians.
It publishes its memories in 1996 denouncing the policy of Boris Eltsine and his “treason” towards the referendum of April 1991 which had given a majority favorable to the maintenance of the Union.
Since the beginning of this century it is engaged with ONG ecologists and Daisaku Ikeda to support the pacifist cause. In 2001, it founds the social democrat Parti Russia.
The November 21st 2006, it is operated Artère carotid in a private clinic of Munich in Germany. It is the first time that the former Soviet leader is made look after in Germany. It is in this country that his Raissa wife had been treated, who had succumbed to a Leucémie the September 20th 1999 at the 67 years age.
Gorbatchev also took part in the advertisements for the restaurants Pizza Hut where people acclaim it for the freedom which it would have brought to the Russians, including that to have Western restaurants, and for the company of luxury Louis Vuitton, where it is seen, a bag Louis Vuitton at its sides, in a Russian luxury car skirting the Berlin Wall.
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