See also: Rocard
FormationHe is bachelor of arts, graduate of the Institut of political studies of Paris and of the National school of administration (promotion 1958, called June 18th).
- Michel Rocard is the son of Yves Rocard, professor and researcher.
- He is the father of Francis Rocard astrophysicist with CNES, of Sylvie, Olivier and Loïc Rocard.
Entry with the PSU and War of Algeria
Entered in 1947 with the Institute of political studies of Paris, Michel Rocard adheres into 1949 to the socialist Jeunesses. Between 1953 and 1955, it is responsible for the socialist students. It enters to ENA in 1955. Whereas is declared the Guerre of Algeria, it joined the Socialists in rupture with Guy Mollet in connection with the Algerian policy. It adheres to the autonomous Socialist party (PSA) as of its creation by Edouard Depreux and Alain Savary. " During more than one century, France claimed to follow in Algeria the policy known as of the assimilation, which only justified the integration of Algeria in the terrioire of the Republic. In fact, this policy was proclaimed and never appliquée" , Michel Rocard in a report/ratio written in 1957 wrote.
" Equality of all the citizens in front of the law, which is the basic principle of our Constitution, forever practiced. The equality of the duties existed, and in particular the blood tribute, but not equality of the droits" , he added, before noting that " a mentality close to the racial segregation prevailed hard which prohibited to the Moslems, except exception, the access to the functions of responsibilities, even minor, in their clean pays" (M.Rocard, " The drama algérien" report/ratio presented by H.Frenay, but written by M.Rocard, in the name of the Life section of the federation of the Seine in spring 1957 for congress of the SFIO, in Report/ratio on the camps of regrouping and other texts on the war of Algeria COp cit. p.42, 43)
Michel Rocard is appointed Tax inspector in 1958 then general secretary of the Commission of the accounts and the economic budgets of the nation in 1965. Noticed at the time of the congress of Grenoble in 1966, he becomes general secretary of PSU in 1967. Since 1953, Michel Rocard had taken the pseudonym of Georges Servet (of the name of a Protestant heretic) and it is under this name that it was known with the PSU before 1967. In May 68, he plays a certain part because the UNEF, the studied main trade union of the time, were controlled by the students of the PSU of which in particular part Jacques Sauvageot made, directing UNEF.
It presents to the presidential election 1969, where it collects a score of 3,61 % of the votes cast, - the best score obtained by the PSU since its creation -, the socialist candidate Gaston Defferre, combined with Pierre Mendès France, obtaining only 5%. It is presented to legislative in the fourth district of the Yvelines in 1969 and beats the first outgoing minister Maurice Couve of Murville. It will lose this seat in 1973. It supports the presidential campaign of François Mitterrand in April - May 1974, but in October, when it proposes with the PSU to join the PS, it is put in minority (40%), leaves PSU and takes part in the Assises for Socialism (12 October 13rd, 1974) which prepare the entry with the PS of minority PSU and certain militants close to CFDT like Jacques Chereque. Its entry with the Socialist party date of December 1974. He becomes member of the executive office in February 1975 and national secretary of the public sector. He is elected mayor of Conflans-Holy-Honorine in 1977, with the head of a list of union of the Left. He will become appointed district of Conflans to legislative of 1978. October 19th, 1980, he announces his candidature for the candidature for the presidential ones of 1981, but withdraws his candidature on November 8th when François Mitterrand announces his. The antagonism which brooded between the two men since at least 1977 will perdurera until the death of Mitterrand in 1996.
End of the Years 1970 mark the advent of the rocardism , a current within the Socialist party which posts a tendency decentralizing (Congrès of Nantes, 77), then openly hostile with the integral nationalizations (at 100%) prepared by the mitterrandists (Congrès of Metz, 1979). It benefits from the lawsuit against members of the FAS, during which it testifies in favor of the defendants, in November 1979, to justify its calls to decentralization: I feel deeply that this centralizing movement, begun with Philippe the Beautiful one, must stop . Michel Rocard, whose dimension was always high in the surveys, becomes thus a figure impossible to circumvent of the French political scene. While being opposed to the “nationalizations with excess” and by accepting the market economy, the rocardism is found contrary to the positions defended by the Communist party in the negotiations of the common Programme. The rocardiens often claim thought of Pierre Mendès France when they preach a “realistic” economic policy.
Entry with the government
Mayor of Conflans-Holy-Honorine of 1977 with 1993, it becomes Minister of state, in charge of the Plan and Town and country planning, in the government Mauroy of the May 25th 1981, then Minister for Agriculture the March 22nd 1983. He preserves this function in the government of Laurent Fabius. Opposed to the introduction of the way of voting proportional for the legislative elections, he resigns of his station the April 4th 1985.
He is named Prime Minister, the May 12th 1988, at the beginning of the second septennate of François Mitterrand: to see Government Michel Rocard (1). The results of the legislative elections involve the formation of a second government Rocard the June 26th 1988. This same day, Michel Rocard makes sign the agreements of Matignon ratifying the rights of the New Caledonia to self-determination and putting an end to violences on the island. This action, often qualified the miraculous one, for the pacification of New Caledonia east, according to him, which it did of better as regards government but it is also the action for which it says to have undergone the worst attacks (“ high treason of the Republic ”, “ worthy of the martial court ”). It also founds the Minimum wages of insertion the October 12th 1988, which constitutes one of the rare bills voted with the Parliament without only one vote of opposition. It also makes adopt by the assembly (November 19th, 1990) the law on CSG, new taking away on all the incomes, announced like provisional, cause a drop in the deficit of the Social security. The CSG is always in force in 2007 and increases regularly since its creation.
First secretary of the Socialist party
François Mitterrand with which his disagreement is then of public notoriety (one even spoke about a cohabitation) requires of him to resign of its function of Prime Minister on May 15th 1991. In March 1993, it is beaten in its district of Yvelines by Pierre Cardo (UDF), mayor of Chanteloup-the-Vines.
He becomes First secretary of the Socialist party in 1993 after the socialist rout with the legislative elections. He deeply alters the leading institutions of the Party, in particular giving his autonomy to MJS, and becomes the first First secretary of the PS elected by the delegates with the national congress. He chooses to be chief candidate to the European elections of June 1994 during which he must undergo the competition of the radical list of Bernard Tapie. Following the bad score of its list (14%), a Emmanuelli-Fabius coalition the met in minority at the National council of the PS and it must resign of its post of First secretary the June 19th 1994, replaced by Henri Emmanuelli which convenes in the urgency a congress in Liévin. Michel Rocard is elected senator in 1995.
Its implication in the European Union
He resigns of his mandate of senator in 1997, because Lionel Jospin required of him to choose between the senate and the European Parliament, where he sits since 1994, and where he illustrates by his opposition to the software patents in the European Union of 2003 with 2005. It occupied several functions with the European Parliament by chairing the commissions of the co-operation and the development (1997 - 1999), then social affairs and use (1999 - 2002) and finally of the culture (2002 - 2004) (speech).
The shortly after the victory of Not to the European referendum of May 29th, 2005, whereas the socialist party is in crisis, Mr. Rocard marks, through several talks, his opposition to Laurent Fabius and the currents “left” of the PS, by in particular fustigating the “Nouveau Socialist party” of Arnaud Montebourg. He is also caught some with association Altermondialiste ATTAC (“monument of economic and political silly thing” according to the former first-minister). He however marks his curiosity for the current “Utopia” which will only obtain a little more than 1% of the voices to the congress of Mans (November 2005).
Its international implication
Michel Rocard also counts among the founding members of the ethical, political and scientific Collegium international, association who wishes to bring answers intelligent and suitable until the people of the world vis-a-vis the new challenges of our time wait.
Presidential 2007Ségolène Royal entrusts to Michel Rocard within the framework of her candidature for the presidential election a numerical mission in responsibility of establish a report-program. Michel Rocard had played a determining role in the battle in the European Parliament against the patentability of the software. The report is published under the title République 2.0 - Towards a company of open knowledge . See below. It reveals in July 2007 to have tried in vain to convince Ségolène Royal to desist in her favor one month before the first turn of the presidential election, estimating that this change of candidate could have avoided with the left the defeat to come.
April 13rd, 2007, 9 days only before the first turn, he decides in Le Monde for an agreement Royal - Bayrou in order to beat the coalition of Nicolas Sarkozy and Jean-Marie Le Pen , without however specifying the methods of this possible agreement. He is followed in his step by Bernard Kouchner the following day.
The June 30th 2007, travels from there in India, it was victim of a brain hemorrhage and transferred, in a serious condition, within the service of neurosurgery of the hospital of Calcutta. It leaves this hospital on July 10th, 2007, obviously given of this cerebral vascular accident, to be repatriated in France.
Wednesday, August 29, 2007, it takes part at a committee on the teaching condition and the statute of the teachers wanted by Nicolas Sarkozy and launched by Xavier Darcos, the current Minister for state education.
- Minister of state, Minister for the Plan and Town and country planning 1981 - 1983, Government Pierre Mauroy (1))
- Government Pierre Mauroy (2))
Prime Minister (1988-1991). Government Michel Rocard
- Appointed PSU then PS in the Seventh district of Yvelines, elected in 1969,1978,1981,1986 and 1988, then beaten by Pierre Cardo (UDF) in 1993,
Mandate of senator
- Senator PS of Yvelines (1995-1997),
- Appointed European (since June 1994).
- Mayor (1977-1994), then City council man (1994-2001) of Conflans-Holy-Honorine,
- Regional adviser of Ile-de-France (1978-1988).
Functions with the Socialist party
- First secretary 1993 - 1994,
- Member of the national office since 1994.
- president of the direction of the Socialist party 1993;
- member of the national office of the PS 1994 - 1997;
- Invited permanent of the national office of the PS
AffiliationsMichel Rocard was member of the International Advisory Board of the Council one Foreign Relations of 1999 to 2004. He is, with Dominique Strauss-Kahn, cofounder of association On the left, in Europe. And also administrator of the Think tank Friends of Europe .
Publications of Michel Rocard
- the P.S.U and socialist future of France . Threshold, 1969.
- the Common Market against Europe . Threshold, 1973. Vis-a-vis the challenge of the “multinational ” the Socialisme will be European or will not be. (with Bernard Jaumont and Daniel Lenègre)
- inflation in the middle . Gallimard, 1975. (with Jacques Gallus) political
- To speak true, texts (1966 - 1979). Threshold, 1979.
- a country like ours, texts political (1986 - 1989)
- the heart with the work Odile Jacob/Threshold. Paris. 1987.
- a contract enters the generations. Gallimard 1991
- the Nation, Europe, the world (with Aline Archimbaud and Felix Damette) (1995)
- Ethical and democracy (1996)
- the art of the paix/l' Edict of Nantes (with Janine Garrison) (1997)
- means of leaving it , Threshold, (1998)
- Reciprocity and Community legislation (1999)
- My ideas for tomorrow , Odile Jacob, (2000)
- Discussion with Judith Waintraub , alive Mémoire collection, Flammarion, (2001)
- For another Africa (2001)
- If the left knew: Discussions with Georges-Marc Benamou , Paris: Robert Laffont, 2005. 16 X 24 cm. 372 pages. ISBN 2-221-10435-8.
- the Second left, an unfinished history. Discussion with Michel Rocard , Spirit , February 2006, p. 140-147.
- can one reform France? Discussions with Frits Bolkestein , Paris: Otherwise, 2006. 124 pages. ISBN 2-7467-0858-2.
- Republic 2.0 - Towards a company of open knowledge
Publications on Michel Rocard
- Kathleen Evin, Michel Rocard or the Art of possible the . Paris: Jean-Claude Simoën, 1979. 24 cm. 243 pages.
- Herve Hamon and Patrick Rotman, the Effect Rocard . Paris: Stock, 1980. 22 cm. 363 pages. ISBN 2-234-01245-7.
- Sylvie Santini, Michel Rocard: A certain regret . Paris: Stock, 2004. 14 X 22 cm. 247 pages + 8 pages of illustrated boards. ISBN 2-234-05558-X.
- Jean-Louis Andreani, the mystery Rocard . Paris: Robert Laffont, 1993 .239 mm X 153 Misters 732 pages ISBN 2-221-07037-2
AnecdotesSet on aviation, it is pilot and took part in many competitions of sailplane.
- Grand Cross of the National order of the Merit.
- Commander of the agricultural Merit.
- Commander of the Order of the Honor of Greece.
- France cannot accommodate all the misery of the world, but it must know to take its share accurately of it. was marked on December 3rd, 1989 in front of the militants of the Cimade. This sentence is very often quoted in its truncated version, the second part is not less important because Michel Rocard comments on his sentence on August 24th, 1996. There many personalities nevertheless could see in germ, the roots of a vast movement of lepenisation of the spirits. (see the dictionary of the lepenisation of the spirits of Sylvie Tissot and Pierre Tévanian) Bernard Tapie for example vigorously denounced this formula (INA discusses on Antenne 2 directed by P.Amar within the framework of the European elections of June 1994 B.Tapie/JM Le Pen).
In 2004, with a journalist who asked him Regret never having been President of the Republic? , Michel Rocard answered: I think of having been acceptable a Prime Minister, I do not know if I would have made a good president.
Admittedly, I did not become President; I did not live under golds of republican monarchy; but my inscription in the history of socialism is already acquired. That arranges me to have had this sectarian woman (Edith Cresson) like successor. That done my difference better… I am on line the State cannot large thing; what there is of essence is not always very political. in If the left knew (2005).
There is no Socialist party, it are only the friends of François Mitterrand (quotation of François Mitterrand brought back by Michel Rocard in the Nouvel Observateur n° 2135)
Made blunder the guy! in connection with the threats which weigh on numerical freedoms (in particular the software patents and the Loi DADVSI) at the time of the world Rencontres of the free software on July 6th, 2006 with Vandœuvre-the-Nancy. See political Roundtable: Which legal environment for the free software?.
The historians about now control the human history over the 6000 last years. Over these 6000 years, 5800 years saw the man eating what the ground produced; it was a world where, apart from some priests and of some kings, everyone lived under conditions of extreme and appalling poverty. We left that thanks to capitalism. in can one reform France? by Frits Bolkestein and Michel Rocard, Paris, Otherwise, Oct. 2006
1968-1974 directed to it [[unified Socialist party|PSU] of 1967 to 1973]: six years infernal - worse still, it was an infernal war. I was always in defense. The party voted anything. Thus, a beautiful day, in a national council, it confirmed that we were a “revolutionary party”. What I had to do that! I was empêtré. I struggled as I could. I on TV remember to have made courses of semantics, explaining that the “revolutionary” word was in this case as pain-killer as it was it when the Renault control claimed that its new Frigate had a “revolutionary” transmission. That made laugh whole France. ()
Capitalism is undoubtedly the shape of social organization who guarantees the greatest margins of freedom to all the actors of the system. That cannot obviously hold without an high degree of voluntary restraint and self-checking.
The French left was still not demolished of its dream of managed economy.
French socialism must start by ceasing acting under the accusing finger of those which assume a kind of right to say what is, and what is not, “of left”.
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