Michel-Angel (born Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni the March 6th 1475 with Caprese, in the north of Arezzo in Tuscan - February 18th 1564 with Rome) is a painter, a sculptor, a Poète and a Architecte Italy N of the Renaissance.
Its most known sculptures include the tomb of Jules II and in particular the Moïse and its David . For painting, one retains the ceiling of the Chapelle Sixtine, the last Jugement above the furnace bridge, the Martyre of saint Pierre in the Cappella Paolina of the the Vatican realized by Antonio da Sangallo the Young person.
Its work has a considerable influence on its contemporaries, so that his “manner” of painting and to carve is abundantly taken again by the representatives of what one will call the Maniérisme, which thrives in the late Renaissance.
BiographyHe is born on March 6th, 1475 with Caprese, in the north of Arezzo in Toscane of Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena, his mother and Lodovico di Leonardo Buonarroti Simoni, his father, who is magistrate and Podestat of Caprese and Chiusi. The family returns in their house of Settignano close to Florence, after the father finished his load of podestat. In 1481, it loses his mother and it grows then in a nurse, woman and girl of stone masons. It will turn over in his father, only at age the ten years.
Going against the wishes of his/her father and his uncles, refractories with art, Michel-Angel, after having studied near the grammairien Francesco da Urbino, chooses despite everything, thanks to his/her friend Francesco Granacci, to be the apprentice of Domenico Ghirlandaio for three years as from 1488. He studies the frescos of Santo Spirito and of Santa Maria del Carmine and by copying the frescos of Masaccio, attracts the jealousies as much by its skill that by its remarks, which towards the sculptor Pietro Torrigiano make him receive with the face, a punch which causes a break with the nose which will mark with life its face.
Impressed by its work, Domenico recommends it to the Master of Florence, Laurent de Médicis. From 1490 to 1492, Michel-Angel is pupil at the school of Laurent and is influenced by a free medium which makes evolve/move its ideas on art and its feelings on sexuality. He admires the collections of Greek statues ancient collected by Médicis, and he promises himself to become a sculptor. He starts by copying a masuqe fauna and in front of the Laurent result rewards it for five ducats per month. On the councils of Politien, Michel-Angel carves a low-relief of the Bataille of the centaurs and the Vierge with the staircase , which reflect its great admiration for Donatello.
It practices the study of the human body and the Anatomie at the hospital Santo Spirito of Florence about 1490 (and then in Rome about 1540), collaborating in the illustration of a treaty of anatomy with Realdo Colombo doctor and friend. The bodies of Michel-Angel are subjected to art, than with the strict respect of the human anatomy (lengthening of the gun of the figures and distortions intended to highlight a moral feature).
After the death of Laurent in 1492, Pierre II of Médicis (young person wire of Laurent and new chief of the Médicis) refuses to be the patron of Michel-Angel. It is at that time that the ideas of Savonarole become popular in Florence. Under these two pressures, Michel-Angel decides to leave Florence and settles during three years with Bologna. A little later Raffaele Riario, cardinal in title of San Giorgio Al Velabro , requires of him to come to Rome in 1496. Under its mixed liability company and influenced by the Roman Antiquity, it carries out two statues: Bacchus and the Pietà . Four years later, Michel-Angel turns over to Florence to create there its most famous work, the David of Marbre. It also paints the Holy Family with the platform known as Tondo Doni .
Michel-angel is again requested from Rome in 1503 by the new pope, Jules II which charges it with carrying out its tomb. However, under the direction of Jules II, Michel-Angel must unceasingly stop its work in order to carry out many other tasks. Most famous of them is the monumental painting of the ceiling of the Chapelle Sixtine which takes four years (1508-1512) to him. Because of these interruptions, Michel-Angel worked during forty years without completing fall it.
In 1513, the pope Jules II dies, and its successor Leon X, Médicis, asks Michel-Angel to finish the exterior facade of the church San Lorenzo of Florence and to decorate it sculptures. He accepts with back-plate makes the plans but is unable to reach this request: the frontage of church will remain naked so far.
Of return to Florence, of 1519 to 1531, Michel-Angel for Médicis the Sagrestia Nuova (new sacristy) realizes, one of the Cappelle Medicee (Médicis vaults), where it carves in particular the tombs of Laurent and Julien before letting finish the whole by its pupils (in particular Montorsoli). During the same stay, the florentine family orders the Bibliothèque laurentienne to him, intended to accommodate the books of Laurent Splendid the: begun in 1524, it is unfinished at the time of the departure of the artist and was completed only between 1551 and 1571 by Ammanati.
In 1527, the citizens of Florence, encouraged by the Bag of Rome, reverse Médicis and restore the République. A seat of the city follows, where Michel-Angel comes to assistance of its beloved Florence while working on the fortifications from the city, from 1528 to 1529. The city falls in 1530 and the reign of Médicis is restored.
In 1532, Michel-Angel returns to Rome after a stay of several years to Florence - during which it had taken party against the pope in the conflict with the emperor Charles Quint - and Clément VII, having forgiven him, asks him to paint the two side walls of the Chapelle Sixtine. It was to represent there the Chute of the rebellious angels and the last Jugement . Almost at once, it was studied to carry out this disproportionate project. Clement VII having died (in 1534), it thought of giving up this work to take again the tomb of Jules II, when the pope Paul III opposed it and named it in 1535 architect, painter and sculptor of the the Vatican. The Fresque of the last Jugement on the wall of furnace bridge was only carried out and was completed only in 1541.
As from 1546, it is named architect of the Basilique Saint-Pierre. In 1561, the pope Pie IV entrusts to him the construction of the Basilique Holy-Marie-of-Angel-and-of-Martyrs in the Thermes of Dioclétien, work which it will not be able to conclude his.
WorksPoems (1535-1541), humanistic vision
- the battle of Cascina (1504) (Palazzo Vecchio of Florence) (unfinished)
- In the Vault Sixtine 1508 - 1512 (ceiling, wall of furnace bridge):
- Put at the tomb (v. 1500 - 1501) (National Gallery, London) (unfinished work)
- the Holy Family with the platform known as Tondo Doni (1504) (Gallery of the Academy of Florence)
- the Martyrdom of saint Pierre (towards 1546 - 1550) (Vault Paolina of the the Vatican)
- the conversion of Saint Paul (1542-1550) (Vault Paolina of the the Vatican)
- the Virgin with the feet (about 1491) (Put Buonarroti Florence)
- the Battle of the Centaure S and Lapithes (about 1492) (Casa Buonarroti Florence)
- Crucifix of the convent Santo Spirito (1492) (Casa Buonarroti Florence)
- Bacchus (Museo Nazionale LED Bargello of Florence) (1496-1497)
- the Pietà (1499) (Basilique Saint-Pierre of Rome)
- David (most famous, 1501) (Gallery of the Academy of Florence)
- Tondo Pitti (about 1504-1505) (Bargello of Florence)
- the Virgin of Bruges (1504) (Notre-Dame church of Bruges)
- Tondo Taddei (about 1505-1506) (Royal Academy of London)
- the dying Slave (1513) (Museum of Louvre of Paris)
- the captive rebellious Slave (1513) (Museum of Louvre of Paris)
- Tomb of Jules II (realized in six periods: 1505,1513,1516,1525-1526, 1532 and 1542)
- Brace (towards 1513– 1515) (San Pietro in Vincoli of Rome)
- the slave rebels (1513– 1516) (Museum of Louvre of Paris)
- the slave mourrant (1513– 1516) (Museum of Louvre of Paris)
- genius of the victory (towards 1532– 1534) (Palazzo Vecchio of Florence)
- Young slave , bearded Slave , the slave Atlas , the slave waking up , (1513; 1519-1535) (Gallery of the Academy of Florence)
- Rachael (1545)
- Leah (1545)
- the Brace of San Pietro (Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli of Rome)
- Tomb of Laurent de Médicis (1524-1531) (Médicis Vault of Florence)
- Tomb of Julien de Médicis (1526-1531) (Médicis Vault of Florence)
- the squatted boy (v 1534) (Museum of the Hermitage of Saint-Pétersbourg)
- Tomb of Paul III (Basilica Saint-Pierre of Rome
- Bust of Brutus (1539-1540) (Bargello of Florence)
- Pietà with the four figures (1550) (Museum dell' Opera del Duomo of Florence)
- Pietà Rondanini started in 1552 (Castello Sforzesco of Milan)
- Pietà de Palestrina (1553-1555) (Gallery of the Academy of Florence)
- Esthetic of the unfinished one:
- Four Slaves , (Atlas, waking up, bearded, young) emerging each one of their block of marble in unfinished statues, with the Gallery of the Academy of Florence.
- Project of the Tomb of the Pope Jules II in 1505 (will be never carried out)
- Nommé architect of the Basilique Saint-Pierre of Rome in 1546, it leads the building site and puts of it in project the construction of the dome in 1555.
- Achèvement of the Palais Farnèse in 1546.
- Aménagement of the place of the Capitole in 1538.
- the Porte Pia, ultimate realization in 1564.
- Nouvelle sacristy of St Lorenzo in Florence, tomb of Médicis
National Gallery off Art (Washington D.C)
- Museum of Louvre (Paris)
- Museum Cop (Chantilly)
- the removal of Ganymède (1533) (Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge)
- the Holy Family (Getty Center, Los Angeles)
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