Michael Hakes (politician)
See also: Michael Hakes
Michael James Collins (in Irish Miceál Ó Coileáin - born the October 16th 1890 and died the August 22nd 1922) is an Irish revolutionary leader. He was Minister for Finance of the République Irish, leader of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, Directeur of the secret services of the WILL GO, member of the Irish delegation during the negotiations of the Anglo-Irish Traité, and chair Provisional government and Commander-in-chief of the National army Irishwoman.
He was assassinated in August 1922, during the Irish Civil war.
Its youthMichael James Collins was born in Woodfield, close to Clonakilty, in the Comté of Cork in 1890. the majority of its biographies give as birth date on October 16th, 1890 but its tomb mentions on October 12th. Its family ( to muintir Uí Choileáin ) was with the Middle Ages the lords of Uí Chonaill close to Limerick, but like much of noble Irish, they were dispossessed of their grounds and were reduced to the level of simple farmers. At the end of the 19th century the Hakes are farmers living more comfortably than the average. Michael Collins is the third boy and the last born among eight children. His/her father was member of the Fenian S.
Child with the sharp intelligence, Michael was initiated very early with nationalism by his own father, then by his schoolmaster Denis Lyons itself member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. He was to also recall how much the accounts James Santry, the blacksmith in whom he liked to spend long hours while leaving class, had left on his spirit an indelible trace. Michael is 7 years old when his/her father disappears. Anxious to ensure her future, his/her mother sends it to follow the courses which prepare the examination of entry in the British postal service. It passes the tests successfully and it leaves for London where it joined one of his sisters. It is then 15 years old. He will live 10 years in the British capital. He works initially for the finance departments of the Post office, but will change employer then on several occasions. Very quickly, it joined the Irish circles of London and, in 1909, it lends the oath which makes of him a member of the I.R.B. It was to thereafter occupy the highest station of the organization. The First World War bursts in 1914 and, in Dublin, the leaders of the I.R.A. are well decided to exploit the difficulties of England to take advantage of the rights of Ireland to independence. Having had wind of preparations, Michael gives her resignation it worked then for a firm American-and returns to Ireland to the beginning of the year 1916.
Insurrection of Easter 1916Michael Collins started to have a name during the insurrection of Easter 1916. Being a remarkable organizer and being endowed with a higher intelligence, it was very respected with the IRB. Such an amount of and so that it is named Conseiller financial the count Plunkett, the father of one of the organizers of the insurrection of 1916, Joseph Plunkett.
When came the moment from the insurrection, Collins fought at the side of Patrick Pearse and his men to the central Poste of Dublin. The insurrection was a military disaster. While many freedom fighters celebrated the direction of the sacrifice and thought that the insurrection had at least had the merit to exist, Collins, it, enrageait against what it perceived like amateurism and lack of organization especially in the choice of the targets as the central Post office, a building impossible to defend and from where any retirement was impossible. Hakes was in favor of a war of guerilla with troops ultra-mobiles whom can attack anywhere, being able to withdraw itself quickly with a minimum of losses but by having a maximum of effectiveness.
As much of insurrectionists, Collins was stopped and sent to the camp of internment of Frongosh to the Wales. At the time of the release of the insurrectionists, it had already become one of the leaders of Sinn Féin, a nationalist small part which had been quickly infiltrated by the veterans of the insurrection of 1916. As of October 1917 Collins becomes member of the executive of the party and director of the Organization of the Irish Volunteers, Eamon de Valera being the president of the two movements.
first DáilLike all the principal members of the Sinn Féin, Michael Collins was selected to present himself to the legislative elections in 1918. With one crushing majority, Collins was elected and became thus Député (MP) of the south of the Comté of Cork. Contrary to the elected officials of the Irish Parliamentary Party, the elected officials Sinn Féin decided not to sit at Westminster but installed an Irish Parliament with Dublin. This new Parliament called Dáil Éireann meets for the first time at Mansion House in Dublin in January 1919.
De Valera and the principal deputies of Sinn Féin were stopped. Hakes, informed always well by its networks of spies, made warn the leaders of the party and escaped the arrests. Thinking that would make publicity for its party, De Valera made pass the instruction to be unaware of these threats of arrest. In the absence of Valera, it is Cathal Brugha which was elected " Príomh Aire" , i.e. Prime Minister.
Collins in April 1919 made escape De Valera from the prison of Lincoln. In 1919 Hakes occupied several loads. During the summer he was elected President of the IRB. In September it was named Directeur of the Intelligence services of WILL GO. The war of independence began the day of the first session of the new Irish Parliament with the assassination of two police officers in the Comté of Tipperary.
Minister for Finance
In 1919, already very occupied Collins receives a new load when De Valera appoints it Minister for Finance. Whereas the majority of the ministries have only one very theoretical existence because of the threats of arrests even of assassination coming from the Royal Irish Constabulary, of the Black and Tans , of the Auxiliaries or the British army, Collins launched out in a large organization of its ministry. It organized the money collection to finance the new Irish republic. Hakes launched a great loan which have so much success that Lénine even intended some to him to speak and sent him an emissary to borrow money to him, offering exchanges the jewels of the Russian crown of them (these jewels were preserved at Dublin, forgotten during a certain time, before being found by chance in the years 1930)
The results obtained by Michael Collins were impressive. Between the creation of a special group assassins called the Twelve apostles charged with simple works of the WILL GO and of IRB, with the national loan to finance the republic; between the leadership of WILL GO to the effective management of the government when De Valera travels abroad or is retained with the the United States, Collins gradually becomes a character impossible to circumvent. In 1920 its head is put at price by the British authorities with the very high sum for the time of 10.000 pounds sterling. In same time, and because of its omnipresence, Collins is made many enemies in his own camp the two principal ones are Cathal Brugha, the Minister for Defense and especially Eamon de Valera. Their competition was very strong, so much so that of Valera tried several times to send Collins to the United States to move away it from Ireland.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty
During the negotiation of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, De Valera named a team of plenipotentiary delegates having the capacity to sign a treaty without referring about it systematically to the government of Dublin, and directed by Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins. After a long hesitation and thinking that De Valera would accompany it in this negotiation, Collins agreed to go to London.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty officializes the creation of a new Irish State independent under the name of free State of Ireland (Irish Free State) . The negotiations related to the possibility of allowing the six counties north where the Protestants were majority to withdraw new Irish State. If that were to arrive the British and the Irishmen were to set up a commission having to trace the border between the two States. Hakes thus wished to the minimum to reduce the size of future Northern Ireland and to return it consequently occasion economically nonviable.
The Treaty establishes also the new Irish State like a Dominion with a bicameral Parliament, the executive power being held by the King but being exerted by an Irish government elected by the House of Commons, the Dáil Éireann.
The hardest republicans shouted immediately with the scandal, showing the delegates to have balanced the Ireland by conferring to him a statute of dominion inside the British Empire and by obliging it to lend an oath of allegiance to the crown.
The Sinn Féin also condemned the Treaty to him, De Valera joining the forces anti-treaty. Its opponents protested high and strong that it was of course with the current of the negociations in progress.
The civil war and the death of Hakes
According to the constitution approved in 1919, the Dáil Éireann continues to exist. De Valera resigned of its presidency and caused a new election with an aim of destroying the treaty lately approved. However, Arthur Griffith, in favor of the treaty, gained the elections and assumed the chairmanship. It formed a government in which Collins held the place of Prime Minister ( President off the provisional Government ) and of Minister for Finance.
The opponents with the treaty, who had refused to approve the Treaty with the Whetstone, withdrew themselves from the assembly and formed in opposition a " republican government " under the direction of Valera. It was the launching of the civil war.
About the middle of the year 1922, Michael Collins gave up her responsibilities with the government and becomes commander-in-chief it of the national army. At the time of one of its military campaigns, Collins had to move in its native county of Cork. On the road, with the place known as Béal Na mBláth (" the mouth of the flowers "), the Hake convoy was taken in a ambush. During 45 minutes of exchange of shots, Collins was reached of a ball mortal. It was 31 years old.
Michael Collins is buried in Dublin with the Cimetière of Glasnevin.
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