Metz (which decides by francophilia since the annexation of 1871 by Germany) is a common French located in the department of the the Moselle, prefecture of area of the Lorraine. Its inhabitants is called the Residents of Metz.
Prehistory and Protohistoire
In 1882, a Double-side punch or old of 200 000 years front J. - C., was discovered in a sand pit of Montigny-the-Metz. The men living at this period were Chasseurs-cueilleurs, alive according to the sedentary lifestyle not clean with the wandering and whose displacements were partly dependant on their provisioning of Nourriture.
The Top-of-Holy-Crosses delivered some shards of the thousand-year-old IVe front J. - C., but the attested occupation of the site does not start that with I er with the presence of funds of hut and the sites of houses of wood and Torchis as well as a Nécropole with ballot boxes cinéraires. The archeologists also exhumed a murus gallicus. They are there the vestiges of Divodurum, oppidum of the Médiomatriques, Gallic Peuple from which the territory extended from the Argonne to the the Rhine and which Tacite at the next century will mention. We still know by César that in 52 av. J. - C., Médiomatriques sent a quota of 5 000 soldiers with the Gallic army formed to carry help to Vercingétorix in Alésia.
First centuryThe shortly after the Roman conquest, Divodurum Mediomatricorum (Metz) is the chief town of the Cité of the Médiomatriques, integrated into the Gaulle Belgium whose capital is Rheims ( Durocortorum ). Its territory goes now from the Argonne to the the Vosges. Space beyond the the Vosges from now on is occupied by the Triboques.
Divodurum (Metz) is mentioned for the first time by Tacite at the end of in connection with the troops of Vitellius which massacre 4000 people there.
The forty last years archaeological excavations revealed an agglomeration of woodens building and cob, established according to the squaring specific to the Roman cities with Cardo and Decumanus; surface quadrupled since the end of independence. Metz became an important road crossroads where the ways converge coming from Lyon, Rheims, Trier, Mainz and Strasbourg.
In Metz as in the whole of Gaulle Gallo-Roman, the Graeco-Roman civilization reaches a top then. The population of Metz, estimated between 15.000 and 20.000 inhabitants, lives from now on stone constructions. Large buildings are born, which use the Pierre de Jaumont and especially the Pierre de Norroy. Among most prestigious, it there with the amphitheater, certainly built at the end of the Ier century, one of largest of the Roman world (25000 places) and the Aqueduct which goes from Gorze to Metz while crossing the the Moselle. In addition vast a Nécropole extends to the south from the city on both sides from the way towards Lyon.
The Lower EmpireStarting from 245, the periods of peace are intersected with episodes violent one and destruction. In this climate of less safety, the city is surrounded now of an enclosure where are employed again blocks of architecture and Stèle S. Of the end of the 3rd century or beginning of the 4th century, construction goes back from the building of known basilical plan under the name of basilica to Saint-Pierre-with-Nonnains the whose function remains obscure. Some saw there a civil Basilique, others the Palestre of a nearby thermal unit.
In 297, the city of Médiomatriques is integrated in the Belgium first and loses its territory in the West with the emergence of the city of Verdun. On the other hand, Metz profits from the proximity of Trier promoted with the row of capital of the Empire.
One can nothing affirm on the beginnings of Christianity in Metz. The first bishop holy Clément would have lived during the last third of the 3rd century. He established a sanctuary in the pit of large the closed down amphitheater, which the German excavations of 1902 found.
At the 4th century, the name Divodurum Mediomatricorum is not any more use, the texts speak now about Mettis .
The Middle Ages
See also: Metz with the Middle Ages
Metz is the capital of the kingdom of Austrasie during two centuries of the franque period, of 511 with 751. With died from Clovis in 511, Thierry Ier receives the north-eastern area called Austrasie. It originally established its Capitale with Rheims, but very quickly it chooses Metz because of its central situation. It builds a Palais on the hill Holy-Cross , it shelters today the Musées of the Gold Court.
The dynasty of the Carolingiens is originating in the city, and various family members of Charlemagne are buried in the Abbaye Saint-Arnould. Sit of a évêché having the temporal power, Metz remains a long time a free city of the Saint Germanic Roman Empire. The religious buildings multiply in the city, the city thrives and the middle-class develops. At the 13th century, the Bourgeoisie makes of Metz a oligarchical République directed by the college of the Échevin S.
In 1552, the king de France Henri II became sovereign of the three episcopal cities of Metz Empire, Toul and Verdun after the entry downtown, then free city of the Saint Germanic Roman Empire. Charles Quint, wanted to take again these Lorraine cities last under the authority of king de France. He organized the head office of Metz which was defended victoriously by the duke François de Guise then French governor of the city. The seat was raised in January 1553. It is however only in 1648, at the time of the treated of Westphalia, that Metz became juridically under French sovereignty, capital of the province of the Three bishoprices. Since 1633, the city was seat of a Parlement.
Metz then transforms into garrison town, important Fortified town of the kingdom of France, while continuing to develop.
The proximity of Switzerland and the Holy roman Empire propagate quickly the Réforme in Metz which becomes important center Protesting but which disappears precociously following the Metz-native emigration in Berlin following the revocation from the edict from Nantes
The Juif S were authorized to settle in Metz in 1565 and their community reached 2200 people at the beginning of the 18th century (see Metz and Lorraine).
1861 World Fair of agriculture, industry, the horticulture and the fine arts. Metz is besieged during the Franco-German war of 1870. Given up by the majority of the Appointed S French, including the Lorraine deputies of the Meurthe, who voted with the quasi unanimity his annexation, is attached to new the German Empire, ratified by the Traité of Frankfurt and becomes chief town of the district of the Lorraine ( Lothringen ) in Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine of 1871 with 1919.
After the annexation, and in spite of the departure of its elites and others “choosing” the France, the city continues to increase and to change dominated by the personality of its French bishop, Paul Dupont of the Cabins, which is elected appointed " protestataire" with the Reichstag. Metz changes and its town planning becomes the window of the empire wilhelminien. One sees appearing immense buildings of style néo-novel or neo-gothic of which the gate of the cathedral, the protesting temple and the palate of the governor. Like all the cities of Reich, it receives a " Bismark" column; , stone column marked of the effigy of the chancellor, who dominates the city since the Saint-Quentin mount and from now on is drowned in the vegetation.
Become a major strategic point of the Defense of German Reich (road and railway crossroads major), she sees the German staff continuing the work of fortification started under the Second Empire. In 1914, Metz is the largest fortress of the world. It is however largely saved by the combat of the First World War.
Become again French in 1918, Metz preserves its role of garrison of first importance. More than 300 coffees make city a " Small Paris of Est". In addition, though French-speaking person since always, the city became bilingual because several generations of children were constrained not only to learn, but to speak (under penalty of sanctions) German at the school. In the years 1980 still, the “old hand” spoke German between them and in the courses of school, the children playing the wolf or perched cat did not say “inch! ” but “frei! ” without including/understanding one moment the origin of this term.
Again occupied and annexed during the Second world war, Metz becomes the heart of Westmark, the “walk of the West”, Third Reich. Its young people are enlisted of force in Wehrmacht like the Alsaciens young people (they are the In spite of us) and are sent on the Face of the East to limit the desertions.
Metz is released in November 1944 by the 95e division of US infantry. The combat are very hard and the seat of the fortifications of the city costs very expensive the American forces. Tanks and bombers run up against a belt of concrete, iron and fire which protects the approaches from the Metz-native city. Even napalm (employed on the forts of Ars on the Moselle, to 7 km in the south of Metz) is ineffective. It should be said that the forts are defended in particular by 300 veterans of the Face of the East, in formation within the school of warrant officers of Wehrmacht of Metz. In certain cases, it is the hunger which will push these German soldiers with rendering. One will need all the ardor and the courage of young the GI to end up breaking enemy resistance and crossing the Moselle under extreme conditions, in full heart of the winter 1944. A German general gives the nickname to the American soldiers " The Iron Men off Metz" (Iron Men of Metz) to have been the first army to have succeeded in capturing this city by the force whereas the German staff thought of making a " of it; Stalingrad bis" in order to block the projection of Patton. If such a plan had succeeded, the German offensive of the Ardennes had been dramatic for the Allies.
Nowadays, the military role of Metz decreased, and the city diversified its activities. It thus could continue its growth in spite of the economic difficulties which struck Lorraine hard (crisis of coal, the iron and steel industry, the textile…).
From now on with 1:20 of Paris thanks to TGV, Metz develops its university which counts more 15 000 students. The city is not only the “most flowered city of Europe”, but also develops its technological poles, centered on communication and information technologies (Technopolis of Metz). Turned towards Europe, the town of Metz follows a policy of active co-operation with Luxembourg and the Land of the Saar, them also victims during the centuries of Franco-German antagonism.
See also: List of the bishops of Metz - List of the kings d' Austrasie
As a city of the Great Area, Metz takes part in the program European year of Luxembourg capital of the culture 2007 .
It is in its walls that draws up the opera-theater, the oldest theater French in activity (built in Pierre de Jaumont between 1738 and 1753).
The theater of Saulcy is drawn up in the middle of the university campus.
The Center Pompidou - Metz is an appendix of the famous Parisian museum is located at the back of SNCF railway station.
The Be of the Book, great literary festival of Metz, takes place at the beginning of June.
The festival of the mirabelle plum, at the end of August, celebrates the regional fruit and the election of its queen is one great moment of jubilation inter-age, without forgetting the market of Christmas of Metz, which in fact a festive stage impossible to circumvent.
The city, very largely pedestrian, reveals its charms (its medieval houses florentines, its stone arcades, its many and re-elected shops, its water level, its flowered walks, Saint Pierre in Nonnains (one of the oldest churches of Europe!), its splendid cathedral which offers stained glasses of, including stained glasses of Marc Chagall) with the amateurs of culture or shopping.
The city proposed with UNESCO under the sites considered as " world heritage of the humanité" its Imperial District dating from the time wilheminienne.
GeographyMetz is located at the confluence of the the Moselle and the Seille.
Metz has three inhabited islands: small Saulcy, Large Saulcy, and Chambière. The islands are connected between them and to the city by bridges: the Average Bridge, the bridge of Deaths, the bridge of the Rocks, the Saint-Marcel bridge, the bridge of the Prefecture, the Moreau bridge, the Saint-Georges bridge and the bridge of the Grids. Metz in addition lays out of a pedestrian plate of 52 000 m ².
The most important cities which surround it are: Nancy to 48 km in the south, Luxembourg to 55 km in north, and Saarbrucken to 60 km in the east. It is located about halfway between Strasbourg (130 km) and Rheims (155 km). In the same way, it is with équidistance of Paris and Francfort-sur-le-Main (350km).
Districts of Metz
Ancienne City (Metz)
- In front of-the-Bridges
- Grigy Technopôle
- the Islands (Metz)
- Nouvelle City (Metz)
- Patrotte Metz-north
- Plantières Queuleu
- Vallières Border Them
According to GéoMetz, the interactive plan of Metz.
DemographyThe population of Metz increased regularly since the Second world war. This forever stopped population growth, even if it were very slow since the Années 1970. That made of Metz an exception among the French big cities which almost knew all of the periods of demographic retreat in the Années 1970 or 1980. The growth of the city was accompanied by a progressive extension of sound Agglomération. The agglomeration of Metz is organized in community of agglomeration (the Communauté of agglomeration of Metz Métropole, or CA2M) which counts in 2007 225.000 inhabitants. However the urban Unit which gathers Hagondange form amongst other things a whole of more than 320.000 inhabitants. The limits of the Metz-native agglomeration approach from now on the agglomeration of Thionville, along the the Moselle. The urban surface of Metz, which counts more to 430.000 inhabitants , is the first of Lorraine, the first in creation of added-value in Lorraine, and the sixteenth urban surface of France. There exists a political will to create an urban unit called Lorraine Sillon which gathers the agglomerations of Thionville, Metz, Nancy and Épinal. That is to say a potential of 1 million inhabitants. However this project meets a strong opposition.
Among the economic sectors represented in Metz, it is to be quoted:
Metz is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry of the Moselle. It manages the zone of Ennery and CFA. It manages also the New wearing of Metz (1st cereal river port), the Wearing of Metz Mazerolle, the river port of Thionville.
Metz is also the historical place of the culture of the Mirabelle in Lorraine.
Metz is in addition one of the four cities forming the QuattroPole with Luxembourg, Trier (To sort) and Saarbrucken (Saarbrucken). This transborder network allows the urban co-operation of these four cities.
Since June 10th, 2007, Metz is directly connected to Paris in 82 minutes by TGV Is, reinforcing the exchanges between the Lorraine agglomeration and the Paris region. Moreover the Lorraine station, located at a few tens of kilometers of Metz east from now on at 75 minutes of the Roissy-Charles-of-Gaulle airport.
Metz has a network of bus managed by the public transport of the Metz-native agglomeration (TCRM), which belongs to the Community of agglomeration of Metz Métropole (CA2M) and to TRANSDEV national actor of the urban transport, subsidiary of the Case of the deposits and consignment.
Higher education and research
- the University Paul-Verlaine (UPV-M) (http://www.univ-metz.fr/)
- the national Academy of Arts and Trades (CAMOS, http://www.cnam-lorraine.fr/)
- the University of art of Metz (ESAM)
- the National school of engineers de Metz (ENIM, http://www.enim.fr/)
- 3Ecole Nationale Sup3erieure of Arts and Trades in Metz (ENSAM, http://www.metz.ensam.fr/)
- the University of electricity (Supélec)
- Franco-German Institute of technology, economy and sciences [[ISFATES]]/DFHI
- the University of the engineers of work and the construction of Metz (ESITC, http://www.esitc-metz.com/)
- The European Institute of ecology (http://www.ethnopharmacologia.org/iee.htm)
- GeorgiaTech European Antenna of the university GeorgiaTech Institute off Technology Atlanta (Georgia) the USA
- International University of Trade (ESIDEC, http://www.esidec.fr)
- College of the trades of hotel trade Raymond-Mondon (former mayor of Metz), considered today the best hotel college of France.
See also: List of the mayors of Metz
Metz is divided into 4 cantons, which form the district of Metz-City:
- the 1st canton counts 24 027 inhabitants;
- the 2nd canton counts 25 245 inhabitants;
- the 3rd canton counts 40 058 inhabitants (General adviser: Nathalie Griesbeck);
- the 4th canton counts 34 446 inhabitants.
Metz is the seat of the District council of Lorraine.
Tourist monuments and placesMetz is classified town of art and history.
- the abbey Saint-Vincent, built 1248 with 1376, old Abbey with its Cloister of the 18th century.
- the abbey church Saint-Pierre-with-Nonnains the, older church of France, dating from the 5th century.
- the church Saint-Eucaire XIIe 15th centuries
- the church Saint-Maximin XIIe 15th centuries
- the church Saint Martin's day XIIIe XIVe 16th centuries
- the Holy-Ségolène church 13th 19th centuries
- the church Saint-Etienne-the-dépensié 14th century
- the church Saint-Livier 13th 15th centuries, ruin
- the church of the large Carmelite friars 15th ruin
- the church Saint-Clement built of 1635 to 1730, with its cloister
- the church Notre-Dame built of 1665 to 1741
- the church Saint-Simon-Saint-Jude built in 1737
- the church Holy-Therese-in-the Child-Jesus 20th built of 1937 to 1954
- the church of the small Carmelite friars 18th century
- the church of Trinitaires 18th century
- the Holy-Glossinde abbey 18th century, palate episcopal
- the vault of Templiers 12th century, order of the temple
- the vault Saint-Genest 12th 13th centuries
- the Chapelle Saint Jean small the 13th century
- the vault of the Mercy 13th century
- the vault of the Jesuits medium 19th century neogothic
- the temple Lutheran built in 1893
- the Temple of garrison builds of 1875 to 1881, there remains only the tower with a 91 meters height
- the new temple, built of 1901 to 1904
- the Cloître of Recollets 14th century
- the synagog
- the Roman Thermal baths, dating from the Gallo-Roman time
- the Amphitheater of Metz, 1st century, destroyed
- the Hotel Saint-Livier 12th 13th centuries
- the Hotel of Bulette 14th century
- the Hotel of Heu 14th 15th centuries
- the Hotel Gargan 15th century
- the Hotel of Burtaigne 16th century
- the Hotel of Gournay 16th century
- the House of Rabelais 12th century, with its Saint-Genest vault 13th
- the House of the Heads built in 1529
- the Chèvremont Barn S
- the Barn of Antonistes 14th century
- the Theater of Metz 18th
- the War memorial the of style Art déco of Metz, inaugurated in 1935. This monumental work of Paul Niclausse represents a mother sitting, serious, the eyes closed and bearing on its knees his/her son naked: it is the laic interpretation of a Pietà.
- the arsenal, a theater
- the Center Pompidou, in construction (opening envisaged in 2009)
- the Porte of the Germans 12th 15th centuries
- the carries in Chandellerue or Chandeleirue 13th century
- the Porte Serpenoise 19th century
- the medieval ramparts
- the store to the vivres 16th century
- the Fort of Queuleu 19th century
- the Fort Bellecroix 18th and 19th centuries
- the law courts 18th century
- the prefecture 18th century
- the town hall 18th century
- the old station built in 1852
- the Palais of the Governor builds of 1902 to 1905
- the station built of 1905 to 1908 and its imperial Quartier (which occurred Foch, street Pasteur)
- the post office building builds by the Germans in 1911
- the place Saint-Jacob
- the Place Saint-Louis
- the Place of the Cartwrights
- the place of weapons
- the esplanade
- the place of the Republic
- the Place of Maud' huy
HeraldicThe weapons of the city are: “Started from money and sand”. This blazon is that of the “Commun run”, grouping of Metz-native families which did not form part of five associations of patricians families, gathered by districts: paraiges of In addition to-Pail, Port-Sailly, of the Carry-Moselle, of in addition to-Moselle and Jurue.
Jamais of aultres weapons us prendrons
That those which we élizons,
And we say for réconfort
We want freedom or the mort.
PronunciationMetz decides Mess and not Mets , as opposed to what one can hear that and there. That goes back to the Franco-German Guerre of 1870.
When, on May 10th, 1871, the Traité of Frankfurt puts an end to the war of 1870 between Prussia and France, the German high-command requires and obtains the annexation of the Alsace and the the Moselle, pretexting that these grounds are German; however the coal basin (Briey-Longwy) and the Metz-native country always were of culture and French language. Fearing Bismarck of later turbid potentials advises to stick to the German-speaking zones; if the coal basin is finally preserved annexation, Metz and its area are preserved for semi-officially strategic reasons, being an area already strengthened and favourable with defense. To protest against this new statute, the Residents of Metz would pronounce Mess then to dissociate German pronunciation, which insists on the letter T. This situation will also reproduce between the annexation of 1940 and the Libération.
With this explanation somewhat cocardière it would be good to oppose some another which would like that the letters " tz" are in fact the transcription in Latin alphabet of a medieval nature being used to note a " s" hard finally of a mot.
To pronounce " Mets" would thus amount making the same error as to say " Daughter-in-law-X they " , because there too, X which one finds in the French C-W communication of the name of the Belgian capital is in fact the leg of a medieval C-W communication in which a character resembling X was used to indicate a double S inside a word (double S which one finds for proof in the C-Ws communication German, English, Dutchwoman, etc, of the name of this city).
- Gustave Humbert, Minister for justice in 1882.
- Philippe Gerard, known as " of Vigneulles", (1471 - 1528) writer, storyteller and chronicler.
- Claude Petit Jean (fl. 1562-1592), musician, type-setter.
- François Bored-Marbois, minister of Napoleon.
- Monsù Desiderio, duet of painters mannerists of the 17th century.
- Adam Philippe de Custine (1740 - 1793), general.
- Pierre-Louis Roederer (1744 - 1835), politician.
- Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier (1754 - 1785), balloon pilot.
- Charles de Lacretelle (1766 - 1855), historian.
- Pierre Louis de Lacretelle (1751 - 1824), politician.
- Louis-Luc Loiseau de Persuis (1769 - 1819), type-setter.
- Lucien Loizeau (1879 - 1978), general, military governor of Metz.
- Antoine Richepance (1770 - 1802), general of Napoleon.
- Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle (1775 - 1809), general of Napoleon.
- Ambroise Thomas (1811 - 1893), type-setter of music.
- Holy Marie-Eugenie of Jesus (1817 - 1898), founder of the Religious of the Assumption
- Achilles Ernest Oscar Joseph Delesse (1817 - 1881), geologist.
- Prosper Mayer (1840 - 1885), journalist.
- Louis Aimee Augustin the Prince (1842 - 1890), inventive theoretical of the Cinema.
- Paul Verlaine (1844 - 1896), poet.
- Welsh Lucien, born in Metz in 1857, died in Paris in 1941, geographer.
- Gustave Kahn (1859 - 1936), critical poet Symbolist and of Article
- Gabriel Pierné (1863 - 1937), type-setter.
- Paul Niclausse, born in Metz in 1879 and deceased in 1958 is a French sculptor.
- Jean-Marie Straub, Scenario writer born on January 8th 1933
- Bernard-Marie Koltès (1948 - 1989), dramatic author.
- Marie-Claire Buzy (1957 -), French singer.
- Odile Kolb (1953 -), painter.
- Georges Lang (1947 -), personality of the radio.
- , German historian
- Bouabdellah Tahri, athlete.
- Charles Victor Woirgard says Beaugard or Beauregard (1764-1810), general of Empire
Other personalities related to the city
- Adolphe Bellevoye (1830 - 1908), artist, draftsman, engraver, entomologist
- Auguste Hussenot (1799 - 1885), decorator, portraitist, painter, curator of a museum
- Aime de Lemud (1817 - 1887), engraver, painter, lithographer, sculptor
- Charles-Andre Malardot (1817 - 1879), engraver and painter
- Laurent Joseph Furrier (1811 - 1892), lithographer, painter and professor of drawings
- Auguste Migette (1802 - 1884), painter, decorator of theater.
- François Rabelais (1494 - 1553), doctor, writer
- Leon Simon (1836-1910), painter and draftsman.
- François Edouard Virlet (1810 - 1889), artillery colonel
- the count de Vaublanc, prefect of the Moselle of 1805 to 1814, then Minister of Interior Department
- Jules Lagneau (1851-1894), pedagog
- Rene Package of Hauteroche (1845 - 1927), lawyer, ornithologist and historian
- Abraham de Fabert d' Esternay (1599 - 1662), man of war, Marshal of France
- Elisabeth-Charlotte of Bavaria (1652 - 1722), Palatine princess, duchess of Orleans, sister-in-law of Louis XIV and mother of the regent.
- Ball of Metz
- the Mirabelle plum fruit and brandy
- Pig of milk of Metz
- Lorraine Potful
- Lorraine Quiche
- Tart with the mirabelle plum
See also: Sport in Metz
FC Metz (Football)
- H2ML (female Handball)
- SMEC (male Handball, Table tennis and Volley ball)
- KCMETZ (Canoe-kayak)
- SRM (Oar)
- RC Metz (Rugby)
- ES Metz (Football)
- MAHC (Hockey) - Club based with Amnéville but which amalgamated with its Metz-native counterpart. Lorraine
- RYU TAI JITSU with the arenas of METZ - Web site
- France Northern Lorraine Blue
- Radio operator Jérico
- Radio operator Peltre Leisures
|Random links:||Soap of Alep | NextRadioTV | Escalafón | 1807 with the theater | Large Tony|