The metallurgy is the Science of the materials which studies the metals, their developments, their properties, their treatments. By extension, it indicates the Industrie manufacture of metals and Alliages, which rests on the control of this science.
HistoryThe history of the metallurgy is studied by the Archéométallurgie. The first worked metal was the Cuivre. In fact, copper was not then considered that as a type of bronze. Indeed, the word " cuivre" mean " étymologiquement; bronze of Chypre" place where the first copper careers were created in the antiquity and the end of prehistory.
The men probably started by working native copper (i.e. present naturally in metal form) by hammering, and they undoubtedly realized that it was easier to work it when it was heated (phenomenon of Recuit: elimination of the Dislocation S by the Reorganization and possibly Recrystallization). Then, while heating more and more, they realized that it founded and that one could thus mould it. This constituted the Âge of copper, towards -4000.
Native copper being rare, they worked with ores increasingly low in native copper, and they probably realized that the fact of making heat ores not only made it possible to extract copper by fusion, but also “to transform” the ore into metal (Réduction); they is undoubtedly as were born the low hearth X, towards -1200.
Towards -1000 started the Âge of iron. Melting iron at much higher temperature than copper (1535 °C against 1084 °C), the reduction of the ore in the low hearths was imperfect and gave rise to a block of spongy aspect (the massiot or the magnifying glass) which one hammered to remove it from its impurities. The first to use iron were the Hittites.
Subsequently of antiquity only some metals were used and for some only worked. Were known the Or, the mercury, the Plomb, the money, copper and the tin. It will be necessary to await 1750 and the discovery of the Bismuth to see the discovery of a new metal and 1735 for the Cobalt, the first metal really used.
The use of water mills to ensure blowing made it possible to reach higher temperatures. Thus towards 1450 in Europe one carried out first cast cast iron with a Haut-fourneau. But the Sidérurgie experiences its stronger development at the end of the 18th century, which allowed the Industrial revolution. The mass production of Acier allowed the realization of steam engines and thus the pumping of water in the mines.
Nowadays, of many research are done on the treatments applied to metals more than to the preparation of those in particular without passing by blast furnaces. For example, from a biomedical point of view, the Titane is biotoléré. Chemical treatments or physiques such sanding make it possible to make it biocompatible and make of him metal reference for the osseous prostheses.
Organization of industry
ActivitiesThe metallurgy recovers a range of industrial activities:
- Extraction of the Ore and first transformation (Minéralurgie)
- Recyclage of metals
- Fonderie (blast furnaces and Refining)
- Fabrication of product Brut by the Laminoir S.
- Transformation of the products Brut S into products sowing-finish.
- Manufacture of material and end products for the Industry, the building and the Transport.
Three specialitiesThe industry of the metallurgy was organized in three principal specialities. Each of the three request a specialization different from both others. There is, on the one hand, the metallurgy of iron and, on the other hand, that of the non-ferrous metals, which are divided into noble metals, such as the Or, and noninvaluable, such as the Aluminum:
- the Production of steel
- the Production of the metals non-ferrous and noninvaluable
- production of the noble metals (thus not ferrous ore)
the site of the industrialists working in the extraction and the first transformation of the non-ferrous metals, ores and of industrial minerals joined together within the FEDEM, professional federation
- the site of the OTUA: Technical office for the Use of Steel
- Soudeur.com: The French-speaking site gate of the welder, the welding and welding
- www.metallurgie.fr: The French-speaking site gate of the metallurgy
- www.metallurgie.ca: The site Québécois gate of the metallurgy
- www.acier.org: The site French gate of steel
- www.uimm.fr: The site of the UIMM, Union of Industries and Trades of the Metallurgy, professional organization of metallurgical industries
- the site of the trade union of the workers of the metallurgy CFTC
- Bond towards the site of SteelUniversity.org (English)
- Mechanical Crystallite
- of the continuous mediums
- Metallurgy of the powders
- Iron and steel industry
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