Meknès (Tifinagh: , Arab: rear RTL ''' مكناس ''' Moroccan Maknâs , : Me knâs , Hebrew: מקנס, מקנאס) is a city of the Morocco which draws its name from the Berbère Meknassa of the name of the tribe founder of the city. It is the chief town of the administrative area of Meknès-Tafilalet, in the center of the country. The city is located at 120 km in the east of Rabat and at 60 km in the west of Fès. It is one of the four imperial Villes of Morocco. It was the capital of the Morocco during the reign of Moulay Ismaïl. more photographs on ==Geography and démographie== Meknès is located at an altitude of approximately 500 m, about the plate of Know, between the means-Atlas with the south and the pre-Riffian hills in north. The city is crossed by Oued Boufekrane, which separates the médina (old city) from the new city (known as " Hamria"). The population of the town of Meknès is currently estimated at 950.000 inhabitants. Meknès is the 4th imperial city of Morocco. The young people of less than 25 years account for 60% of the population. The official language is the Arab . The majority of the population of the neighbouring villages and cities is of Berber origin, which practices in particular agriculture, the breeding and the trade. The sectors of tourism, the craft industry and the trade are the core of the local economy. The city accommodates each year the International fair of Agriculture. on the historic site hri swani close to the basin of Agdal
The town of Meknès is under Mediterranean stage, being subject to the continental influences during the seasons of summer and winter. However the geographical diversity of the area makes that each one of its natural zones presents particular climatic nuances.
The thermal mode of Meknès is marked by the distance of the coasts, from where an important extreme thermal amplitude reaching 25,4°. The temperature of the hottest month varies between 18° and 36°, and that of the coldest month varies between 2° and 7°.
Generally, the temperatures vary in the following way:
- Of in April January: The monthly rise of the temperature is progressive and regular. It is about 1° with 2°/month.
- Of in August April: A monthly rise is about 3° with 5°. The monthly average maximum temperature is reached in the month August, that is to say 35,6°.
- From August at December: a fall about 2° with 5° per month. The distribution of the rains during the year is characterized by strong rains in autumn, a very light fall in winter with a maximum relating to the beginning of spring.
- The summer being generally dry. The period of the most important rain is spread out in May October, with 9 to 14 days of rain per month.
- The annual average of rain is estimated 84 days.
- Average pluviometry in the suburbs of Meknès reaches 576 mm/an.
Source: The monograph of DPA of Meknès
The history of Meknès seems to go back to the creation of a rural village not strengthened at the 8th century. The installation at the 9th century of a tribe Berbère, Meknassa, which establishes their camping in the north of the Boufekrane wadi, gives its name to the city.
The Almoravides make a military site at the 11th century of it. The Almohades destroyed the city, culprit of resistance, to build some larger and more charming with mosques and powerful fortifications. When they seized some, the Mérinides built médersas, kasbahs and mosques at the beginning of the 14th century. Under the Wattassides, it constituted a prosperous city.
At the 18th century, Meknès became the administrative capital of Morocco, under the reign of Moulay Ismail the sultan alaouite, who made the glory of the city. It built buildings, gardens, monumental doors, ramparts; gigantic walls a length which exceed the 40 kilometers, and many mosques having beautiful minarets. For this reason, the town of Meknès is called: " the city with the hundred minarets ". During the French presence in Morocco (1912-1956), the town of Meknès carried other nicknames:
" Versailles of Morocco " , " small Paris " what proves the glory of this beautiful city.
Monuments and centers of interest
Tourist sites with character religieux'
- Mausoleum Moulay Ismaïl : built by Ahmed Eddahbi, opened with nonthe Moslems. Shelter the tomb of Moulay Ismaïl
- Mosquée Néjjarine : mosque of the 10th century. It is located at the center of the médina
- the large mosque : Founded at the 11th century by Almoravides. It counts 11 doors and 143 arcades
- Mosquée Jamaï Roua : Built in 1790 by Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah
- Mausoleum Sheik El kamel : Built by Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, It shelters the tomb of El hadi Benaïssa, founder of the brotherhood " Aïssaoua"
Museums and Medersas'
- Museum Dar Jamaï: place which testifies the Moroccan upper middle classes. At the end of the 19th century. L is arranged in museum of Moroccan and ethnographic arts since 1926.
- Medersa Bouanania: Institution theology, rested by the sultan Abou Hassan Marini (1331 - 1351). It comprises a patio and a stage containing 26 rooms of TOLBAS (student)
- Medersa Filalia: historical building in educational and religious matter. Built in 1789 by Moulay Ismaïl.
- Koubat Al Khayatine (room of the ambassadors): house in which the sultan Moulay Ismaïl received the foreign ambassadors and emissary
- Bab Lakhmis: large door richly decorated with the 17th century.
- Bab Berdaïne: carries majestic built by Moulay Ismaïl at the 17th century.
- Fandouk El Hanna : complex cultural. Property of Habous.
- Ksar Mansour : Palate and attic. Public domain.
- the Stud farm: Créé in 1914 as an establishment of goes up military. In 1947, it becomes a center of equine breeding.
- Attic and stables: gigantic architectural unit built by Moulay Ismaïl. It is reserved for the storage of the vivres.
- Agdal Basin: large basin of accumulation of water of 319m length and 149m broad. Its depth exceeds the 2m. It is built by Moulay Ismaïl to irrigate the gardens of Meknès and constitutes a water reserve for the médina.
- Prison of CARA: the prison (underground Silo) bears the name of CARA: architect, Portuguese prisoner.
The historic buildings most famous
- the palate Dar El Makhzen: Located in the urban district El Mechouar Stinia. It is skirted by a corridor of 2 km formed of two impressive walls. It was the official palate of Moulay Ismaïl.
- Bab Mansour: Is one of most beautiful works of Moulay Ismaïl. Completed in 1732. The proportions of this door are majestic. By its arch, you arrive at sumptuous constructions of the imperial city. The door Bab Mansour is most imposing of Morocco even of North Africa.
- Lahboul Garden: Located in Médina in urban district Al ismaïlia. It contains a zoo and a theater in the open air. The garden could be exploited animation leisure.
- Royal Golf: Belongs to the urban district El Mechouar Stinia. It is arranged in course of Golf in 1971. It is located in the enclosure of the walls of Moulay Ismaïl… It includes/understands nine (9) holes. It is the single golf in the world which is closed with key. The sport can be practiced into night.
Information source: The tourist monograph of'' Meknès Tafilalet'' (DRTM/2001)
Cinema Camera, in Hamria
- Cinema ABC, Hamria
- Dawliz Cinema, Hamria
- Rif Cinema, Mellah
- Cinema Atlas, Rwamzine
- Apolo Cinema, Rwamzine
Principal districts of the city
- the medina
- Sidi bouzekri
- Sbata (saramito)
- Hay Al Salam
- Wjeh Arouss
- Borj Moulay Omar (war veterans)
- beautiful sight
- sidi said
Schools and establishments of higher education
The town of Meknès shelters several schools and establishments of higher education:
- University Moulay-Ismaïl
- Faculty of Science (Zitoune district)
- Faculty of Arts and social sciences (Zitoune district)
- Faculty of economic and social legal sciences (Toulal district)
- 3Ecole Nationale Sup3erieure of Arts and Trades (ENSAM), district Morjane
- School Superior of Technology of Meknes E.S.T.M, district Morjane
- National school d´Agriculture of military Meknes
- royal Academy
- Training institute of the technicians in architecture and town planning IFTAU.
- Preparatory classes at the universities of engineering to the college Omar Ibnou Al Khattab
- Advanced vocational diploma with the college moulay ismail
the agreement of twinning, signed in 2005 between the two agglomerations of Meknès and Nimes, is on the right track:
In visit with Meknès from December 9th to 12th 2006 with the head of an important delegation of the Town hall of Nimes, Mr. Fournier recalled that the agreement of twinning, signed in 2005 between the two agglomerations, is on the right track, giving a report on the installation of a whole of programmes of partnership in the sectors of agriculture.
Proposing the architectural beauty of the city ismaïlienne, the mayor of Nimes greeted the efforts made for fitting-out greens, the restoration and the reorganization of the masonries and the historic buildings.
He, in the same way, stressed the importance of the historical heritage of Nimes and Meknès and of the projects under development between the two parts, in particular that relating to the computerization of the local municipal authorities, recommending the consolidation of the co-operation with the Town hall of Nimes to benefit from his know-how and his expertise as regards sciences of information and communication.
, since 2005
- * A page of the Moroccan ministry for the Communication on Meknès
- a page of UNESCO on Meknès
- Bibliography on the city
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