The medicine (of Latin médicus: who cures) is the Science, whose object is at the same time the study of the Human body and its normal functioning (Physiologie), as well as conservation of health (Prophylaxie), dysfunctions (Pathologie) and finally of the various means to obtain the re-establishment of the Santé (Thérapie).
Bases of medicine
- Epistemology of Ethical medicine
- and Bioethics
- medical Deontology
- Hippocratic oath
Terminology common to all medicine
the etiology is the study of the causes of the disease.
- the Pathogenesis or " pathogenèse" in is the study of the causal mechanism.
- the Physiopathologie is the study of the modifications of the great functions during the diseases.
- the Sémiologie is the comprehensive study of the apparent signs. She related so that the clinical is named , is opposed to the para-private clinic which is the results of the complementary examinations . Vis-a-vis the increasing complexity of the techniques of imagery etc, it developed a semiology of the complementary examinations.
- the diagnosis is the identification of the disease.
- the differential diagnosis is the description of the diseases comprising of the close signs and which can be confused.
- the therapeutic is the treatment of this disease.
- the forecast is the evolution of this one.
Branches of medicine
- the medical Biology: discipline including/understanding the biological Hématologie, the Biochimie, the Molecular biology, the Génétique, the Bactériologie, the Virologie, the Parasitologie
- the Biochimie
- the Biophysique
- the Histologie and the Embryologie
- the human Physiologie
- the Social sciences in medicine]
Medical specialities and competences
Are gathered in this chapter the medical specialities which, in France, require obtaining a D.E.S. (Diploma of specialized studies) or a Doctorate of state, and which is recognized by the Ordre of the Doctors, or by the Ordre of the Dental surgeons or who are purely hospital (infectiology for example). In France, in 2004, the general medicine becomes a speciality.
- Anatomy and pathological Cytology (see Anatomo-pathology)
- medical Biology
- Cancerology or Oncology
- vascular Cardiology and diseases
- cardiac Surgery
- digestive Surgery
- Surgery of the face and the neck
- general Surgery
- infantile Surgery
- orthopedic Surgery
- Dental surgery
- Plastic surgeon, reconstructrice and esthetics
- thoracic Surgery
- urologic Surgery
- vascular Surgery
- visceral Surgery
- Technical surgical
- Dermatology and Vénérologie
- Endocrinology and Metabolism S
- medical Gynecology
- obstetric Gynecology
- Medical computing and Technologies the Information
- Occupational medicine
- General medicine
- emergency Medicine
- Medicine intern
- Medicine hyperbare
- Nuclear medicine
- nutritional Medicine (see Nutrition)
- medical Oncology
- radiotherapic Oncology
- Pathology or Pathological anatomy
- Radiodiagnosis and medical imagery
- Physical therapy and of readjustment
- Public health
the General medicine
- the education of health
- the Anatomo-pathology: microscopic study of sick fabrics
- the Anesthesiology-reanimation: Sedation, Anesthesia, Reanimation
- the Surgery: therapeutic medical which comprises a mechanical intervention within the fabrics
- the esthetic Médecine: type of care aiming at improving the plastic aspect of the patient.
- the Occupational medicine: preventive medicine consisting in avoiding any deterioration of the Health workers because of their work, in particular by supervising the conditions of occupational hygiene, risks of contagion and the health condition of the workers.
- the emergency Medicine: hospital medicine (Service of the urgencies) and extra-hospital (Samu), treatment of the vital urgencies
- the Nutrition: assumption of responsibility of the Metabolism and the food
- the Radiology: speciality of the Medical imagery
By type of patient
- the Andrologie: medicine of the man, dealt with of the specific diseases of the male sex.
- the Gynecology: medicine of the woman, dealt with of the specific diseases of the female sex.
- the Obstetric : medicine of the expectant mother. To note the medical practice with whole share of the midwives, who devote to the monitoring of the normal pregnancy
- the fetal Médecine: medicine of the fetus thanks to the appearance of methods of explorations of the intra-uterine life (echography, Doppler, Amniocentèse).
- the Pediatry: medicine of the children, very broad field and generally including the Genetic private clinic.
- the Geriatrics: medicine of the elderly.
- the Medicine of the sailors: medicine of the sailors and workers of the sea.
- the Dermatology: medicine of the diseases of the Skin
- the Endocrinology: medicine of the diseases of glands, the hormonal anomalies, the disorders of the nutrition.
- the Hematology: medicine of the diseases of the Blood
- the Hépato-gastro-entérologie: medicine of the diseases of the Liver and the digestive Tract
- the Immunology
- the Nephrology: medicine of the diseases of the Kidney S
- the Neurology: medicine of the diseases of the Nervous system
- the Odontology: care of the teeth
- the Ophthalmology: medicine of the diseases of the eyes, the orbit and the eyelids.
- the Orthopedy: surgical discipline treating the affections of the locomotor apparatus.
- the Otorhinolaryngology (ORL): medicine of the diseases of the Ear S, the Nose and the throat
- the Pneumology: medicine of the diseases of the Lungs
- the Rhumatologie: medical discipline treating the affections of the locomotor apparatus.
- the Stomatology: medicine of the diseases of the Mouth
- the Urology: medicine of the urinary tract
- the Alcoologie: medicine of the disorders related to alcohol
- the Study of allergies: medicine of the Allergy S
- the Cancerology or Oncology: medicine of the Cancer S
- the Infectiologie: medicine of the infectious illness
- the Psychiatry: medicine of the mental health disorders and the mental diseases
- the Toxicology: treatment of poisonings and intoxications
- the Traumatology: treatment of the patients having undergone serious wounds, generally accidental
See the article Studies of medicine in France
- In the French-speaking countries: to see the article: the Studies of medicine
Other medical professions and paramedical professions
Other medical professions.
- Paramedical profession.
Problems involved in the careThe medical care is acts on the human person. If positive effects are sought, these acts can also have negative consequences. Some are undesirable effects related to the treatment, the “side effects”. Others result from awkwardness, medical error, defects of organization, of excessive catch of Médicament S. a touble or of a disease is known as Iatrogène when it is caused by an medical act or the drugs, even in the absence of error of the doctor, of looking after of the pharmacist or any other person intervening in the care.
It is estimated that in France, 4% of the hospitalizations follow care, and that 40% of these cases would be avoidable. These problems include/understand the diseases nosocomiales of which most frequent are the Infections nosocomiales.
See also: not-conventional Medicine
Axel Kahn & Lecourt (Dominique), 2004: Bioethics and freedom , Paris, PUF/Quadrige.
- Lecourt (Dominique) (to dir.), 1999: Dictionary of history and philosophy of sciences , Paris, 4th réed. “Quadriga” /PUF, 2006.
- Dominique Lecourt (to dir.), 2004: Dictionary of the medical thought , Paris, réed. PUF/Quadrige, 2004. ISBN 2130539602
- High health official
- Public health code
- Recommendations for the clinical practice (RPC) - Medical Library A.F.Lemanissier
- Resources for medical studies CHU Pity-Salpêtrière
- CISMeF: directory of medical sites Internet French-speaking
- Medline: database of medical publications
- Bioethics in Medicine
Fiu-vro: Arstitiidüs Simple: Medicine Zh-min-nan: I-ha̍k
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