See also: Ernst
BiographyIn 1909, it starts to study philosophy at the university of Bonn but it quickly gives up the courses to be devoted to its interest for Article In 1913, it meets Guillaume Apollinaire and Robert Delaunay and leaves for Paris, joining with Montparnasse artists coming from the four corners of the sphere.
In 1918, it wife Shines Straus, historian of Article Their tumultuous relation will not hold. The following year, it returns visit to Paul Klee and creates his first paintings, impressions with the hand and joinings; it tries out various supports and materials. During the First World War, it is useful in the German army. After this one, filled of new ideas, it founds with Jean Arp and the social activist Alfred Grunwald the group hobby-horse of Cologne but two years later, in 1922, it goes back to the community of artists of Montparnasse to Paris.
Testing constantly, he invents in 1925 the friction where he lets run a pencil lead to paper on a sheet posed on an unspecified surface (parquet floor or another texture). This technique reveals more or less imaginary figures. It is connected with the automatic writing of the surrealist writers whom it côtoyait like Paul Éluard and André Breton of course. The following year, he collaborates with Joan Miro on the designs for Sergei Diaghilev. With the assistance of Miro, max Ernst launches out in the development of a novel method, the scraping where it scrapes the pigment of the fabric. In addition to its assistance to the diffusion of dadaism, it contributed to the birth of the surrealist movement with Montparnasse. After one period spent with the surrealist ones, it partly leaves their group because of Breton which wanted to draw aside the friend of Ernst, the Eluard poet. In 1934, it starts to carve, attending Alberto Giacometti. In 1937, it meets Leonora Carrington with which it leaves food to Saint-Martin-in Ardèche. In 1938, the American heiress Peggy Guggenheim buys a good number of works of max Ernst which it exposes in her new museum to London.
With the beginning of the Second world war, max Ernst is stopped like enemy foreigner but, with the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry with Marseilles, it succeeds in leaving the country in company of Peggy Guggenheim. They arrive at the United States in 1941 and marry the following year. Max Ernst lives with New York where, beside the painters of avant-garde Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall which fled the war in Europe, it development assistance of the abstract Expressionnisme among the American painters.
Its marriage with Peggy Guggenheim ends in a failure and he marries Dorothea Tanning with Beverly Hills, in California, in October 1946, at the time of a double ceremony with Man Ray and Juliet Bowser. Max Ernst settles then in the USA with Sedona, in Arizona. In 1948, it writes the treaty “ Beyond Painting ” then share to travel to Europe in 1950. In 1952, it becomes Satrape Collège of' Pataphysique. Starting from 1953, it settles definitively in Paris and the following year gains the biennial of Venice. Thanks to the publicity caused by this event, it starts to be a certain financial success.
In 1963, it moves with his wife in a small town of the south of France, Seillans, where it continues to work. It creates the decorations of a theater and a fountain in the town of Amboise. In 1975, a retrospective takes place with the Musée Solomon R. Guggenheim in New York and the National Galleries of the Large palace of Paris publish a complete catalog of its works.
Max Ernst dies on April 1st, 1976 in Paris. It is buried there with the Cimetière of the Father-Lachaise.
An exposure was devoted to him during the winter 1991-1992, in the Center Georges Pompidou, Paris. Opening of a museum max-Ernst including/understanding 300 works with Brühl, its birthplace, in 2005.
the Elephant Célèbes and Ubu Imperator are exposed until January 2006 in the Center Georges Pompidou, in Paris, within the framework of the Exposure Hobby-horse.
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