GeographyIt corresponds to the one of the transverse large valleys of the the Alps. The river which modelled this valley after the last Glaciation is the Arc. The valley starts with the hamlet of the Share (commune of Bonneval-on-Arc) to the foot of the collar of the Iseran close to the Italian border, and moves west-south-west before going up west-north-west starting from Modane; it finishes with Aiton where the Arc joined Isere.
There is no strictly speaking Solid mass of Maurienne: Maurienne is bordered in north (Right Bank) by the large solid mass of the Vanoise, and Lauzière chains it, and in the south (left bank) by the massive of the Mount-Cenis, the massive of the Rings, and that of the Russet-red Grandes.
The large collars alpine which leave the valley are:
- the Iseran towards the Tarentaise
- the Mount-Cenis towards the Italy
- the Telegraph and the Galibier towards Briançon
- the Cross-of-Iron and the Glandon towards Grenoble
- the Madeleine towards the Tarentaise
Two geographical units traditionally are distinguished: the Lowone (low part of the valley, broader) and the Highone (high part).
EtymologyThe name " Maurienne" do not find its origin in the word " Maure" , relating to the incursions of Xe sicèle of the Buckwheats. It is rather a derivative of Latin Malus Rivus , bad brook, which evolved/moved in " mau riou/nothing ". Indeed, the river of the Arc is known for these risings.
Heraldicgold to the tower of sand mouths built driving of the point, summoned of an issuant eagle crowned also sand gold or to the éployée, languée sand eagle and fingers numb with cold of mouths, with the tower of mouths at a peak
History of the provinceMaurienne is a geostrategic valley which have an importance with each period of the Histoire of Savoy.
ProtohistoireIt is necessary to await the cast iron of the large glaciers alpine and especially the Neolithic so that intalle the first individuals in the valley of Maurienne. One can observe thus on the territory of the commune of Lanslevillard, the megaliths like that of the Pierre to the Feet (with more than 3.000) and the Pierre de Chantelouve . In addition, in the whole of the valley, one finds engraved stones or cave paintings like that of Bessans or Arcelle close to the Mount-Cenis. On the village of Sollières, the archeologists found, after a hazardous discovery in 1972, on the site of Balmes (Cave located at 1300 m), a Nécropole, indicating an occupation of - 2.900 at the end of the age of iron.
AntiquityBefore incorporation in the Roman world, the Maurienne is populated of Médulles (Gallic people) living the average and low part of the valley. The Highone is inhabited by the Graiocèles. In -16, the whole of the valley is integrated into the province of the the Alps Cottiennes with for capital Suse (the king Cottius becomes prefect of the province).
The Middle AgesThe city of Saint-Jean-with-Maurienne receives holy Thècle, at the 6th century, Relique S of Jean the Baptist (three fingers of the hand). With this occasion, Gontran, king of Burgundy, raises a cathedral dedicated to Jean the Baptist, into 565 or 574, marking the beginning of évêché. Beyond the spiritual aspect, Gontran withdraws the valley from the authority of the bishop of Turin, thus taking control on the valleys of Suse and Briançon. This policy enables him to control the alpine valleys between its kingdom and the territories lombards, of the plain of the Po.
At the time of the passage of Charlemagne in " Savoie" , this one divides the territory into counties, of which that of Maurienne. This last is given, with the Traité of Verdun (843), with Lothaire until its incorporation with the new kingdom of Burgondie septentrional. About 1003, a lord of the name of Humbert, called White-hands (affiliated with the powerful comtale family of Arles, marquis de Provence and relative many dignitary of the clergy), appears. Lord of strongholds in Genevese, Tarentaise, Valley of Aoste (1034), in the Viennese and the valley of the the Rhone, it obtains the title of count (without precise details) then that of count in Maurienne in 1043. Its descent obtains in 1143 the title of " Count de Savoie" who will be a dynasty - the Maison of Savoy - important at the European level during the history.
Although the capital is transferred to Chambéry in 1232, the city of Saint-Jean-of-Maurienne maintains the statute of provincial capital with the seat of the évêché.
Venture hydro-electric powerAugust 1st
Relaunching of the valleyAugust 1st
AdministrationThe historical capital of Maurienne is Saint-Jean-with-Maurienne, with the confluence of the Arc and Arvan.
Maurienne corresponds to the Arrondissement of Saint-Jean-with-Maurienne gathering the cantons of:
- the Room
- Into low Maurienne:
- On average Maurienne
- Into high Maurienne:
- Aussois (carries of Vanoise)
- Railway and railway Tunnel of the Mount-Cenis (Beginning of work 1857, inauguration 1871)
- Tunnel of Frejus (Beginning of work 1974, 1 inauguration 1979, brought into service 1980)
- French Highway A43 (Beginning of work 1993, inauguration 1997)
- Industrial development dice end of the XIXe century with the development of the Hydro-electric power , then the installation of great electrochemical and electrometallurgic groups (Pechiney).
HydroelectricityThe valley of Maurienne has many hydroelectric infrastructures (stoppings).
TourismMany a winter sports resorts enamels the valley, from the small station village such Albiez-Montrond, where was created celebrates it Opinel in the Années 1890 with the station of 3rd Generation created of all parts in the years 1970 such Corbier and Karellis.
- Sybelles (Corbier, Fontcouverte it Toussuire, Saint-Sorlin-with Arves, Albiez-Montrond, Bottières, Saint-Colomban-of-Villards the, Saint-Jean-with Arves, Albiez-the-Young person, Albiez-Montrond)
- Valloire, Valmeinier
- Normalized It, managed by the communes of Villarodin-Le Bourget and Avrieux
- Bonneval-on-Arc, Bessans
- Lanslebourg-Mount-Cenis, Lanslevillard forming the station of Val Cenis
- Saint-Jean-with-Maurienne (Beaune-the-Thyl)
- Modane (Valfréjus)
- Cheese (AOC Beaufort), names rarer like the blue of Termignon or the blue of Bonneval
Places and MonumentsThe countries of Maurienne and Tarentaise are classified country of art and history.
the Barrier of Esseillon, a series of five forts built by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia between 1818 and 1830 to protect the Piedmont from a French invasion. Forts, built according to the principles of military engineer Marc-Rene de Montalembert (the fortification " perpendiculaire") the names of the princes of the House of Savoy carry: Charles-Albert, Marie-Christine, Charles-Felix, Victor-Emmanuel and Marie-Therese.
ways of the Baroque of Maurienne
the episcopal city of Saint-Jean-of-Maurienne, with its palate of the bishops which shelters the museum of the costumes, archeology, arts and traditions popular; its crypt of the beginnings of the Romanesque art, its cathedral, its cloister and its stalls of XVe century.
The HighoneOne calls High-Maurienne the high valley of the Arc, which skirts the Italian border on approximately 45 kilometers in the area of the Mount-Cenis. The area is known since highest antiquity and one finds there many vestiges of human occupation to paleolithic and more recently. The Highone begins upstream Modane for the specialists in human geography, while the specialists in physical geography locate the entry High-Maurienne at the glacial bolt of Esseillon, on the level of Aussois. As for the economists, they attach Modane to High-Maurienne since the city has a very strong influence on the villages High-Maurienne, in particular because of equipment like its SNCF railway station or its college.
Modane, last city of the valley (according to definition INSEE), is an old frontier town, located at the outlet of the tunnels railway and truck driver of Frejus and dominated by the station of Valfréjus.
The villages, by going up the valley, are:
- Villarodin-Le Bourget (and the ski station of Normalized It)
- Aussois (ski station)
- Lanslebourg-Mount-Cenis, Lanslevillard (2 villages forming the station of Val Cenis)
- Bessans (great field of Ski touring and international stage of Biathlon, unique in France)
- Bonneval-on-Arc (field of Alpine skiing)
Approximately 5000 permanent inhabitants, and approximately 15000 people in winter
A good part High-Maurienne is included in the National park of Vanoise, first National park in France (1963) which touches the Italian National park of the Great Paradise. Important population of ibexes and chamois. Presence of golden eagle and recent reintroduction of the bearded Gypaète. It seems that the wolf has reached the area for 5 years.
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