It accommodates boats residing at the year or of the boats visitors (of passage) by offering variable services of one port to the other.
A marina generally offers several hundreds of places of variable size for boats active of approximately 5 meters to a score of meters length. Only some marinas can receive boats of higher size.
Structure of a modern marina
When it is located directly in seaside, a marina comprises one or more Digue S intended to protect the boats from the action of the Houle and the Vague S.
In the modern marinas, the mooring of the boats is done on floating Ponton S, more rarely along quays; the crews can unload directly with ground. Certain marinas also have zones of Mouillage requiring a boat to go to ground.
In the zones subjected to the Tide, the modern marina allows, low tide, to keep the boats with flood; various techniques are used:
- the port and its channel of access are dug so that a height of sufficient water remains with low tide, even with the spring tides,
- a tilting door, a lock or a threshold retains in lower part of a certain dimension water of the port prohibiting of the blow any access when the height of water is not sufficient.
Various techniques are used to moor the boats:
- along a quay
- on let us bridge floating sliding with the liking of the tide along posts fixed on the bottom. It is the most current solution in the Atlantic and Handle. The boats are immobilized between Catway S
- in the seas without tide, the bridge can be fixed
- between piles
- in the Mediterranean one practices the mooring with quay by the back, a chain - girl interdependent of a chain-mother parallel with the quay making it possible to maintain the boat perpendicular to the quay.
The services available in a marina generally comprise:
- the provision of drinking water and electricity,
- a harbor office charged to manage the port but which also places at the disposal information marine weather, the news bulletins intended for navigation, and ensures the piloting and the reception of the boats visitors,
- of the medical ones.
One finds in a less systematic way:
- of the pumps with Carburant
- a fixes of setting to water for small the Embarkation S
- a lifting crane with a quay level making it possible to put at ground the more important boats for maintenance, repairs or storage.
A yacht-club, store of Upperworks, shipyards dedicated to the pleasure and restaurants often come to supplement this unit.
At the 19th century, the few existing pleasure boats divided the same installations as the fishing and merchant ships. The marina appeared at the 20th century with the popularization of the pleasure.
The creation of a marina
The impact of the creation of a port on natural balances is never null, even if certain installations are sometimes presented like a means of maintaining the character marine of a site threatened of stranding. This impact can however be reduced by techniques of the type HQE or type artificial reefs).
One can still distinguish from the temporary impacts related to construction/repair of the port, permanent impact induced by his presence, his exploitation and the related activities.
Direct impactsThey are related to the construction of the port (destruction or strong impoverishment of mudholes, herbaria, coastal or marine and littoral habitats covered or concerned with the works, biogeomorphologic modifications and of the currents, less oxygenation or less renewal of water, impact of hydrocarbon films, frequent in the closed ports, bacteriological impacts related to the WC of edge, warming, and impact of the operation of the port, of which:
Typical chronic pollution of the industrial ports, fishing and pleasure They concern especially:
- hydrocarbons coming from the maritime activity and harbor normal
- pollution accidental or related to the damage of the storms
- escapes or involuntary or voluntary rejections of fuel, oils of draining
- metal biocides and pollutants coming from the corrosion or the solubilization of metals, in particular when there are industrial welding sets in the vicinity… (the propellers are equipped with anodes in order not to be degraded), and with paintings “antisalissures” which protect the hulls against corrosion and “biosalissures” by killing the algae and micro-organisms. They are by nature very toxic for the marine and nonbiodegradable organizations. The port of the island of Center conceals significant amounts of products resulting from the careenage/sandpapering and painting at the time of the operations of maintenance of the pleasure or fishing vessels.
Lastly, the pollution of the urban type coming from the habitat on board boats in the harbor-basin can be significant (rejections of detergents, shampoos, soaps, etc few chemical toilets on board, but forward thrust under the water line, theoretically prohibited in the majority of the ports).
Indirect impacts:They are for example the impacts generated upstream by the taking away of materials, induced transport, etc or the consequences felt outside the zone arranged out of the master keys of entry (rejection at sea of dredge spoils and waste, streaming polluted, additional artificialisation, luminous Pollution impacting the birds on their ways of migration, hiding of the benthic organizations, pollution by the antifoulings, increase in turbidity, transfers of invasive organizations or parasites of the mould S and Huître S. Some tests of use of ecological technique of genius gave results, but very local and sometimes with negative secondary impacts (ex: the sowing of moulds or oysters to filter water cleansed and cleared up the water of industrial wet docks, but the shells concentrated certain not or not very biodegradable poisons).
The ports being often located on estuaries or out of bays, they relate to the whole of ecosystems formerly very productive, sometimes ecologically strategic, always fragile. They will be generally affected on the long run, even irréversiblement.
Impacts related to construction.
The use of explosives and heavy machines, the digging and/or the Dredging of the funds to reach a sufficient draft, to plant piles or to build dams or locks, then periodic dredgings of maintenance cumulate their effects: The deposit of the products taken at sea is likely to deteriorate maritime environment (vases often rich in hydrocarbons, heavy metals and Biocide S coming in particular from the antifoulings).
effects of dredging: They relate to at the same time the water column, the bottom and the zone of dispersion, with possibility of Bioconcentration and Bioturbation of poisons in the trophic networks (food chain)
effects on the bottom
effects in the water column: increase in turbidity
Techniques of clean building site develop, which with a better choice of the sites of rejections, the limitation of pollution and contributions erosive upstream can limit the harmful effects. The site of rejection must be sufficiently far away from the coast and the zones of biological interest or aquiculture, not to obstruct the other littoral activities (tourism, shellfish farming…), without leading to a rapid return at the coast of rejected materials.
In the rich countries, there is no monitoring systematic of water quality harbor contrary to what occurs for the beaches. Persons in charge being generally satisfied to prohibit fishing and the bathe, by precaution.
Regulation in FranceThe State wanted edge to preserve the control of these installations; then the regulation evolved/moved in the direction of a decentralization (Laws of decentralization of March 2nd, 1982 and of January 7th, 1983). The law of July 22nd, 1983 supplementing that of January 7th, 1983. The Law Littoral of January 3rd, 1986 followed, relating to installation, protection and the development of the littoral. It defines rules and principles relating in particular to:
- control of the littoral urbanization (cf directive of national installation of August 25th, 1979 relating to protection and the installation of the littoral),
- accessibility with the shore (cf Law of the bearing December 31st, 1976 reforms town planning).
Concerning the marinas, the law aims at moderating the inclination of the developers by enacting general provisions the purpose of which are to limit their anarchistic increase while supporting light formulas of investments. - The article L.146-6 of the Code of town planning (new) prescribed that “the documents and decisions relating to the vocation of the zones or the occupation and the land use preserve terrestrial and marine spaces, sites and landscapes remarkable or characteristic of the natural heritage and cultural of the littoral, and mediums necessary to the maintenance of biological balances”. This law does not seek to level all the conflicts of interest on the littoral, but the protection of the littoral in is an element dominating the others. The principle being posed, it is necessary to find the means of implementing it. In 1998,6 communes only respected this law in North - Pas-de-Calais.
The impact studyLaw of July 10th, 1976 relating to protection of nature. - An impact study for the realization of installations or important works Imposes. - Obligatory for the extension or building work of the marinas whose total costs are equal or higher than 6 franc million.
The value and the ecological functions of the site must be established as soon as possible, and the port must be located on a site deprived of an unquestionable ecological interest such as the benthic fishing zones, nurseries, settlements, biological corridors, estuaries, mudholes, etc The ecological impact study must include 4 essential phases: - an analysis of the initial state of the site and its environment, - an analysis of the effects of the project on the environment, - the reasons for which the project presented was adopted, - measurements planned to remove, reduce and if possible compensate for the detrimental consequences of the project on the environment as well as the estimate of the corresponding expenditure.
Marinas in France (Metropolis)
Since the Sixties, many marinas were created either starting from a port of reduced size existing turned towards fishing or the trade, either by construction of an extension dedicated to the pleasure not far from an always active port (the White Mill in Brest, the Tiny ones with the La Rochelle) or more seldom ab nihilo (Port-Camargue, Pornichet…)
Today the marinas located in the most snuffed zones of cruising (bay of Quiberon, basin of Arcachon, Riviera) are saturated. The park of boats increases regularly whereas the creation of new ports became difficult if not impossible: the favorable sites became rare and the residents of the littoral communes do not accept any more that part of the coast is sacrificed to this type of installation.
The extensions of the existing ports do not make it possible to regulate the problem. The purchaser of a boat can wait several years before having a place, the record being recorded in Arcachon or the latency being into 2005 of… 70 years.
Main ports of pleasure in France Metropolis (more than 500 places)
Many places (figures 2004 round-offs)
Dunkirk (+ Gravelines): 1200, Boulogne-sur-Mer: 500, Dieppe: 500, Saint-Valéry-in-Caux: 600, Fécamp: 650, Le Havre: 1050, Deauville: 1100, Divine-on-Sea: 600, Ouistreham: 650, Courseulles-on-Sea: 750, Saint-Vaast-the-Hougue: 700, Cherbourg: 1400, Granville: 1100, Saint-Malo: 1250, Saint-Quay-Portrieux: 1000, Lézardrieux: 700, Perros-Guirec: 700, Trébeurden: 650,
Brest (White Mill): 1500, Crozon - Morgat: 700, Loctudy: 700, Bénodet: 700, San Marino: 800, the Forest-Fouesnant: 1000, Bay of Lorient (Lorient Center, Kernevel, Locmiquélic, Port-Louis): 1600, Quiberon Haliguen Port: 1100, the Trinité-sur-Mer: 1150, Arzon (Crouesty): 1430, the Rock-Bernard: 500, Arzal: 900, Piriac-sur-Mer: 650, Turballe: 320, La Baule - Pouliguen: 700, Pornichet: 1150, Pornic: 900, Island of Yeu: 500, Saint-Gilles-Cross-of-Life: 900, Sands of Olonne (Olona Port): 1100, Talmont-Saint-Hilaire (Port-Bourgenay): 600, Ars-in-D: 550, La Rochelle: 3500, Saint-Denis-with Oléron: 750, Royan: 1000, the Verdon-on-Sea (Port Medoc): 800, Arcachon: 2600, Capbreton: 950, Hendaye: 700,
Argelès-sur-mer: 1000, Saint-Cyprien: 2200, Canet in Roussillon: 1000, Sainte-Marie the Sea: 510, Barcares (Holy Port Angel): 750, Port-Leucate: 1100, Gruissan (2 ports): 1300, Narbonne-Beach: 600, Cape of Agde: 2450, Frontignan: 600, Palavas-the-Floods: 1020, Carnon: 700, the Grande Motte: 1430, Grau of the King (Port the Camargue): 4600, the Saint-Louis-of-Rhone (3 ports): 700 (+2200 dry) Fos-sur-Mer (Holy Gervais): 840, Curry-the-Wheel: 560, Marseilles (6 ports): 6900, Ciotat (2 ports): 1400, Saint-Cyr military school Lecques: 600, Bandol: 1600, Sanary: 650, Brusc: 600, Saint-Pierre-the-Embiez: 800, Saint-Mandrier (2 ports): 1100, Toulon (3 ports): 1250, Hyeres: 1350, Porquerolles: 500, the Londe-the-Moors (Miramar Port): 1150, Bormes-the-Mimosas: 950, Lavandou: 1050, Cavalaire (2 ports): 1100, Saint-Tropez: 800, Cogolin (2 ports): 1750, Port-Grimaud: 2400, Holy-Maxime (2 ports): 750, Issambres (2 ports): 600, Frejus: 700, Saint-Raphaël (2 ports): 1750, Mandelieu-la-Napoule (2 ports): 1300, Cannes (3 ports): 1650, Gulf-Juan (2 ports): 1700, Juan-the-Pines: 500, Antibes: 1700, Saint-Laurent-of-VAr: 1100, Nice: 500, Saint-Jean-Cape-Ferrat: 550, Beaulieu-sur-Mer: 750, Monaco: 700, Chin (2 ports): 1400, Saint-Florent: 800, Ajaccio (2 ports): 1100, Bastia (2 ports): 650, Macinaggio: 600
- French federation of the Marinas
- Atlantic Guide - All marinas and dampings of the European Atlantic by those which passed
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