The Mandchourie (as mandchou: Manju ; in simplified Chinese: 满洲; in traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Hanyu pinyin : Mǎnzhōu ; EFEO: Man-tcheou ) is the name of a vast territory in the North-East of the Asia, whose vastest extension covers the North-East of the China (approximately 1.550.000 km ²), and Russia on the Pacific Ocean is (approximately 1.000.000 km ²).
Into Chinese, Mandchourie is translated by 满洲 ( Mǎnzhōu ) 满族国 ( Mǎnzú guó , country or kingdom of the Manchu people), near to the name of the phantom State created by the Japanese in 1931, the Manzhouguo (满洲国).
According to the definition used, the term Mandchourie can indicate several areas of variable size, which are, of smallest to largest:
provinces of Jilin, Heilongjiang and of Liaoning of the Popular republic of China according to their borders of 1956;
- the three provinces above, plus the oriental party of the Mongolia-Interior , is the zones managed by the Hulunbuir, the league of Xing' year, Chifeng and Tongliao);
- the area above, plus the old province of the Rehe. Rehe recovers partially of the already described territories, to which the north of the Hebei around Chengde is added. These limits correspond to that of the Manzhouguo;
- the area above, plus Mandchourie external or Russian Mandchourie, an area in Russia which extends from the rivers Amour and Oussouri with the Monts Stanovoï and with the Mer of Japan (compared to Mandchourie external, the remainder of Mandchourie is sometimes called “Mandchourie interior”); Mandchourie external includes/understands the Krai de Primorsk, the south of the Krai de Khabarovsk, the oblast autonomous Jew and the Oblast d' Amour. It belonged Chinese to Mandchourie according to the terms of the Traité of Nertchinsk of 1689, but was yielded to Russia by the Traité of Aigun (1858);
- the area above, plus the Oblast de Sakhaline, which is generally indicated on the Chinese charts like belonging external to Mandchourie, because it is directly off the coasts of Mandchourie external and can thus be directly asserted as by forming part naturally, even if it is not explicitly mentioned in the treaty of Nertchinsk.
- “large Mandchourie” can also be included/understood like an ethnic term. In addition to the area described above, large Mandchourie includes the peninsula of Korea, Sakhaline and the islands Kouriles, and some times even the archipelago Japan board. Sometimes this term is used to describe the ethnic history of this zone, but is never used in connection with the various political entities from yesterday or today of this zone.
Mandchourie neighbor the Mongolia in the west, the Siberia in north, the China in the south and the North Korea in the east.
Mandchourie was the cradle of the people Xianbei, Khitan and Jurchen, which founded several dynasties in Mandchourie as in China even, and of which most recent and most famous were the Mandchous, which gave their name to the area, and which conquered at the 17th century China and controlled it until the fall of the Dynastie Qing in 1911.
Between 1931 and 1945, Mandchourie constituted the outpost of occupation of China by the Japan, which installed there a government in agreement with the imperial family of the Dynastie Qing, of Manchu origin. The area was subsequently renamed Manzhouguo, that is to say “country of the Manchu people”.
Since 1949, in Popular republic of China, Mandchourie does not correspond any more to any administrative area. On the other hand, the North-East or Dongbei Chinese identifies, in the language running, a territory and a specific culture inside the Chinese territory.
Certain Chinese family names, characterized by their bivalence, still keep the Manchu origins of their ascent. The town of Harbin (哈尔滨, ha' erbin) is an example of Toponyme of Manchu origin.
- Conquest of Mandchourie by Japan
- the Romance of Shan Its: the Player of go
- Mandarin of the North-East
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