Management of the languages
The management of the languages is a discipline which consists in satisfying needs for Usage of several Langue S, in same a State, Entreprise S, International institutions where one must practice several Langue S, or in cultural organizations.
The Universal declaration of UNESCO on cultural diversity in 2001 pointed out the richness of the world Cultural heritage, which comes to him from its Cultural diversity:
“This immaterial Cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is recreated permanently by the communities and groups according to their medium, of their interaction with the Nature and of their Histoire, and a feeling of Identité and continuity gets to them, thus contributing to promote the respect of cultural diversity and the human Créativité. ”
The Déclaration of Montreal of 2007 renewed this concern.
UNESCO organized a conference on the “Multilinguisme for cultural diversity and the participation of all in the Cyberespace” in Bamako, with the Mali, May 6th and 7th 2005, in partnership with the African Académie of the languages (ACALAN), the International organization of the francophonie (OIF), and the government of Mali, as well as other international organizations.
UNESCO is in addition at the origin of the installation of the concept of immaterial cultural heritage , which aims to manage the cultural heritage within sound informational support. For example, the texts and images associated with the mark Louvre belong to the immaterial cultural heritage, and it goes without saying the diversity of the visitors requires to manage texts in several Langue S.
In addition, the phenomenon of universalization produces exchanges which require to manage various languages in the nodes of interconnection (airports, stations…).
The Fabric, finally, generates commnerciaux exchanges indifferent to the linguistic borders, and virtual Communautés, like Wikipedia, where participants of different languages can dialog and exchange information and knowledge.
The international institutions, States, and the companies are confronted with needs for management of the languages.
In the international institutions, the languages can have various statutes: official language or working language.
States, European Union
Many States comprise several Official languages on their territory:
It is the case:
- of the Belgium (Dutch, French, German),
- of the Swiss (German, French, Italian, Romanche)
- of the Canada (French and English),
- of many countries of Africa.
A certain number of State S thus set up Politiques linguistics.
With a broader scale, the European Union also defined a political linguistics, which distinguishes eleven Official languages.
Impact on the Undertaken S
In the Entreprise S, there exists a great number of Document S which are today published in English, which is not nécessairemenet the Official language of the State where is established the establishment of the Entreprise. English can however become a Working language at international meetings.
However, in the European Union at least, the Law the labor having remained to the level of the Member States, it can occur that a certain number of documents are established in the Official language of each State.
The francophonie forms a Communauté of interest on the use of the French language.
The International organization of the francophonie manages a French-speaking international crossroads of documentation and information.
Languages and Computer's resources
There exist currently documentary databases which contain a great number of information, in one or more Langue S:
UNESCO lays out of documentary Databases which make it possible to manage the World heritage (from where the concept of immaterial Cultural heritage);
- OECD also has one of the documentary databases most important, which makes it possible to manage, in particular, the questions of pressures about the Environnement due to the human activities (see pressure-state-answer, model PER);
- the States also manage public Informations. In the European Union, the provision of this information is the subject of the Directive 2003/98/CE.
Primary language and language of treatment
Generally, the Information source is available in only one Langue. The treatments are thus carried out in this language, called language of treatment.
The language corresponding to the Need S to satisfy is called primary language .
It is thus necessary to be able to convert a language in the others and reciprocally, according to the Besoin S for the user S, the Règles trade, and the language of the source.
It is also necessary to have a framework of description of the Computer's resources, which makes it possible to carry out a transposition faithful to the direction of the texts. It is obvious that the Sémantique plays a very important part. The Gestion of the languages will be made usefully within the framework of the semantic Web. The OASIS defined a framework which is called Resource Description Framework (RDF).
The Management systems of contents and the systems of electronic Gestion of documents must have intelligent interfaces allowing them interopérer with the sources, and to carry out if necessary a Traduction (partner with a back in shape) for the needs for the final Usager.
Negotiation of the contents
For the management of various languages of contents Web, one introduced a process of Négociation of the contents, based on the protocol HTTP.
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