Management of quality
See also: Quality
The management of quality is the whole of the activities which contribute to the Obtention of the Qualité in a framework of production of goods or services.
More largely, it is also a means which certain organizations give each other, with aims such as the setting in Conformité compared to the Standard S of the market (for example certification according to the standard ISO 9001 or ISO/TS 16949), the research of the Efficience, which is the effectiveness with saving in resources (continuous improvement), or to ensure to them Pérennité by making sure of the Satisfaction their partners, Fournisseur S with the customer S while passing by the Actionnaire S, the Employé S and the State. One speaks then about Total quality.
QualityIt is very current to describe quality like the satisfaction of the customer. Quality is thus relative because it is function of the requirements of the clients.
Within the framework of the management of quality, from the industrial point of view, quality is a target whose criteria are precisely fixed. Industrial quality is the result of a production process or of servuction which with all its stages (design, implemented, control, improvement - to see PDCA) obeys a " book of the charges" allowing to reach and control the desired level.
For a product or a service, the management of quality is the organization (the process) and the piloting (management) set up to guarantee the satisfaction of requirements (needs, expressed or not), of the internal and external recipients of the company and the taking into account of the risks of any nature. Within the framework of the Total quality the recipients are the customers, the shareholders, the employees and the company in general. Optimal quality is at the point of meeting of the explicit or implicit needs for the whole of the recipients. The optimal level of quality should not produce inadequate cost (on-quality). Quality, as well as any activity in a company has a cost, but which is supposed to reduce the cost of the Not-quality. A company is then powerful when the Triptyque " Cost - Time - Quality " (i.e. the Ressource S which it implements) is justified and effective, allowing him to position advantageously on a market while profiting from a " ticket of entrée" raised which gives a margin in advance on competition.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, industry sought to develop the best methods to improve quality. Coming primarily from the Japan and the United States, these methods are gathered today in a well defined corpus and have from now on a world range. The international standards of quality define a step " universelle" , applicable to any type of company (production of products or services).
The standards qualityThe international standards of quality were directed towards the Total quality (TQM: Total Quality Management ), which articulates strategy, system, performance and human dimension and social.
Various American states set up as of years 1980 of the organizations dedicated to the environmental quality. In April 1990, 21 of the most important American companies of the time (whose IBM, AT&T) gathered within the framework of GROANED (Global Environment Management Initiative), to open the step quality on the taking into account of environment (TQEM: Total Quality Environmental Management). This mobilization was done in answer to the first legal steps related to the impact of industry on health and the environment.
The standards gradually integrated waitings of the Civil society: Risk S total, Climate change, etc the Enjeu X of Sustainable development were translated, for the companies, in concepts of Responsabilité sociétale, Santé, education, and even Gouvernement.
Some dates locates:
- 1970 (the United States): Law imposing the obligation of the quality assurance for the construction of the nuclear plants;
- 1991 (the United States): first environmental standards (EQS: Environmental Quality Standard ) of quality of the grounds is established;
- 1993 (the United States): appearance of the first EQS (Environmental Quality Standard) relating to health.
Diffusion of these steps in Europe and FranceIn France, the deployment of the step quality was late (1990). In first stage, the requirement of description of the processes seemed to have to apply only to industry. The step was perceived like too litigious (" machine with gaz") and the importance of the implication of the direction was underestimated. A simplified version of the step quality then was worked out and diffused under the name of Quality assurance, defined in the standards ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and ISO 9003 (versions 1990 and 1994). These standards ISO 9002 and 9003 were removed as of the publication of the version 2000 of the ISO 9001 which stresses the importance of the managerial implication in the total piloting of quality, the control of the processes, and widens the application of the standard to the production of services.
Of work is in hand to formalize a coherent framework of standardization, at the same time on the industrial sphere and the field of the information management. One thus finds the series of standards, or draft standards (for the implementation) ISO 26000 and ISO 27000.
Particular applicationsThe step quality is declined in all the industrial fields, with sometimes particular alternatives and denominations:
- data-processing field: Quality of the computing systems - reliability of the systems. Capability Maturity Model Integration CMMI and its variations (CMM-I, PCMM, etc) (list to be supplemented).
OrganizationThe organizations applicable to the management of quality are very numerous and rise simultaneously from the described objectives and the means set up by the group which thus wishes to manage its quality. Often, in the companies, this responsibility is delegated to Engineer S quality or Qualiticien S. The role of these engineers is then to build the practical means to reach quality (procedures, controls, measurements, etc).
The management of quality has - because of its very broad goals - a considerable spectrum of application which tends to cover a great number of activities. A good means to realize it is to sweep the chapters of the standard ISO 9000 Version 94, obsolete since December 2000, which has the appearance of a reference for many european companies:
- Responsibility for the direction: quality starts with the implication of the Management of the firm.
- Quality system: a clean organization and a structure are also necessary.
- Re-examined contract: as of the initial decision to realize produced or service, the management of quality can and must be implemented.
- Control of the design: the whole of the activity of design is then covered.
- Control of the documents: as it is necessary to say/write what one does and what one will make, the control of the documents in the broadest sense of the term is a central need.
- Purchases: to buy products and services takes part of the quality of the product/final service.
- Control of the product provided by the customer: the customer can have products required, thus taking part in the quality of the product/final service/.
- Identification and Traceability: to recognize and find the product are a need in the management of quality.
- Control of the process: the process of realization or production enters within the natural framework of the management of quality.
- Control and Tests: to make sure that the product/service is in conformity.
- Control of the equipment of control, measurement and test: to make sure that controls are reliable, it is necessary to manage the quality of the tools which intervene in this activity.
- State of controls and tests: to make sure that one knows the state of the tests makes it possible to know if quality is reached.
- Control of the product nonin conformity: quality only is seldom reached at 100%; it is thus necessary to treat nonconformities or the Non quality.
- Corrective actions and preventive actions: for each incident, it is advisable to know how to manage it a posteriori and how to prevent that he reproduces.
- Handling, Storage…: still an activity which does not escape management from quality since it intervenes before the provision of the customer/recipient.
- Recordings relating to quality: traces must be kept activities of the management of quality.
- To that the S interns quality: the management of quality ensures of the audits to check and measure the application of the procedures of the management of quality.
- Formation: it is necessary to form with quality too.
- associated Services
- Technical statistics: the statistics have a central place in the management of quality since the quantities implemented increase so much is little.
- In the professional services and the medical professions, the management of quality is based on the codes of conduct.
Tools of the step qualityThe step quality proposes a whole panoply of tools of assistance (method, analyzes, statistical, follow-up-control). These tools, created and/or diffused by the principal founders of the step quality within the framework of their actions of council near the companies, have teaching vocation.
It is useful to distribute the tools of quality in two categories:
- the complex tools used in the fields of engineering, logistics, metrology, the statistics, by the services of planning and method,… These tools were often created at the beginning of last century. The majority of them already appear in the book of Joseph Juran (1951) “Quality Control Handbook” Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, guide gathering the concepts, tools and steps applicable to the improvement of quality.
- the simple tools of assistance to the reflection, the analysis, the method, usable by any public without particular formation. In fact the JUSE (Japanese Union off Scientists and Engineers) will make the first systematic diffusion in 1977, of 7 tools " all public" selected for the simplicity of their use. These tools were called the " 7M" (1-Diagram of Pareto, 2-diagram cause-effect, 3-stratification, 4-check-list, 5-histogram, 6-diagram of dispersion, 7-graph/charter of control).
Each one of these tools made the object of many recoveries and alternatives. It is not simple to see there clearly. The list below modestly tries to make a structured presentation of it.
To tally the piloting of a step quality
- the wheel of Deming : (The United States) stages of installation of the control of quality. Another denomination: the PDCA ( Plane - C - Check - Adjust : to conceive, implement, to control, react), the " coil qualité". This method was launched by quality control engineers JURAN and SHEWART at the company Bell Telephon in 1925. W. Deming, a statistician who had been trainee school at SHEWART at that time, will evoke this tool in Japan in 1950 whereas it was charged to give during 2 months a series of course on the statistics. In 1954, Japanese industry will call upon JURAN so that it exposes the managerial shutters and methods of deployment of quality. Nevertheless, the name of Deming remained attached to this tool.
- the Method Six Sigma : (The United States) method of management aiming to the permanent improvement of quality. Equivalent: PDCA, of which it is an improved version.
To analyze a performance
- the Control chart. (the United States) (Author: Walter A. Shewart) (alternatives: follow-up of instrument panel, controls statistical process (CSP): method of management of the quality according to which one measures, using statistical techniques, a process to determine if it is necessary to bring changes to him or to maintain it such as it is).
To analyze an operation
- the " figuration of the process " (" process mapping"). This tool, already used in years 1930 in the United States where it is always used, since is declined in various forms, of simplest with most complex, for example the following ones:
- " The logigramme (synonymous: process chart). Codified diagram representing the successive and logical stages of a advance and showing the interactions of a procedure, a process or one system using a unit of interrelated geometrical figures (for example of the rectangles or rhombuses).
- the geographical diagram (material organization) analyzes the material flow of the activities and assistance to minimize waste of time when the extrants or the resources are conveyed of an activity to another.
- the functional diagram represents the interactions between various work units. It shows for example how the functional services with vertical orientation influence a process with horizontal orientation implemented within an organization.
- the tool PERT (Project Technical Assessement and Review, litt. " technique of evaluation and examination of projets"), method of management of project allowing to define the tasks and times of a project and to ensure the follow-up of it.
- Stratification : presentation allowing the simultaneous reading of compiled data of natures and various sources, highlighting their singular variations, their respective influences, the impact of the context, and it to give an overall vision of the operating process of a system and its variables.
To seek the causes of the defects and to qualify their impact
- the Diagram of causes and effects or diagram of Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa (synonymous: diagram in fish-bones). Diagram allowing to examine the fundamental causes of the problems. By putting the question continuously “Why? ”, one ends up discovering the true cause of the problem. Generally used to highlight the causes of a problem and to gather them in distinct categories (par. e.g. method, labor, material, machines, matters).
- method of the 5 why.
- the diagram of Pareto. Author: Joseph Juran (synonymous: 80-20) (alternative: the curve ABC cuts out diagram of Pareto in 3 segments delimiting the effort of treatment to be carried out). Simple graph in bands, being useful, after the data acquisition, to classify the causes of the problems and to establish priorities of action. It indicates the causes of the problems according to the width of their effects and helps to define the activities of improvement according to their set of priorities. The recourse to this kind of graph gives place to the rule of 80-20, i.e. 80 p. 100 of the problems rise from 20 p. 100 of the causes.
- the Histogram. Graph of bands indicating the distribution of a variance. It also shows the variations compared to the standard, in the form of selective analysis for example. It makes it possible to measure the frequency to which something occurs.
To choose the suitable solution
- the Matrix of compatibility.
- the step 8D (to ensure resolution of a problem supplements it).
- Decision tree: Representation in tree structure which makes it possible starting from a starting objective to decline the whole of the intermediate objectives and the means to implement.
To optimize - to make safe a process
- AMDEC or Analyzes Modes of Failures of their Effects and their Criticality.
- the Bar chart. The bar chart is a tool making it possible to model the planning of tasks necessary to the realization of a project. It is about a tool invented in 1917 per Henry L. Gantt. It is used as support with the parameter setting and the project management.
- the matrix " QFD" ( Quality Function Deployment ), also called the " house of the qualité". It is about a two-dimensional board recutting the stages of the process and the requirements of the customers. A marking system makes it possible to clarify the critical points in the matrix and to even follow the evolution of it (= figurative instrument panel).
- the Kanban , system of labels allowing the follow-up of production (used in the Juste-with-time).
- Poka Yoké : alarm system aiming at avoiding (yoke) the involuntary errors (poka) on the level of the operators (recourse to simple means like the sight and hearing to prevent the incidents of operation). Invented by a Japanese engineer named Shigeo Shingo (originator of the system SMED).
First stages of an analysis
- diagram KJ. It belongs to the 7 tools of quality diffused by the Japanese. At the origin, called " diagram of the affinités" ( Affinity Diagram ), it is frequently identified by the initial ones of its originator Kawakita Jiro. Very frequently used in the animation of the work groups, this diagram is used to gather ideas, opinions being attached to various problems and to create bonds between them in order to bring them closer by categories.
- the QQOQCCP (" Five Ws" or " 5W2H" in English).
- the Five why (" 5 Whys" in English)
- Analysis of the forces and weaknesses. The tool can be simply made up of a table distinguishing the two categories, in opposite by topic. The origin of this method is allotted to Kurt Lewin.
Method of creativity
- the Brainstorming (brain-storming).
Analysis of the variance
- Total quality
- Malcom Baldridge
- Series of the ISO standards 9000
- Series of the ISO standards 14000
- List of ISO standards by fields
- Lean production
Other BondsManagement of the Companies by Total quality
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