The Mali is a State of West Africa having borders common with the Mauritania and the Algérie to north, with the Niger in the east, with the Burkina Faso and the Ivory Coast in the south, with the Guinea in south-west and with the Senegal in the west. The most point is the Hombori Tondo (: 1155 m) located in the central part of the country.
See also: History of Mali
Mali has a very rich and relatively well-known history. Five important empires or kingdoms followed one another there: the Empire of Ghana, the Empire of Mali, the Empire songhaï, the Royaume will bambara of Ségou and the Empire peul of Macina.
Following the invasion of the France in 1880, Mali becomes a French colony under the name of French Sudan. The April 4th 1959, the Senegal and Sudan gather to form the Fédération of Mali, which reaches independence on June 20th, 1960. Two months later, Senegal withdraws federation and proclaims its independence. September 22nd, 1960, Sudan proclaims in its turn its independence under the control of Modibo Keïta, while preserving the name of Mali.
In 1968, Modibo Keïta is reversed by a Coup d'etat leads by a group of officers having to their head Moussa Traoré, which founds a Dictature. In 1991, this one is reversed in its turn by the general Amadou Toumani Touré who, after one transitional period, restores the Démocratie with the election of Alpha Oumar Konaré in 1992. This last is re-elected in 1997.
In 2002, Amadou Toumani Touré, which left the army to be presented, is elected president of the Republic of Mali, and re-elected in 2007.
See also: Political of Mali
Mali is a République with a Parlement Unicaméral. The Executive power is represented by the President and his government. The Legislative power by the National Assembly. More the legal high ranking authority is the Supreme court.
- 1960: Modibo Keïta
- 1968: General Foamed Traoré
- 1991: Colonel Tinder Toumani Touré
- 1992: Alpha Oumar Konaré, re-elected in 1997
- 2002: General Tinder Toumani Touré, re-elected at the time of the presidential election of April 29th, 2007 with 70,88% of the voices (1 622.579 votes cast) against seven other candidates of which the president of the National Assembly Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta (19,08%).
- 2007: Amadou Toumani Touré was re-elected for second a five years mandate.
See also: Geography of Mali, List of cities of Mali
Mali, with its 1.241.238 square kilometers, is the vastest State of West Africa after the Niger. It is wedged inside Western Africa between the tropic of Cancer and Ecuador. It is crossed by two large rivers: the Senegal and the Niger. The greatest part of the population lives in rural area. The density, very variable, passes from 90 hab. /km ² in the central delta of Niger to less than 5 hab. /km ² in the Saharan area of North.
The country has three climatic zones:
- the northern two-thirds of the countries, entirely desert, belong to the the southernmost Sahara, with annual precipitations lower than 127 Misters This area is crossed by nomads with their herds;
- the center: the area sahélienne, relatively dry (with the relatively insufficient tropical rains), is covered with steppe replaced gradually towards the south by savanna. The valley of Niger is cultivated thanks to certain work of development: one finds there Riz, Coton, Arachide, millet, Sorgho. Vast extended in the center of Mali is consisted marshes, which had with the many arms of Niger;
- the Sudanese area is a zone with precipitations of 1.400 mm per annum and average temperatures enters 24 and 32 °C. It is, in its northern part, of savanna becoming increasingly dense and transforming themselves gradually into forest towards the south.
The relief is accentuated little. The alluvial plains, very vast, however are dominated by some plates limestones and of sandstone (plates mandingues and dogon). The culminating point of Mali is the Mont Hombori.
Mali is divided into eight areas and a district. These subdivisions bear the name of their principal city. Three areas of north: Gao, Kidal and Tombouctou represents two thirds of the surface of the country for only 10% of its population. In the south the country is divided between the areas of Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Ségou, Sikasso and the district of Bamako.
Decentralization is a major reform in progress. It aims at transferring from competences to the territorial collectivities so that the local businesses are managed closest to the populations.
This reform has as a base a complete recasting of the territorial cutting inherited the colonial administration and is characterized by the process of popular consultation which allowed the creation of the communes on the basis of voluntary regrouping of villages and fractions following of the well defined criteria.
There are 703 communes in Mali, including 684 new communes were created in 1996. A law of 1999 confirms this administrative and territorial reorganization of Mali by creating the circles (regrouping of communes) and the areas (regrouping of circles).
The State Malian created a national management of the territorial collectivities within the Ministry for the Territorial Administration and Local government agencies (MATCL) charged to follow the implementation of decentralization and the reinforcement of the capacities of the territorial collectivities. Bearing devices technical and financial support are also in place.
In 2005, a document tallies of national policy (DCPN) of decentralization (2005-2014) was adopted and is articulated around four major axes namely:
- the development of the capacities of the territorial collectivities;
- improvement of the devolution of the services of the State;
- the development of the citizenship;
- the development of the private services of the services at the local level.
In 2005, the eighth Institution of the Republic of Mali was created. The High council of the Territorial collectivities assures the national representation of the territorial collectivities. Its opinion is necessary on all the questions concerning the development policy room and regional, the environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of life of the citizens inside the territorial collectivities. | Year || 1975 || 1980 || 1985 || 1990 || 1995 || 2000 |- | IDH || 0,252|| 0,279|| 0,292|| 0,312|| 0,346|| 0,386 |} Indicating of human poverty (IPH-1): 81e on 88 Developing country (IPH-1 of 47,3 %)
The national report/ratio on human development 2006 relates to the relations between the environmental pollution and its effects on and the wellbeing living conditions of the populations. The recommendations touch mainly the control of water, the human pressure decrease on the forest resources, the control of toxic chemical waste, the fight against the stranding and the turning into a desert. He in particular proposes to reinforce the capacities of management of the local populations and claims the application of the existing regulation.
See also: Demography of Mali
Mali has 12,3 million inhabitants, including 50,5% women. The rate of malnutrition of children of less than 5 years remains alarming (13.3% in 2006).
The infantile Death rate (children of less than one year) was of 121 ‰ in 2004.
See also: Culture of Mali
Mali knew to preserve the important components of its traditional cultures. The griots (or “Djéli”) always exert their functions of musician-poets transmitting the history of the country and the men on several generations. Bakary Soumano, chief of the griots of Mali of 1994 to 2003, contributed to rehabilitate the functions of the griot in the modern society.
The traditional melodies, formerly played on the will kora, continue to feed the music of today via downward interpreters worthy of the Griot S such Ali Farka Touré, Boubacar Traoré or Toumani Diabaté. Among the non-griots, one can also quote Salif Keïta, artist and malinké musician talented.
Among the great writers Malians, one can quote Amadou Hampâté Bâ.
Are also fériées a certain number of festivals depending on the Moslem Calendrier: Korité (fine of the Ramadan), Tabaski (commemoration of the sacrifice of Abraham), Maouloud (birth of the prophet), Tamkharit (Moslem new year).
See also: Languages of Mali
Because of the Colonization, the French is the Official language, but the Bambara is used much more by all the groups (approximately 80% of the population speak it). Some others African languages (Peul, Sénoufo, Soninké, Tamasheq, Songhaï, Dogon, etc) are also spoken.
ReligionAccording to the data of the CIA World Factbook of 2006, the Islam is principal the Religion practiced in Mali (90%) whereas the catholic and Protesting S are very minority, about 1%. The remainder of the population is animist (9%). The religion is omnipresent in Mali. It is rare to find a village without its Mosquée. But of the ceremonies animists still persist in some villages mainly Moslem.
One of the famous places of Christianity in Mali is the town of Kita in the area of Kayes (1st area) where is the cathedral Notre Dame de Kita where the annual catholic pilgrimage in Mali takes place.
Ethnos groupsThe population of Mali is divided into several ethnos groups. The wandering people and semi-sedentaries are in north. The Moors and Touaregs divide approximately 10% of the population. The first are traditionally specialized in the trade of the Gum arabic while the seconds are stockbreeder-nomads; they move permanently in the search of fresh pastures for their cattle.
More in the south, one finds the Bambaras (28%) who represent the majority group, around the capital Bamako, as well as the Malinké S who are connected to them and the Soninkés, the Peuls, the Sénoufos, the Bozo, the Dogons the Songhai.
See also: Media in Mali
The media in Mali are consisted the written press (in French and some newspapers in national languages), by the radio of proximity, by television, like by several related services (satellite, cable, Internet).
The newspapers are concentrated in the Bamako capital or the regional big cities. The network of the free radios believes at high speed and reach the great majority of the population by diffusing emissions in the local languages. The access to Internet develops so much with the level of the extension of the infrastructures, of the reduction of the costs and the familiarisation of the users to the most current tools. One notes several collaborations of Internet sites with Community newspapers, radios and télécentres.
The diversity of the music Malian emphasizes the cultural diversity of Mali. One can thus find various styles musical like the songs of hunter, the music of the wassolou, griots etc… The Dogon music is very often forgotten in this very rich inheritance. This Dogon music various and is varied. It is closely associated with the various rites: marriages, funeral etc… The young singer Malian Déné Issébéré is the emblem of this musical culture Dogon as well in Mali as apart from the borders Malians.
- Democratic Alliance of May 23rd for the change
- Personalities of Mali
- Education in Mali
- Sites Malians registered on the list of the world heritage:
- Mali Card on PopulationData.net
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