A male nurse or a nurse , Latin in-firmus (“which is not firm, with moral as with the physique” or “which deals with the disabled person” étymologiquement speaking) is a person whose trade is to deliver care male nurses.
According to the Public health code French
- “is regarded as following the occupation of nurse or male nurse any person who gives usually Soins male nurses on regulation or medical council, or pursuant to the clean role which is reserved for him. The nurse or the male nurse takes part in various actions, in particular as regards Prévention, of education of health and formation or framing. ”
According to the the World Health Organization
- “the mission of the care male nurses in the company is to help the individuals, the families and the groups to determine and carry out their full physical, mental and social potential and to reach that point in the context of the environment in which they live and work, that while respecting a code of conduct very strict. This requires that the nurses learn and ensure of the functions having milked the maintenance and the promotion of health as well as the prevention of the disease. The care male nurses also includes planning and the implementation of the curative care and readjustment, and relates to the physical aspects, mental and social of the life in what they affect health, the disease, the handicap and death. The nurses allow the active participation of the individual, his family and her friends, the social group and the community, a suitable way in all the aspects of the health care, and thus encourage independence and self-determination. The nurses also work like partner of the members of the other professions implied in the service of the departments of health. ”
According to the International counsel of the nurses
- “One understands by care male nurses the care lavished, in an autonomous way or in collaboration, with the individuals of all ages, the families, the groups and the communities - patients or people in good health - whatever the framework. The care male nurses includes the promotion of health, the prevention of the disease, as well as the care exempted to the sick people , Handicap ées and dying. Among the crucial roles concerned with the personnel male nurse still let us quote defense, the promotion of an healthy environment, research, the participation in the development of the health policy and the management of the health systems and patients, as well as education. ”
Origins and history of the profession
See also: History of the profession nurse
At the Middle Ages, to deal with leprous, one put office at contribution of the prostitutes and various " pseudo-soignants".
In fact the Religious orders organized the profession according to criteria in bond with charity and the love of god. The care is then voluntary, and has only one cultural value and that which practices it is dealt with by the religious structure. The nuns will remain a long time in the hospitals. It will be necessary to await laicization and the First World War so that the occupation of nurse continues.
The schools of nurses are create only at the end of XIXe (1836 in Germany, 1859 in Switzerland, 1860 in London, 1878 in Paris), to lead in France only in 1922 to a “Patent of capacity of professional nurse”, transformed into 1938 in “diploma for the occupation of hospital nurse” and only in 1951 in Diploma of State male nurse.
It is then necessary to await the law of May 31st, 1978 to see appearing a definition of the nurse with a clean role, which will be defined in the decree of May 12th, 1981.
New pause in the process of professionalisation until the publication of the professional rules on February 16th, 1993. Then still a crossing of the desert until the law of the bearing December 21st, 2006 creation of an national order of the male nurses (its decrees on enforcement of a law are appeared with the OJ of the 14.04.07, but it still misses the decrees for the constitution of the order male nurse).
Until the beginning of the year 1960, recruitment is carried out by very diverse categories which are antagonistic: nurses of the Red Cross, nuns, nurses leaving the school. After May 1968, the profession will be released from the concepts of obedience, tender and charity.
Situation of the profession nurse
In FranceIn France, the whole of the care male nurses is governed by the Public health code (decree of the July 29th 2004); previously, competences of the male nurse were defined in a decree says “decree of competence” (decree n° 93-345 of the March 15th 1993, then decree n°2002-194 of the February 11th 2002).
One attends as in other places in Europe a shortage of nurses. Paradoxically, the student in care male nurses (ESI) are for 20% of them in such a precarious situation that they are constrained to stop their formation. This situation is partly due to the fact that the ESI depend on the ministry for Health, and not of the Minister of education main road.
Once graduate, the professional profits from relatively favorable conditions in term of employment. In the first five working years, unemployment rate is one of weakest of all the of the same formations niveau : 0,7%. 49% of the lately graduate nurses exert within the public service. At the beginning of career, at the hospital, the average monthly income is of 1450 euros. The evolution of career is weak: with 20 years of seniority a hospital nurse culminates with 2100 euros of net salary.
At the time of the movement male nurse of 1988, the claims related to the recognition of the professional identity and the university equivalence to “vat + 3”.
In France, the occupation of male nurse is articulated around two poles: the clean role and the médico-delegate role.
the clean role
See also: clean Role male nurse
The R.4311-3 article of the code of public health lays out que : “concerns the clean role of the male nurse or the nurse the care related to the function of maintenance and continuity of the life and aiming at compensating partially or completely a lack or a reduction of autonomy of a person or a group of people. Within this framework, the male nurse is competent to take the initiatives and to achieve the care which he considers necessary” .
The nurse has a function of observation, of dialog with the patient, to identify the problems and to pose diagnoses male nurses, in order to be able to implement the means necessary for an adapted assumption of responsibility. He goes from there thus from the monitoring of the complications specific to a pathology or a treatment but also, in a more general way, the tracking of situation of ill-treatment or violence. It ensures in collaboration with the Assistance-looking after the care of hygiene, the fundamental Soins, of comfort and of safety of the patient, it makes sure moreover of the good comprehension by the patient of the explanations given by the doctor but also, in the respect of the Professional secrecy, of the information of its family or her entourage. She accompanies the patient throughout her hospitalization or of her care to enable him to maintain more the high level of autonomy possible, but also of intimacy, and dignity.
The médico-delegate roleThe medical regulation is the only existing hierarchical bond between the doctor and the nurse. She is charged with the application of the medical regulations, and the monitoring of the side effects or complications which could result from this. She is however not that a simple executant, she must permanently establish the link between his knowledge and the ordinances made by the doctors. Indeed, it would be reproached to him for having applied a regulation absurdity. It must thus know to challenge the expert when it identifies an error or in any case an atypical regulation, in order to obtain confirmation from it.
That constitutes one of the major difficulties of the profession. In spite of the ditch separating knowledge of the doctors of those from the nurse, this one must be able to include/understand all the regulations, in order to know to identify not only the errors but also the specificity of each one of them, to determine of them the risks and thus the monitorings ad hoc . For that the nurse can call upon the knowledge acquired at the time of her initial training, but also by the means of a continuous Professional training.
Reflection on ethicsThe male nurses, as regards a rigorous practice of the profession, must conform to allowed and practiced codes of conduct.
The ethics of the profession touches, to some extent, with the Professional secrecy. The obligation of the secrecy which is imposed to him is devoted by article 378 of the penal code. The provisions of this article are made applicable to the nurses by article 481 of the public health code.
This concept can take all are width in the situations where the male nurse is confronted with cases of violence or ill-treatment.
In a more general way, the nurses share an ethics, as well as a common design of the human being, care, disease… it is a profession particularly centered on the communication.
Order male nurse, organizations
- on June 13rd, 2006, the National Assembly adopted the private bill creating a Ordre male nurse. This private bill raises many reserves in the trade-union confederations, but answers at the request of a collective of 43 trade unions and associations nurses.
- on December 14th, 2006 the creation of a Ordre male nurse is adopted in last reading by the National Assembly; J.O n° 299 of December 27th, 2006 page 19689.
With the international levelSee also:
- the International counsel of the nurses
- ANADI in the United States
- the department care male nurses of WHO
See also: Studies in care male nurses
In FranceThe access to this profession is regulated. The success of the Examination entrance in training institute in care male nurses subordinates the accession to a Training institute in care male nurses (IFSI) in which a part-time course leads to the presentation of the Diplôme of State of male nurse. This one is one 38 months duration.
The graduate male nurses of State can specialize:
- Male nurse graduate anesthetist of State;
- Male nurse of operating room suite graduate of State;
- graduate Male nurse in child welfare of State;
- Framework of health;
- Male nurse hygienist;
- Male nurse stomathérapeute;
- Male nurse clinical specialist;
The graduate male nurses can integrate a first-aid Organization and medical care of the firemen (SSSM or 3SM) and become Infirmier fireman (ISP). They can also join the Department of health of the armies.
In BelgiumOne distinguishes the male nurse (era) patented (E) and the male nurse (er) E graduate (era) (in the past graduated (E)). The formation is more theoretical for the graduates (eras). In the deux cases, the male nurses (eras) can specialize but these sépcialisations more restricted for are patented (E) Specializations nurses are varied: Pediatry, SIAMU (Urgent Intensive care and Medical assistance), Operating room suite, Psychiatry, Community Health, Oncology, recently Anesthetist and also midwife. The Infirmière formation in Belgium very strongly approaches that of Canada which is very in advance on the other countries on this level.
Principal branches of industryThe majority of the male nurses work in the Hospital sector, whether it is in the public Private sector or . There exists in addition of many possibilities of careers to exert the trade of male nurse.
The hospital sectorThe male nurse can exert in the majority of the services such as those of Médecine (Cardiologie, Gériatrie, Pneumologie, Neurologie, Gastro-entérologie, etc), of Chirurgie (Orthopédique, Digestive, ORL, Neurochirurgie, etc), of Réanimation (medical or surgical), of Urgences, Pédiatrie (in certain hospitals only) of Psychiatrie or in hemodialysis (formation 8 weeks on the ground) and in dialysis péritonéale. The services of operating room suites, certain services of pediatry and the teams of SAMU accept only specialized male nurses, i.e. those which followed an additional formation after obtaining their Diplôme of State (IADE, IBODE, Infirmier in child welfare). The current wages of the hospital public office are far from gravitational, which maintains the chronic shortage as a personnel from which suffers the French health system. The intermediate duration of exercise of a nurse is 12 years. A notable difference however between public and private relates to the possibilities of falling under a research task in the field of the care male nurses. Indeed, the public sector more easily agrees to devote time and money to this transversal type of activity that the private one.
The InterimThe temporary Activity of the occupation of male nurse (E) S is more and more appraisal by young people the graduate (E) S, they work especially in private clinic private and some rare hospitals authorized to engage the temporary ones to mitigate the lack of manpower and attractivity of the hospital public office.
SchoolThe School nurse ensures a medical follow-up of the pupils, schoolboys and high-school pupils inside even of their establishment. She also ensures a monitoring of the young talks specific harmful effects, a medical monitoring of general hygiene in school and finally an education with health and safety. She organizes the care and the urgencies in the establishments and contributes to the school integration of the pupils reached of handicaps or disorders of health.
She takes part in the installation of devices adapted in the event of serious events which have occurred in the school community, or of communicable diseases. She contributes to the training of the citizenship and the fight against the absenteeism, a follow-up of the students in difficulty ensures, she takes part in the protection of the minors in danger, warns the various outside contributors where necessary (Social security with childhood, for example).
Held with the medical secret, its action can be individual (in the form of talks for example, the nurse accommodates and organizes a follow-up of the pupils who request it) or collective, in the form of preventive actions of the conduits at the risk (for example, in partnership with the institutions or the partners territorial or associative local).
The liberalThe liberal male nurse exemption of the Care S near patients in residence or in a private cabinet, on medical regulation or according to the clean role which are reserved for him. He as well exempts care of hygiene and prevention, that more technical care ( Blood sample, Chimiothérapie, etc)
Cribs, the Maternal protection and infantileThe male nurse can, thanks to a diploma of child welfare, to take the position of director of crib or Halt-nursery.
In service of the Armies, SSSM
See also: Male nurse fireman, Military male nurses and technicians of the hospitals of the armies
The graduate male nurse of state can exert within the department of health and of medical help (SSSM) of a SDIS.
He is then a Infirmier fireman (ISP) which is brought to carry out very varied spots (preparation of the medical visits, training and framing of the firemen, installation of protocols, operational guards, etc). These missions require a specific preparation taught by the 3Ecole Nationale Sup3erieure of the officers firemen (ENSOSP) located at Nainville-the-Rocks (the Essonne).
There exist two types of engagement: volunteer or professional.
The medicine of companyAugust 1st
Doctors without borders or Médecins of the world.
Military mediumOne finds male nurses under the military statute. There exists in France, two manners of being under this aegis. That of the department of health of the armies, where the male nurses are under the summary of MITHA, Militaires male nurses and technicians of the hospitals of the armies.
And that of the military male nurses, those built-in the forces which one finds in the various armies that composes the French Army (dixit, the Army, the Air force, National marine, National police, etc).
International dayThe international Day of the nurse is celebrated in the whole world the May 12th, birthday day of the birth of Florence Nightingale. Each year, the International counsel of the nurses commemorates this date by the production and the distribution of files.
In 2006, the topic of the file was " Effective sufficient = saved lives ".
- Care male nurse
- Paramedical profession
- Male nurse anesthetist
- Male nurse of operating room suite
- psychiatric Male nurse of sector
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