The Malaysia (Francization of the neologism Malaysia ) is a country of Southeast Asia, made up of the peninsular Malaysia or Western Malaysia (Malayan Péninsule) and Eastern Malaysia (northern of Borneo). The country is located at approximately 200 km in the north of the equator. The capital of the country is Kuala Lumpur and its surface is equal to 329.750 km ².
NameThe use of the name of “Malaysia” to indicate the Malayan peninsula is in fact recent. This name is the Francization of Malaya in the expression “British Malaya” under which the English indicated, starting from the end of the XIXe century, territories that they controlled on the peninsula.
Until 1963, the name of “Federation of Malaysia” applied only to the entity created in 1946-48 by the British and become independent in 1957, the “Malayan Union” ( Malayan Union ). This one gathered, in the Malayan Péninsule, the Malayan States, which had before the statute of Protectorat S, and the Strait Settlements , i.e. the colony S of Malacca, Penang and Singapore.
When the British territories of Borneo, Sabah ( British North Borneo ) and Sarawak become independent in 1963 and agree to join Malaysia, the new entity is baptized neologism of “Malaysia”. However in French, the use maintained the name of Malaysia for the new unit, like name runs as well as like official name.
- the Polynesia (“many islands”),
- the Mélanésie (“black islands”),
- the Micronesia (“small islands”) and
By this last name, Dumont d' Urville understood an area gathering the Filipino Indonesia, Malaysia and the current. At the time indeed, one considered that the inhabitants of this area could be indicated by the term including of “Malayan”.
In a strict sense term, the Malais are the populations which speak the Malayan language and which live the Eastern littoral of the island of Sumatra, the islands Riau, the Malayan Péninsule and the littoral of the island of Borneo.
The Treated of London of 1824 between English and Dutchman will result in a division into two of this Malayan Monde. One could not thus identify this one in only Malaysia.
To avoid confusion, one uses the “Malaysian” Gentilé to indicate what concerns Malaysia like State, the “Malayan” word covering a vaster territory.
See also: History of Malaysia
See also: Political of Malaysia
Malaysia is member of ASEAN (Association of the Nations of Southeast Asia). The Parliament is composed of the Room of the representatives and the Senate. The Room of the representatives is composed of 192 seats elected by the vote for all every 5 years. The Senate is composed of 69 members for a 3 years mandate. 43 senators are named by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong including 2 for the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur and 1 for the federal territory of Labuan and 26 is elected by the legislative Assemblies of the States. Malaysia took the presidency of the Mouvement of non-aligned the between 2003 and 2006.
See also: Administration of Malaysia
Malaysia is a federation made up of thirteen States ( negeri ) and of three federal districts ( wilayah persekutuan ). The States are the eleven of the Malayan Péninsule (including the nine sultanates): Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor, and two States of Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo.
See also: Geography of Malaysia
The country is composed of two distinct areas:
- the Western Malaysia or peninsular Malaysia (in the south of the Thailand) is divided North in the South by a long mountainous chain whose culminating point is located at 2189 m (Tahan Mount) and where remain of vast forest zones. The west coast is marshy and punt, the east coast is, on the contrary, made up of long sand beaches. The cultures and plantations are initially located along the coastal plains. The North of the country (Perlis and Kedah) is regarded as the attic with rice of the country.
- the Eastern Malaysia made up of the territories of the Sarawak and the Sabah and is located at the North of the Indonesia (Borneo). This part accounts for 15% of the population out of 60% of the territory. She is primarily made up of wet tropical forests and a rather high relief (Mont Kinabalu, 4100 m).
ClimateBecause of its geographical location close to the equator, Malaysia knows an equatorial climate of hyperhumide type, characterized by a temperature constantly high (between 26 and 27 °C on average), a low annual thermal amplitude (about 1 to 2 °C) and a strong moisture throughout the year. The Précipitation S are very high with an annual average reaching 2.500 Misters.
See also: Economy of Malaysia
Malaysia belongs to the Asian Tigres, it passed in 25 years of the stage of country in the process of development to that of developed country. The development of Malaysia is organized according to quinquennial development plans. In March 2006, the government launched the 9th development plan. The purpose of the government is to arrive in 2020 has a fully modern and developed nation. “Malaysia 2020” constitutes a true leitmotiv in the country. The economic advancement of Malaysia is carried out thanks to modernization of transport (Subway has Kuala Lumpur and Penang, highways, bridges, ports commercial), of the communications and the energy infrastructures, like with the development of the industrial parks and the tax incentives for the investors in industries of export.
The official currency of the country is the Malaysian Ringgit (RM). A Euro is worth 4.70 RM roughly. July 21st, 2005, Bank Negara, the Malaysian national bank put an end to the mode of exchange fixes (Ringgit aligns on American dollar US$. It passed has a mode of undulation manages.
The Japan, the E. - U. and Singapore are the principal economic partners of the country. Malaysia became a world leader in the production of electronics components, in particular the semiconductors, and it is the first country of Southeast Asia to design and produce a Automobile, the Proton, which is exported with the four corners of planet. Proton is now competed with by one second Malaysian company: Perodua (Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua Sdn Bhd, literally “Second Automobile Company”).
The main resources of the country are:
- bauxite of the Western coast
- gases and offshore oil rig oil exploited off the Eastern coast
- Agriculture and sylviculture
- rubber (first world producer)
- palm oil (first world producer)
See also: Demography of Malaysia
The name of " Malaisie" comes from " Malayan " , which indicates the majority Ethnicity (62%) of the country. The Malayan ones are not the single citizens of the federation. There is approximately 25% of Malaysian of Chinese origin and 10% of Indian origin, whose ancestors were established there are several generations. There are moreover the " Orang Asli " (populations indigenous S pre-faintnesses).
One finds this situation in other countries multi-etnic of Asia, or the name of the country is drawn from that of the majority ethnos group (Burma, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam). For this reason, the Gentilé for Malaysia is Malaysian .
There is nearly 20 million Malayan in Indonesia, inhabitants of the east coast of Sumatra and the indonésienne part of Borneo. The Malayan language is indeed originating in the island indonésienne of Sumatra.
The Malaysian population is young and expanding (it doubled between 1970 and 2000). The birth rate of Malayan is much higher than that of the Chinese.
The population resides at the 3/4 on the Malayan Péninsule.
Culture and religion
See also: Culture of Malaysia
The Religion of state is the Islam of obedience sunnite, observed by the great majority of the Malaysian ones. The Chinese community practices a mixture of Christianisme, of Bouddhisme, Taoïsme and worship of the ancestors. The Indians are, for the majority Hindou ists. One finds also some Christians and of the animists, mainly in Sarawak and Sabah.
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