See also: Malawi (homonymy)
The Malawi is a State located in Southern Africa, between the Mozambique, the Zambia and the Tanzania. Without outlet on the sea, it is bathed by the Lac Malawi, or Nyassa, third Africa Lake by its surface, which covers approximately the fifth of the surface of the country and in which flow 8 rivers and of the hundreds of river.
The origin of the name “Malawi” (allotted originally to the lake, in language bantoue) is not certain; it is supposed that it derives from the name of a tribe of the south of the country or that it evokes the flutter of the sun when it rises on the lake (represented on the flag of the country).
See also: History of Malawi
The occupation by hominiens would go back to a million years. The edges of the lake were inhabited by prehistoric populations between 50.000 and 60.000 before JC. Bones going back to approximately 8.000 years before JC make it possible to deduce that the physical characteristics of the local population were similar to the ethnos groups which live the horn of Africa today.
They are Portuguese who, in XVIère century, discovers the lake Malawi; this discovery was allotted later on to David Livingstone, which, going up the Shire river arrived to the lake in 1859. After which, the Scottish church presbytérienne establishes around the lake several missions, in the hope to dam up the draft of slaves (but this trade continued until the end of the 19th century).
In 1878, a group of tradesmen originating in Glasgow, founded the company African Lakes Company to ensure the provisioning of the missions. Other Europeans followed to trade, cultivate and drive out. In 1891, the British founded protectorate of Africa Centrale British and in 1907, the protectorate of Nyasaland (Nyasa in Yao language wants to say " lac" , it is one of the names with which at summer baptized the lake Malawi, which today still is called Nyasa or Niassa).
The British maintained the control of this area during all first half of the 20th century, by being opposed to many attempts inhabitants for their independence. A African elite having studied in the European schools and of the United States emerges allowing creation, in 1944, of the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC).
In 1953, Nyasaland entered the Fédération of Rhodesia and Nyassaland, with the Rhodesia of North and the Southern Rhodesia. In 1958, the doctor Hastings Kamuzu Banda (who had obtained his doctorate in medicine in the USA in 1937) goes back to Malawi and became leader of NAC, which it transforms into Malawi Congress Party (MCP). In 1959, political prisoner, it will be imprisoned with the prison of Gwelo until in 1960.
It takes part in the constitutional conference with London. At the time of elections, the April 15th 1961, the MCP gains a victory crushing at the Legislative council, also obtaining the control of the Executive council of Nysaland.
In 1962, the British government grants self-determination to Nyasaland. Bandaged becomes Prime Minister on February 1st, 1963, whereas the British still control the financial system, the safety and the legal system of the country.
Two years after, Malawi adopts a new constitution with a sole party, and Bandaged like first president. In 1970, Banda is declared life president of the MCP, and in 1971 life president of Malawi. The paramilitary wing of the MCP (young pioneers) contributes to maintain the country under an authoritarian regime until in 1990.
Towards the democracy
The first free elections the May 17th 1994, see the victory in United Democratic Front (UDF) of Bakili Muluzi, which will be linked with the Alliance for Democracy (AFORD). Muluzi was elected president. In spite of the dissolution of the coalition, in 1996, Muluzi and its partisans remain with the government.
In 1995 Muluzi accepted Lincoln University of Missouri the title of Honorary doctor . It writes a new constitution abrogeant the residual privileges of the MCP. The June 15th 1999 Muluzi is re-elected, against a coalition made up of the MCP and AFORD.
In May 2004, the candidate with the presidency of UDF, Bingu wa Mutharika, beats the candidate of the MCP. In spite of that UDF does not have the majority at the Parliament and form a “Government of National unit”. Bingu wa Mutharika leaves UDF, officially because of a significant difference in opinion in connection with the countryside anti-corruption initiated by the president.
See also: Political of Malawi
Since 1994 Malawi is a democracy.
According to the constitution of 1995, the President is elected at the vote for all, every 5 years. The last President to date names Yasmine Elmediouri.
The President can name a vice-president pertaining to a political party. The members of the presidential cabinet can be selected by the President.
The National Assembly is made up of 193 deputies elected for five years.
The Constitution also envisages a Senate of 80 seats, which represents all the areas as well as groups having specific interests, such as for example the women, the young people, the handicapped people; but this institution does not exist yet.
The Constitution envisages an independent legal system, based on the English model, with a Court of first level, a High court, and a Supreme court of call.
The local government is divided into districts, under the responsibility of a governor named by the central government; at the time of the first local elections of 2000, UDF gained 70% of the seats.
The third elections presidential and members of Parliament, planned for the year 2004, were proposed by the opposition which called upon the High court which denounced the irregularity of the procedure of the vote. In spite of that, the elections proceeded peacefully.
See also: Subdivisions of Malawi
Malawi is divided into three areas, including/understanding 27 districts, including/understanding 137 divisions and 68 subdivisions.
the three areas : Central Northern, , and Southern.
the 27 districts : Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntcheu, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba.
See also: Geography of Malawi
Physical geographyCountry of high plateaus, the Shire in the south and the Nyka in north, Malawi culminates with 3048m with the Mont Mulanje.
The Grand Rift crosses the country of north to the south. In this depression the Lac Malawi, the third plus big lake of Africa is; its surface covers approximately 20% of the country.
At the southernmost end of the lake occurs the Shire river, which throws in the Zambezi 400 km more in the south, with the Mozambique. In the east and the west the Great Rift is overhung by the vast ones and high plateaus rising from 900 to 1200 meters above the sea level.
In north, Nyika Uplands (high plateau) culminates to 2600 Mr.; Shire Highlands, from 600 to 1600 m, is dominated by the Zomba mounts and respectively culminating Mulanje with 2130 and 3048 Mr.
To the extreme south of the country, the plain extends from 60 to 90 Mr. above the sea level. It is there that the most important population density of sub-Saharan Africa is. Lilongwe (capital since the year 1971) account more than 400.000 inhabitants. Blantyre, principal commercial place, shelters the seat of the Supreme court of the country (the population passed from 109.000 inhabitants in 1966 to 500.000 in 1998).
The islands Likoma and Chizumulu belong to Malawi although it are in territorial water of the Mozambique where they form an enclave.
The climate of Malawi is primarily subtropical.
The rain season lasts of until April November. From May to October, precipitations become very rare. From October at May, the climate is hot and wet along the coast of the lake, like in the valley of the Shire river and the zone of Lilongwe; moisture in the remainder of the country is lower.
From June to August, in the zone of the lake and the south of the country, heat is pleasant; in the months which remain, the temperature of the nights can become relatively rigorous, included/understood between 5 and 14°C.
See also: Economy of Malawi
In Malawi, fishing occupies a very important role. It is an important source of employment particular in the rural zones which occupies nearly 40.000 people and in fact food 200.000 thanks to the additional activities.
The production of fish is approximately 80.000 to 150.000 tonnes/an; 85% to 90% come from the artisanal fishermen, against 10 to 15% for the industrial and semi-industrial fisheries.
Almost the whole of the captures is intended for local consumption. The population consumes between 6 and 7 kg of fish per annum and per anybody. In the families with low-incomes (even urban), the fish provides 70% to 75% of the total contribution out of animal proteins.
The production of fish comes for approximately 50% from the lake Malawi. The remainder comes from the lakes Chilwa (2.500km ²), Chiuta (200km ²) and Malombe (390 km ²)
The aquatic environment of Malawi has a very great fish diversity (500 to 1.000 different species). The independent groups of fish present in the lake Malawi are the tipalias, the oreochromis, the haplochronis and the lethrinops while, in the lake Chiuta, the bearded ones rather will be found and clarias tilapias.
The contribution of fishing for GDP relatively weak is compared with agriculture.
See also: Demography of Malawi
The population counts approximately 12 million inhabitants, including 90% in rural area. The life expectancy is 46 years for the men and 47 years for the women. Currently, leading cause of mortality, the infection due to the HIV and its complications strike most of the population young person-adult.
The majority (95%) of the population black, is divided into several ethnos groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Yao, Tumbuka, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde. Europeans and Asian constitute the remainder of the population. The Chewa S represent the ethnicity dominating and the Chichewa is the national language, spoken in all the country. English is the official language, employee especially in urban area, but all the same known in rural area.
See also: Culture of Malawi
The traditional worships are always practiced but a good portion of the population is Christian: 20% of catholics, 55% of Protestants; one counts 20% of Moslems, especially localized in north of the country and on banks of the lake Malawi.
according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country): MWI,
- according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2: MW
- according to the Code list country of the CIO: MAW
- according to the international Code list of the number plates: MW
- according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3: MWI
- according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2: SEMI
Beats-smg: Malavės Simple: Malawi Zh-min-nan: Malaŵi
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