Mahomet (Mecque 570, Médine 632) is the Prophète of the Islam and founder of the Oumma, chief religious, Politique and Arab Militaire . Its Arab name rear RTL محمد is sometimes also transcribed Mohammed or Muhammad , this last being the form met mainly in the anglophone countries.
Names of MahometThe complete name of Mahomet is Abu-l-Qâsim Mouhammed Ibn `Abd Allâh Ibn `Abd Al-Mouttalib Ibn Hâshim (rear RTL أبوالقاسممحمدابنعبداللهابنعبدالمطلبابنهاشم). The name itself there is preceded by the kunyah marking paternity (father of Al-Qâsim) and is followed by the nasab i.e. the genealogy (wire of `Abd Allâh, the son of `Abd Al-Muttalib, the son of Hâshim). Many other names were allotted to him, either of alive sound, or by the Islamic tradition. One counts 201 of them, of which Al-Mustafâ and Al-Mukhtâr which means “the elected official”, Al-Amine who means “the honest one”, Ahmad and Mahmoud which is derived from the same root as Mohammed .
The Arab version Mouhammed is written with the 4 consonants mîm , hâ' , mîm and dâl , which means in Arabic “That which is worthy of praises”. The term French Mahomet is a deformation of the Turkish Mehmet . Mouhammed becomes Muhammet or Mehmet in Turkey, Mohand in language Berbère, and Mamadou in certain countries of Black Africa by deformation of the form declined with the Nominatif Mouhammadou.
The alternative francized Mahomet is close to the versions of the Romance Langues related: Spanish Mahoma in , Maomé in Portuguese, Italian Maometto in , Mahomed in Rumanian. It is however rejected by part of the French-speaking Moslems. A recent debate which was the subject of a petition dispatched with the French Academy estimated: “Mohammed means in Arabic, “Blessed”. And this direction is perfectly apparent in the term itself whereas Mahomet would come with saying these petitioners of the expression Mâ houmid which is the negation. ”
In the Coran and the Hadith S, Mahomet is usually called the messenger of God ( Rasoul ) (rear RTL الرَّسُول, rear-rasūl , “the messenger”, “the envoy”), more 200 time in Coran. It is also indicated by the expression prophet ( nabi ) (rear RTL النَّبِيّ, year-nabīy , “the prophet”). These two names return to a distinction made in Islam between two categories of invested people of an apostolic mission; the messengers of God, called so sent of God, are according to the Islamic terminology the characters having received the revelation of laws abrogeant the laws of the messengers who will have preceded them, with the order to transmit it to the men, while the prophets receive a revelation by the same ways as well as the order to transmit a message to the men but this message is not clean for them, it is that of the messenger who will have preceded them. According to this classification, any messenger is a prophet but it is not very prophet who is messenger. The ones like the others receive the revelation but only the messengers receive a book or a new law. According to the Moslem tradition there would be 124 000 prophets and 313 messengers, the first of them being Adam, the first of human, and the last, Mahomet, one like the other being prophets messengers.
Birth and childhoodMahomet is born at the end of the 6th century, towards 570, with Mecque, quoted caravan living trade of goods forwarding of the India towards the Occident via Aden then Syria, while crossing the desert of the Arabic peninsula.
The year of birth of Mahomet is traditionally called Année of the elephant in reference to the events which proceeded there. The Ethiopian Christian general and viceroy of the Yemen, Abraha, had attacked in vain Mecque with a troop of elephants to demolish the sanctuary venerated by the Arabs (the Ka `Ba). Coran brings back this account (Sourate Al-Wire ), and it is known as that the attack was pushed back by the miraculous response of birds throwing of the extreme stones. The Moslem tradition said that eyewitnesses of this attack were still in life at the time of the revelation of this sourate.
Mahomet belongs to the tribe of Quraych (or Koreish), a very old Arab tribe . It goes down from Ghâlib, wire of Fihr, called Quraych, powerful and dreaded warrior. His/her father `Abd Allâh Ibn `Abd Al-Muttalib is wire of `Abd Al-Muttalib, wire of Hâshim, prince of Quraychites, governor of Mecque and intendant of Ka `Ba.
The family of Mahomet is hachémite by reference to her back grandfather Hâchim ibn “Abd Manaf. Quraychites claim descent of Ismaël, wire of Abraham and have the guard of Ka' Ba, sanctuary rebuilt by Abraham and its Ismaël son, according to the tradition Moslem, and indicated by the father of the three monotheisms like a place of pilgrimage.
Mahomet is resulting from the marriage of `Abd Allâh Ibn “Abd Al-Muttalib and Amina (Amina or Aamina bint Wahb) girl of Wahb, chief of the clan médinois of Banû Zahrah. She is confined of Mahomet with Mecque in the house of her paternal uncle Abû Tâlib of the clan of Banû Hâshim, the Monday the 12th of the month of Rabî `Al-awwal. Its obstretician is Ash-Shifâ”, the mother of `Abd Ar-Rahmân Ibn `Awf.
The death of his/her father `Abd Allâh occurs before the birth of Mahomet with Yathrib, which since took the name of Médine. The seventh day after his birth, his/her large father `Abd Al-Muttalib gives a name to his grandson: Mahomet, which means “Rented”. Umm Ayman Barakah Bint Tâlib, an Abyssinian slave of its father, deals with him.
In accordance with the habit of the noble families of Quraych, his/her Amina mother entrusts it to a nurse, initially to Thuwaybah, the maidservant of her uncle Abû Lahab, then in Halîmah Bint Al-Hârith Sit `diyyah (tribe of Saadites), which carries the infant in the desert where her husband lives with the tribe of Saadites (Banû Sa' d) with the variation of the remainder of the population. The life in the desert, in the middle of the Bedouins considered for the purity of their language, was supposed to lavish to the children health and force of expression.
One day, whereas Mahomet and one of his/her foster brothers had the guard of some animals near the dwellings, Halîmah and his/her husband Abû Kabshah are alerted by their milk son that Mahomet was taken with part by two men of white vêtus, that they laid down it on the ground and opened the chest to him. Running on the spot, Halîmah and his/her husband find upright their child very pale. The Mahomet young person explains to them that two men vêtus of white had come and had laid down it by ground, and that they had opened the chest to him and had extracted something from it. According to the Moslem tradition, the two men vêtus of white would be two angels, sent to purify the heart of the child, intended to be prophet, and to affix the seal of prophecy between its shoulders.
Fearing for the health of the child, Halimah hastens to return the child to his Amina mother who dies three years later. Mahomet does not have whereas six years. His/her paternal grandfather `Abd Al-Muttalib then takes it in his house. Two years after, on its bed of death, `Abd Al-Muttalib charges Abû Tâlib, the elder one of his/her children, uterine brother of “Abd Allâh, to take care of Mahomet. His/her uncle Abû Tâlib - the father of Ali - the pupil like his own children.
Until the age of 40 years there is little detail written on its life, it is reconstituted according to the oral tradition, written setting 140 years after its death, thanks to many testimonys of those which had known its first companions. It would have been Berger then caravaneer before entering to the service of Khadija, a widowed rich person who organized commercial caravans. In spite of their difference in age (Khadija had 40 years and Mahomet environ 25), they marry and will have two (or three, according to the sources) sons which died in low age, Al-Qâsim and Tayeb, and four girls, Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthûm and Fâtima the future wife of Ali.
YouthWhereas Mahomet is twelve years old, Abu Talib decides to try its chance in the trade caravaneer with the Syria. Its nephew insists to accompany it. Arrived at Bostra, they stop with a monastery where they are pointed out by a monk named Bahira. According to Ibn Ishaq, celebrates it chronicler, the monk recognizes in the child the future prophet thanks to various signs consigned by the ecclesiastical tradition, of which the seal of prophecy that it carried in his back. He then recommends strongly to Abu Talib to turn back and to keep his nephew of the eyes of the Christians and the Jews of the East. The uncle obtempère and gives up these voyages thereafter.
In Mecque, Mahomet will be distinguished from people of its age. It is strong, judicious in its remarks, energetic in its expressions, faithful to his friends and more still to its promises. It avoids with a care extreme all that can make suspect in him some taste for the defect.
Quraychites having declared the war (known under the name of El Fijar, towards 590) with the Tribes of Kénan (Canaan) and of Hawazan, they went against them ordered by Abu Talib. Mahomet, twenty years old will be characterized by its intrepidity. The two Tribes are beaten and dispersed.
Some time later, the foundations of Kaaba are seriously touched by torrential rains. Threatening to crumble, the sanctuary must be demolished and rebuilt by Quraychites. When it is a question of rehousing the black Pierre there, a Météorite which would be venerated by the Arabs since the time of Abraham, the tribes do not agree on the choice of that which will have the honor to replace the crowned stone. They agree that it will return to the first which will arise the following day to the door of the temple. It was Mahomet. To spare susceptibilities, it removes its cape and places there the black stone, which it makes then raise by two Arabic of each tribe and taking then it, it places it itself, under the approving glance of all the inhabitants of Mecque, magic of the nobility of this action, to disentangle the pride which had been the reason.
Religious and cultural context in ArabiaThe Arabs wander in their desert in slow and continual migration which carries them too dense Yemen towards the Mediterranean. They live chichement of some raids. Rare are those which cultivate in the Hedjaz. Some trade or practice wear in the gravers of Mecque and with the passage of the caravans which connect the India to the Syria. The period of political and economic disturbances, the materialism of the merchants at short sight supports research of new spiritual horizons, and why not towards the monotheism of the Juif S, the Christian or the mazdéens.
A few decades before the birth of Mahomet, the movement of the Hanif S is born in Arabia from a frustration with respect to the existing religions and aspires to the restoration of the religion of Abraham. The followers of this movement deviate from turpitudes (drinking bouts and lust) whose Arabs became usual with the wire of the centuries and the worship of the idols. The announced arrival of the ultimate prophet occupies the religious circles and is the subject of higher bids between the various religious communities which hope for the victorious support of the Envoyé Sky .
In this context, Mahomet carries out many spiritual retirements. It is in 610 that, for the first time, the angel Gabriel ( Jibril ) would have appeared to him in the Grotte of Hira where it had habit to be collected and the revelation would have transmitted to him, the word of God. Mahomet, which is then 40 years old, starts to transmit verses which he declares being revealed by Allah and dictated in Arabic by the Gabriel angel, this dictation will last twenty-three years. The revelations were achieved punctually or regularly according to the adventures of the life of the prophet and the community of the believers. They will form the Coran, that Mahomet takes care to teach orally as of the beginning.
The tradition reports that, frightened by the first visit of the Gabriel angel, Mahomet takes refuge near his wife and tells him what has just arrived to him. Khadijah covers the prophet, with his request, (from where the heading of the sourate: Al-Muzzammil , “Wrapped”) and enquiert of its state near his/her cousin, Waraqah Ibn Nawfal, which announces to him that her husband is the awaited prophet. Later, Khadijah will turn over to see his/her cousin, in company of Mahomet. Waraqah assure him that he is a prophet of God and that the appearance of the cave of Hira is not other than the Gabriel angel. He announces in Mahomet difficulties, that he will endure in the achievement of his mission, in particular a banishment of his tribe. From the start Khadijah believes in its husband and brings to him an unconditional support, it, is so regarded as the believing first. Without delaying, Mahomet makes share secretly its message with its close relations, and with them it founds a group of believers who will be called the Moslems: named thus in reference to the prophet Abraham ( muslim , that which is given, which voluntarily subjects to Allah “God”). Then, preaching becomes public and extends to the unit from Quraych.
Although its contemporaries agree with difficulty to give up their ancestral beliefs and their practices, in three years, it succeeds in being surrounded by small about fifty disciples. They are a hundred at the end of five years. The growth of the group worries Mecquois and persecutions against Mahomet and they his are made more and more sharp after the death of Khadija and Abû Tâlib. A first wave of immigration takes along part of the Moslems in Ethiopia where they live some time under the protection of the Négus, the Christian king of Ethiopia. Mahomet benefits from the season of the pilgrimage which saw flowing towards Mecque the Arabs of all the areas of the Arabic peninsula to preach the message of Islam. He concludes a pact with a group from médinois which accepts its message. The following year, the Muslim community médinoise is more numerous. Seventy men and five women go in pilgrimage in Mecque to lend allegiance to the prophet and to propose their protection to him if it settled in Médine. The order is given to the Moslems mecquois to emigrate (Hégire) in Yathrib (future Médine) in 622, year of the Hégire, at the origin of the Moslem calendar.
According to the tradition, the Prophet would have been the last to be left, in company of his faithful friend and future caliph Abou Bakr. Ali, as for him, remains on the spot with for mission of restoring the deposits, whose Mahomet had the guard, with their owners.
Mahomet Head of State
Mahomet reorganizes Yathrib, where he is at the same time religious leader, policy and soldier. It is pressed at the same time on the two Arab tribes and the three Jewish tribes which live there. A pact-constitution governs the relations between the various religious communities which live the city, guaranteeing in particular to all the citizens the freedom of conscience. It would be, according to the appreciation of the professor Muhammad Hamidullah, the first written constitution of the history. Nevertheless, this new order came to oppose the interests of notable of the city of which Abd Allah Ibn Ubayy Ibn Salul and those of the Jewish tribes of Médine.
Certain Jews, following the example rabbi Abd Allah Ibn Salam, recognize in Mahomet the so much awaited prophet and embrace Islam. But the Jews of Médine do not convert themselves therefore into mass. With the wire of time, the Moslems déchantent and take their distances with “people of the book”. The rupture is marked when the direction of the prayer becomes Ka' Ba in Mecque and either Jerusalem.
The Moslems are the subject of attacks on behalf of Mecquois and counteract. During the month of Ramadan in year 2 after the hégire, the Bataille of Badr bursts. It is about the first conflict carried out by a Moslem army strictly speaking . She would have opposed 317 Moslem soldiers to a thousand of soldiers mecquois. The victory against incipient Mecquois assoit the Moslem State and constitutes a psychological asset for the Moslems. The month of fast, Ramadan, is thereafter fixed the month birthday where the revelation of Coran would have started or, according to another version, to commemorate the battle of Badr.
Mecquois take their revenge at the time of the Bataille of Uhud, in year 3 after the hégire. Badly supporting the seizure of the Moslems on Médine, certain notable Jewish, following the example Salam Ibn Abi Al-Haqiq, would have benefitted from this defeat to go to Mecque and to incite Mecquois to return to the load. In order to finish some with the threat which in their eyes this new state constituted, Mecquois form a coalition gathering several Arab tribes of which Gatafan, Banu Sulaym, Banu Asad, Fazarah and Ashja. In year 5 after the hégire, an army of ten thousand soldiers goes on Médine, which is cut off behind a ditch dug from the proposal from the companion from Mahomet, Persan Salman Al-Farisi. The seat of the city settles in the duration. Some skirmishes oppose the two parts. The Mecquoise diplomacy tries secretly and succeeds in bribing the Jewish tribe of Banu Quraydhah which had the load of part of the face. Mahomet sends four emissary to Banu Quraydhah to make sure of the reality of their support, but the emissary are badly received and note the defection of Banu Quraydhah. Into parallel, a man of Ghatafan named Nuaym Ibn Masud converts himself secretly with Islam and receives the order to sow the discord between united. He succeeds in making doubt Banu Quraydhah of the solidarity of united in the event of defeat and makes doubt the first of the sincerity of their allies médinois. Exténués by the seat and the bad weather, united decide to raise the seat leaving Banu Quraydhah to their fate. After a 25 day old seat, the latter are subjected to the judgment of the Torah by their ally of formerly Saad Ibn Muadh: the men of the tribes are killed, their confiscated goods and their wives and children are controlled.
In year 6, Mahomet leaves in pilgrimage in Mecque to the head a convoy 1 400 pilgrims and multiplies the signs of its peaceful intentions. Mecquois refuse the access to the sanctuary to them but sign with the Moslems the truce known as of Al-Hudaybiyah. In year 10 after the hégire (in 629 - 630), the truce is broken when a allied tribe of Mecque attacks a allied tribe of Médine. Mahomet goes secretly on Mecque to the head of ten thousand soldiers. To the doors of the city, it guarantees the safety of any person not fighting and declares an amnesty general. Mecque goes then without opposition. Conversions into mass of former opponents are reported.
For the hégire, it will have been necessary nine years so that all Arabia embraces Islam. Mahomet orders the stop of the raids between Arab tribes declaring at the time of sound Sermon of Good-bye : “ the Moslem is completely crowned for the Moslem, his blood is crowned, its goods are crowned, its honor is crowned. ”
The unification of the Arab peninsula under the banner of Islam is not likely to leave its powerful indifferent neighbors. Mahomet thus decides to send its ambassadors in Egypt, Persia and in Byzance, inter alia destinations, to transmit its message. The era of the conquest beyond the peninsula then will start.
After having reorganized the administration and sat the influence of Islam in Mecque, it turns over to Médine, where it dies the old June 8th 632 of sixty-three years after a short disease. It was buried in its joint apartment of the prophetic mosque. An enlarging of the mosque of Médine under the dynasty Omeyyade is done around its tomb, henceforth inside the mosque, insulated by triple wall.
After its death, its disciples continued to be transmitted orally and in the form of writings the words of Allah revealed to Mahomet, before they are gathered definitively in only one book, the Coran, by the third caliph Uthman less than twenty years after the disappearance of the prophet.
Mahomet, fatherAfter the death of Khadija, he marries the Saouda widow, then Aïcha girl of Abu Bakr 6 years old (he waits three more years to consume the marriage). In 627, it Marie with Rayhana Jewish, then Myriam in 629 a Christian woman; the same year, it Marie with Safiyya Jewish, in agreement with the rules of marriage of Islam. According to the Moslem historians, at the end of its life, Mahomet had twelve women and two concubines, of which a Christian slave copte which had been given to him by the king of Egypt. This special statute of Mahomet was revealed to him by the Gabriel angel:
- “ O prophet! it is allowed to you to marry the women whom you will have equipped, prisoners that God made fall between your hands, the girls of your uncles and your aunts maternal and governors who escaped with you, and any faithful woman who will have given his heart to the prophet, if the prophet wants to marry it. It is a prerogative which we grant to you on the other believers”.
- “We know the laws of the marriage which we established for the believers. Do not fear to make itself guilty while using of your rights. God is lenient and miséricordieux . ” (Sourate Al Ahzab, verses 49-51)
According to testimonys of his companions, it was neither longiligne neither squat, its skin was neither of a bright whiteness neither dark, its hair was neither crisp nor outrancièrement long. It had the palms and the thick feet, its head was large and its imposing articulations. The hairs which went down from its chest to its navel formed a long line. When it went, it was inclined towards the front as if it went down from a slope. Its beard was loose.
Representations of Mahomet
From the interdict, rather general, to represent any being having a heart in the Islamic religion, certain Moslems estimate that it is even more serious to represent Mahomet. To transgress this rule is sometimes regarded as a Blasphème.
It is not respected absolutely. In particular, Mahomet is sometimes represented at the Persan ones and the Turks, with various alternatives: face empty or hidden by a veil, etc
The caricature publication in a Danish newspaper then in different other media, Europeans or not, raised a true outcry in certain countries of Islamic tradition and culture or certain Muslim communities of the Western countries. In fact, three phenomena are superimposed in this business of the caricatures: the representation of Mahomet, as such, derision, criticism and finally amalgams that some of them express or imply between Islam and terrorism on the one hand and between Islam and Obscurantisme of the other.
See the detailed article Representation illustrated in arts of Islam.
Marital life of Mahomet
If one believes his biographers of them, Mahomet would have had in all fifteen wives throughout her life. Tabari in its book Chronique announces that he would have coveted five women and that he had two slaves of which one, “Maria girl of Siméon Copte”, gave him a son, Ibrahim, who died at the two years age. “It had sometimes at the same time eleven women, sometimes nine and sometimes ten. When he died he left nine widows. ” . A little further, Tabari announces that according to other traditions, the prophet would have married twenty women and that “there are moreover five women whom the prophet coveted but that it did not marry”.
The detractors of Mahomet often point finger the number of his wives (it had nine women with its death), whereas Islam limits the number of wives whom a man can simultaneously have to four (as well as other restrictive conditions) as well as the very young age of some. It is answered this charge that Mahomet Maria before this rule was founded by Coran and even if the men of the time had to separate from some of their wives to comply with the rule, Coran founded an exception for the prophet.
Descendants of Mahomet
Many Moslems claim descent of the prophet of Islam. They are then described as Chérif , literally “noble” or Sayyid “lord”. Their line would go back to Mahomet via Al-Hassan or of Al-Husayn, the children of Ali ibn Abi Talib and of Fatima Az-Zahra, the girl of Mahomet. These genealogical considerations can take on an important political dimension when certain reigning families put forward it to sit their legitimacy, following the example Hachémites in Jordan and of the royal family of the Morocco, the Alaouites.
Arrival of the prophet announces
Have-Saff 61.6: “And when Jesus wire of Marie known as: “O Children of Israel, I am really the Messenger of Allah to you, confirmator what, in the Torah, is former to me, and heralding a Messenger to come after me, whose name will be “Ahmad”. Then when this one came to them with obvious evidence, they said: “It is a manifest magic there”. ” -
The other BraceThe Moslems think that Muhammad is other Moïse announced in the Deutéronome:
18:13 You will be entirely with the Eternal, your God.
- 18:14 Because these nations which you will drive out listen to the astrologers and the soothsayers; but you, the Eternal, your God, does not allow it.
- 18:15 the Eternal, your God, will cause you medium of you, among your brothers, a prophet like me : you will listen to it!
- 18:16 It will answer the request thus that you made with the Eternal, your God, in Horeb, the day of the assembly, when you said: That I do not hear any more the voice of the Eternal, my God, and that I do not see any more this large fire, in order not to die.
- 18:17 the Eternal says to me: What they said is well.
- 18:18 I will cause medium of their brothers to them a prophet like you, I will put my words in his mouth , and he will say all to them that I will order to him.
- 18:19 And if somebody does not listen to my words which he will say on my behalf, it is me which will require account of it of him.
- 18:20 But the prophet who will have the audacity to say on my behalf a word that I will not have ordered to him to say, or who will speak in the name of other gods, this prophet will be punished of death.
- Peut-être 18:21 you in your heart will say: How will we know the word which the Eternal will not have said?
- 18:22 When what the prophet will say will not take place and will not arrive, it will be a word which the Eternal will not have said. It is by audacity that the prophet will have said it: am not afraid of him.
This prophecy is included in the Acts of the Apostles 3.22 and 7.37.
Among your brothers will mean then descendants of Ismael, the brother of Isaac. If this prophet were to come from Israel, it would have been known as: " medium of Israel".
a prophet like you . Jesus is not similar to Moïse. On the other hand there exist several similarities between Moïse and Muhammad.
I will put my words in his mouth . Muhammad was illétré, it recited what the angel reduced on him.
The desert of Paran
Deutéronome 33:2 “the Eternal came from the Sinai, it rose for them of Séir, it has resplendi mountain of Paran, and it came with dix-mille holy from the South from its right hand east left a law fire for them. ”
These places indicate: the Sinai, Palestine and Arabia.
The Sinai mount where Moïse accepted the Tables of the Law.
Séir is a mountain in the north of Juda, located close to old Beth-Shemesh (Ain Shems today) Not far from Séir, Bethlehem is.
Paran is located in Arabia, the Bible refers to the desert of Paran with the history of Agar and Ismaël:
- Genèse 21.20 God was with the child (Ismaël), who grows, lived in the desert, and became gunner of arc.
- Genèse 21.21 It lived in the desert of Paran, and his/her mother took to him a woman of the country of Egypt.
Ismaël, the ancestor of Arabic thus grows in the desert of Paran. The Arab tradition of the time reports that Ismaël and its mother settled in the valley of Mecque.
Genesis 25.13 and here names of wire of Ismaël, by their names, according to their generations: Theborn one of Ismaël, Nebaïoth; and Kédar, and Adbeël, and Mibsam, and Mishma and Duma, and Massed, Hadar, and Téma, Jetur, Naphish and Kedma.
- Genèse 25.16 They are the wire of Ismaël there, and they are their names there, according to their villages and their campings: twelve princes of their tribes.
In the Gospel according to JeanHowever I tell you the truth: it is advantageous for you that I from go away, because if I from do not go away, the consolator will not come towards you; but, if I from go away, I you it enverrai.
And when it comes, it will convince the world with regard to the sin, justice, and the judgment:
with regard to the sin, because they do not believe in me;
justice, because I go to the Father, and that you will not see me any more;
the judgment, because the prince of this world is jugé.
I have still many things to say to you, but you cannot carry them maintenant.
When the consolator comes, the Spirit of truth, it will lead you in all the truth; because it will not speak about itself, but it will say all that it will have heard, and it will announce the things with venir.
to you It will glorifiera me, because it will take what is with me, and you it annoncera.
All that the Father has is with me; this is why I said that it takes what is with me, and that it to you will announce it.
The consolator or defender in other versions, is the translation of the Greek word παρακλητος ( parakletos ) the Paraclet.
Certain Moslem apologists of the 20th century (Ahmed Deedat inter alia) there sought the translation of the Arab word “Ahmed” (literally rented) but write it by modifying the vowels: περικλυτος ( periklytos ) giving another direction to the word (famous, celebrates, rented).
“He will not speak about itself, but he will say all that he will have heard” corresponds well to the idea according to which Muhammad retransmet what the angel Gabriel dictates to him.
The Islamic tradition affirms that Mahomet is the last (within the meaning of the seal) of the prophets, that it seals the cycle of prophecy thus, while confirming and by adding up the messages conveyed previously by the line of the prophets and announces the return of Jesus on ground at the end of times.
The biblical Exégèse Christian is unanimous to interpret this passage as an advertisement of the Pentecost and arrival of the Holy Spirit on the Apôtre S. no moment the Gospels announce the arrival of a new prophet. On the contrary the Christ affirms: “I am the Way, the Truth and the Life. No one comes to the Father only by me” (Jean, 14,6).
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