The Mahâbhârata (in Sanskrit Mahābhārata , written महाभारत in writing Devanāgarī; literally “Large humanity” translates into “Large India”) is a epopee Sanskrit E of the Hindu Mythologie , analog by its size (more than one hundred twenty thousand Strophe S) and its religious range with the Bible of the Christian . He is often regarded as the greatest poem never made up. He does not comprise less 250 000 Towards - fifteen times more than the Iliade - generally divided in Distich S or çlôkas of 32 syllables each one, forming two worms of 16, divided themselves into two Hémistiche S of 8. Thus were made up the worms epic of poetry sanscrite or traditional of the India.
The Mahâbhârata is a crowned book of the India, which reports the “Great Epic” of the Bhârata, great poem epic dating from the last centuries before the Christian era. It is a saga mythico-history, telling warlike important facts which would have proceeded approximately 2 200 years before the Christian era, between two royal families the Pândava and the Kaurava. The account tells us the tests undergone by the five brothers Pândava and their cousins the Kaurava for the conquest of the country of the Arya, in the north of the Gange, in India. It is one of the two great poems epic of the India, founder of the Hindouisme with the Rāmāyana. One can think that the date of the primitive epopee of the Mahâbhârata is quite former to the Rāmāyana , like the facts themselves which are the matter of the one and other poem.
Origins and historical context
The origin of these two great very old Indian epopees, superb legends where the men and the gods clash, is dubious. The Mahâbhârata is supposed to be written by Ganesh under the dictation of wise the Vyâsa. Actually one does not know if it is about a collective work, re-examined and modified with the wire of the centuries (IV century av.JC - IV century) or that of a single poet, composed in a particularly precise context of the Indian history. These two opposed, and perfectly justifiable points of view in the absence of sure historical data and scientists, open with a total comprehension of radically different work. On the assumption of a single poet, reinforced by the incredible unicity of the account and its subtle intrigue (too perhaps much for an uninitiated reader), the epopee would partly constitute an answer vis-a-vis the rise of Buddhism after the transitory empire of Aśoka (dynasty of Gupta), towards 300 av.JC, in a context socio-policy in crisis and well precis in time. Preachings of Buddha reject in block the lesson vedic and the brahmanic company, threatening supremacy of the brâhmanes. The epopee illustrates a cosmic drama, a disturbance of the dharma , order sociocosmic, which Buddhism could incarnate well. The references are there constantly implicit all with length of the account but interpretations, however, are held and, seen under this angle, are logical.
The Mahâbhârata , of which any Indian knows the history, remains very current, so much so that for the Indians of today the divine heroes remain examples. Thus, if the wife of Râma, Sitâ, is the model of the faithful woman, in the Mahâbhârata , the women are equal men, fight at their sides and have their frank speech.
ContentsThe Mahâbhârata tells the history of a war between Pândavâs (Pāndavās), wire of king Pându (Pāndu), and Kauravâs (Kauravās), the wire of King Dhritarâshtra ( Dhritarāshtra ), the older brother and blind man of Pându, all the caste of the warriors, the kshatriya , in the area of Delhi. The text probably first of all was a compilation of stories of gods and hero transmitted orally, represented by theater companies, told by the priests and the Sannyasin S, the pilgrims, before finding a form written in a Sanskrit slightly antiquated, called “Sanskrit epic”. He then knew an adaptation in the Langues of India and was propagated in the Southeast Asia with the Indian expansion of the first millenium. The major event of the text is the appearance of Krishna (Krisna), the eighth misadventure of Vishnou (Vishnu).
But the Mahâbhârata is a formidable collection of myths inherited the vedic tradition, inserted in the account in the form of interminable digressions. On this subject one can quote the cosmogonic accounts of " rishi" Markandeya which will precede Puranas, a " résumé" Rāmāyana in 18 chapters (figure 18 occupant a central place in all the epopee, itself subdivided in 18 pounds) and also the exploits of the herdsman Krishna which will give body to many often erotic poems on its passing fancies with the Gopis .
The Mahâbhârata is composed of eighteen parva (chapters or books) which is the following:
- Adiparvan - the Book of the Beginnings
- Sabhaparvan - the Book of the Parliament
- Aranyakaparvan - the Book of the Forest
- Virataparvan - the Book of Virata
- Udyogaparvan - the Book of the Preparations
- Bhismaparvan - the Book of Bhîsma
- Dronaparvan - the Book of Drona
- Karnaparvan - the Book of Karna
- Sargarohanaparvan - the Book of Shalya
- Sauptikaparvan - the Book of the night Attack
- Striparvan - the Book of the Women
- Santiparvan - the Book of the Appeasing
- Anusasanaparvan - the Book of Teaching
- Asvamedhikaparvan - the Book of the royal Sacrifice
- Asramavasikaparvan - the Book of the Stay in forest
- Mausalaparvan - the Book of the Rammers
- Mahaprasthanikaparvan - the Book of the Big departure
- Svargarohanaparvan - the Book of the rise to the Sky
With the whole beginning of the Mahâbhârata , with the Book I, “the Book of the Beginnings”, in the forest Naimisha, a Brâhmane of great line, Shaunaka, joins together a sacrificial session traditionally every twelve years. A storyteller presents himself, and it will tell for the first time in entirety the great account of the Mahâbhârata , such as it heard it mouth even of Vaishampâyana, the disciple of Vyâsa, at the time of the Sacrifice of the Snakes ordered by king Janamejaya. It starts by telling the history of the ancestors of its host: Cyavana, the ascetic savage renovated by the gods, Pramadvarâ, Eurydice Indian, bitten by a snake and saved death by its Ruru husband.
One of the episodes of the Mahâbhârata , the Bhagavad-Gîtâ ( Song of the Lord ), included in the sixth book, which one could bring closer to our treaties of knighthood of the Middle Ages, is with him only a treaty of the “Way of the Action”, which shows that knowledge must precede any action, and that, without it, the action would be only vain agitation. Masterpiece of the thought hindouist, it tells the moral councils given by Krishna to Arjuna, which is in despair to have to take part in a battle where many of his/her friends and parents are likely to lose the life. It is a fundamental text to know the life of the traditional India and it is also a talk of the ideals hindouists.
The Mahâbhârata is an inexhaustible source of inspiration, not only for the Indian performing art, the theater and the cinema in particular, but also for the traditional theater in Indonesia, in the islands of Java and Bali.
“Such is the sum of the duty: do not make with the others what, with you, would cause you sorrow” ( Mahâbhârata , V; 15,17)
- “You cry over those over which one should not cry, and yet you utter words which seem wise. The wise ones cry neither over deaths, nor over alive” (the Mahâbhârata VI, Bhagavad-Gîtâ, II; 11 )
- “That which, giving up all the desires, lives free of any personal obstacle and any selfishness, that one obtains peace” ( Mahâbhârata , VI, Bhagavad-Gîtâ , II; 71)
- “Of the harmony is born Wisdom and from the movement cupidity; the idleness and the illusion are born from inertia, as well as ignorance” ( Mahâbhârata , VI, Bhagavad-Gîtâ , XIV; 17)
- “Those which live in the harmony, rise; the credits remain in the intermediate area; the inert ones descend, wrapped cheapper qualities” ( Mahâbhârata , VI, Bhagavad-Gîtâ , XIV; 18)
- “It there forever have a last time or we did not exist, there will be never a future or we will cease being” ( necessary reference )
- “the meat of the animals is like the flesh of our own sons” (reference necessary:)
the '' Mahâbhârata '' in French;
- the film adaptation of Peter Brook.
- Test on the '' Mahâbhârata '';
Simple: Mahabharata Zh-min-nan: Mahabharata
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