The Magdalénien is the last phase of the Paléolithique European superior, ranging between approximately 17.000 and 10.000 years front J. - C. Its name was created by G. of Mortillet starting from the prehistoric site éponyme of the Madeleine in the Dordogne.
DistributionMagdalénien is known in Western Europe, on the current territories of Spain, of Portugal, of France, of Switzerland and Germany.
IndustryThe lithic tools magdalénien comprise a great number of gravers, Grattoir S, borers, blades and plates. The Propellent S and the Harpon S show that the work of the bone is developed there. The life of the magdaléniens was brought closer to the civilization of the Inuit.
In 1912, while being based on the typological evolution of the tools, Henri Breuil proposed to subdivide Magdalénien in two parts comprising three phases each one:
- lower Magdalénien: Magdalénien I to III
- higher Magdalénien: Magdalénien IV to VI.
Recent research, conduits in particular by B. Bosselin and F. Djindjian on the lithic tools by using multidimentionnelles statistical methods, tend to separate an antiquated, named phase Badegoulien and corresponding to phases I and II of Henri Breuil, of Magdalénien strictly speaking .
The authors in addition recognize three facies lithic in Magdalénien:
- an old facies (M0) characterized by scrapers, gravers, plates with back and plates with back truncated (ex-triangles);
- an average and recent facies (M1) with scrapers and dominating gravers, and rare plates with back;
- a facies present in the phases old, average and recent (m2), characterized by the abundance of the plates with back.
Art magdalénienArt magdalénien particularly rich and is diversified. Paintings and engravings amount per thousands and are often impressive of realism. The caves decorated with Lascaux, of Rouffignac, Niaux or Altamira delivered some of the chiefs of work of the parietal Art paleolithic.
The movable Art magdalénien is also remarkable: the weapons and the objects of the daily life are often decorated with geometrical reasons or figurative representations (animals, human). The discovery of instruments of Music, like the Flute with Isturitz, lets foresee an organized company whose representatives had time to devote themselves to Article.
Principal sites magdaléniens
The sites of reference of Magdalénien strictly speaking which were excavated recently according to modern technologies are:
- the Gironde: Rock of Marcamps, Faustin shelter, shelter of Morin and the New Mill,
- Aude: Belvis and the Gazel cave,
- Moors: Duruthy,
- Batch: Peyrugues,
- Lot-et-Garonne: the Trip hammer and the Rock Allan,
- the Dordogne: Laugerie-high Is, the Madeleine, Flageolet II and the Station of Couze
- Charente: The Pulpit with Calvin,
- Haute-Loire: Blot and the Round of Barry,
- Indre: Garenne,
- Vienna: Ragot Wood and Walk,
- Paris basin
- Seine-et-Marne: Pincevent,
- Yonne: Marsangy,
- the Essonne: Étiolles, Tarterêts I and II,
- Oise: Verbery
- the Ardennes: Rock the Tower.
Other sites delivered the testimonys or industries allotted to Magdalénien, without to have been the subject of recent research or evaluation:
- Caves of Cerdon (Ain)
- Arudy (Yrénées-Atlantiques)
- the shelter Murat (commune of Rocamadour, Batch), Rock shelter excavated of 1914 to 1939 by Amédée Lemozi.
- the Cave of Cottier, (Haute-Loire)
- the Rock-with-Wizard with Angle-on-the Anglin (Vienna)
- the Dordogne: Laugerie-Low, Limeuil, the Town hall with Teyjat
- the Cave of the Cow to Alliat, close to Niaux (Ariège)
Many a decorated caves delivered figurations allotted to Magdalénien, in particular:
- Lascaux (the Dordogne)
- Marsoulas (Haute-Garonne)
- the Farmhouse of Azil (Ariège)
- the Cave of Niaux (Ariège)
- gigantic the Cave of Bédeilhac (Ariège)
Allain J. (1968) - In connection with Badegoulien: method and typology. Bull. Préhist plowshare. France , T. 65 (2), 1968, pp. 36-38
- Allain J., Desbrosse R., Kozlowski J.K and Rigaud A. (1985) - Magdalénien with shuttles. Gallia Prehistory , T. 28 (1), 1985, pp. 37-124
- Bazile F. (1977) - old Magdalénien of Camparnaud to Towards-Bridge-of-Gard. Bull. Etud plowshare. Sc Nat. , Nimes, T. 55,1977, pp. 47-64,
- Bazile F. (1987) - Reflection on Magdalénien and its diffusion in Mediterranean France. in the Paleolithic European superior: quinquennial assessment , Studies and Archaeological Research of the University of Liege, ERAUL 24,1987, pp. 165-202
- Bazile F. (1989) - the lithic industry of outdoor of Fontgrasse (Towards-Bridge-of-Gard): its place within Mediterranean Magdalénien. in Magdalénien in Europe , ERAUL 38, pp. 361-377.
- Border F. (1958) - New excavations with Laugerie-High Is: first results. Anthropology , T. 62 (3-4), 1958, pp. 205-244
- Bosselin B. and Djindjian F. (1988) - a test of structuring of French Magdalénien starting from the lithic tools. Bull. Préhist plowshare. France , 85 (10-12), p. 304-331.
- Breuil H. (1912) - subdivisions of the Paleolithic superior and their significance . International congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric archeology, 14° session, Geneva, 1912, pp. 165-238
- Capitan L. and Peyrony D. (1928) - the Madeleine: its layer, its industries, its works of art . Paris, Nourry Edition, 1928,125 p
- Cheynier A. (1939) - primitive Magdalénien of Badegoule and levels with scrapers. Bull. Préhist plowshare. France , T. 36,1939, pp. 334-396
- Cheynier A. (1951) - industries protomagdaléniennes. Bull. Préhist plowshare. France , T. 48 (3-4), 1951, pp. 189-192
- Coulonges L. (1956) - industries with triangular plates of the Paleolithic superior known as “Magdaléniennes II”. Bull. Etud plowshare. and Rech. Préhist. , Eyzies, T. 6,1956, pp. 56-61
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- Lenoir Mr. (1987) - Magdalénien in the Gironde . Conference UISPP, “Structuring of Magdalénien”, Mainz, 1987, Prétirage, pp. 589-623
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- Peyrony D. and E. (1938) - Laugerie-High, close to Eyzies . Institute of Human Paleontology, Memory 19,1938,84 p
- J.Ph Stone. (1979) - In connection with industries magdaléniennes of Flageolet. in Glacial End of time , Bordeaux, 1977 (1979), T. 1, pp. 467-469
- J.Ph Stone. (1982) - the Paleolithic one in Périgord: data of Sarladais South-west and their implications . Thesis of Doctorate of State, University of Bordeaux I, 1982,2 vol., 493 p
- Sacchi D. (1986) - the Paleolithic superior of Western Languedoc and Roussillon . 21° suppl. in Gallia Prehistory, CNRS, 1986,284 p
- Schmider B. (1971) - lithic industries of the Paleolithic superior in Ile de France . 6° suppl. at Gallia Prehistory, CNRS, 1971,218 p
- Sonneville-Border D. of (1960) - the Paleolithic superior in Périgord . Printing works Delmas, Bordeaux, 1960,2 vol., 558 p
- Sonneville-Border D. of (1966) - the evolution of the Paleolithic superior in Western Europe and his significance. Bull. Préhist plowshare. France , T. 63 (10-12), 1966, pp. 3-34
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