See also: Maffia (homonymy)
A Maffia (out-of-date orthography: Maffia ) is a Criminal organization whose activities are subjected to a collegial direction occults and who rests on a strategy of infiltration of the civil society and institutions. One also speaks about gangster system . The members are called " mafieux" (without reference to number), or sometimes " mafiosi" , according to the Italian name (in the singular: " mafioso").
EtymologyThe term Maffia has various etymology S possible, more or less verifiable and realistic. Thus, it would be a deformation:
- of the Arab My-Hias spacconeria , in reference to the " arrogance" whose proof the members of such organizations make,
- of Arabic mu' afak (" protection of the pauvres") or maha (" cave of pierre"),
- at the time of the sicilian Vêpres (1282) would have been adopted initials M.A.F.I.A. for " M orte has I F rancesi I talia has nela" (" Italy aspires to dead of the French ") in reference to rising in progress against the King de Sicile Charles I, resulting from the French house of Anjou and brother of the King de France Louis IX (imposed by the Pope in 1265). Various accounts bring back different versions, like that of a mother howling Ma-ffia, Ma-ffia! or “ mia figlia, mia figlia ” after the rape of his/her daughter at the time of same Vespers. One can easily affirm that they are there etymologies more legendary than historical: the " term; fille" in the sicilian dialect ( figghia ) does not approach the versions " sufficiently; - ffia" ; just as Vespers, if they were actually directed against the French (cf Sheba Malaspina or Giovanni Villani), remain despite everything the illustration of a sicilian nationalism and not Italian. The initials do not seem to have any historical relevance.
- let us note finally that the term Toscan Maffia (" misère") do not seem to have any bond with the sicilian term.
The Tuscan term entered the popular language in Sicily just after the Unification of Italy (Risorgimento) in 1862, where it undergoes the phenomenon of phonetic weakening, like other words Tuscan entered the sicilian use. It was then used to indicate on the one hand the secret organization of the popular classes, which found in the Maffia protection against the capacity of the dominant classes, as well as the courage and the ostentation of the mafiosi of this time. Today still, in Sicily, the adjective mafiusu is also used to indicate something of expensive: an elegant costume or a prestigious car is a vestito mafiusu, una machina mafiusa , because at the time the people saw in the mafiosi their defenders, but associated also the idea of social justice with that of the avenance and the imposing presence.
According to the history of the popular traditions of Giuseppe Clown, the term was used like synonym of beauty and audacity in the speech of popular quarters of Palermo.
The expression Maffia became current starting from 1863, with the part I mafiusi di Vicaria of Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca, which had a great success and was translated into Italian, Napolitain and Meneghino, diffusing the term on all the national territory.
In this part, the mafioso is the camorrista, l'" man of honneur" , i.e. the individual who adheres to a company which opposes the institutions and which exhibe courage and superiority. A confidential document signed by the prefect of Palermo Filippo Gualtiero in April 1865, mentions the " Maffia, O associazione malandrinesca " (in French " the Maffia, or association of malandrins").
In the Années 1860 begins the notoriety of the term, which indicates for example in the official documents, like the communications of the civils servant, at the same time a criminal conspiracy and a behavior running in the sicilian company.
OriginThe Maffia is originating in Italy of the South (the Mezzogiorno), where this type of organization was identified and characterized as such in first, as of the XIXe century (although organizations of the same type could exist at other places and in other times). Several gangster organizations are listed in southernmost Italy:
- the Camorra (in Campania: Naples),
- the Cosa Nostra (in Sicily),
- the 'Ndrangheta (in Calabria),
- the Crowned Corona Unita (in the Pouilles),
- the Stidda (in Sicily),
- the Basilischi (in Basilicate),
- the Anonima sequestered (in Sardinia).
The criminal organizations considered as Maffias strictly speaking by the criminologists are, in addition to the Maffias Italian, the Chinese Triades, the Boryokudan Japanese (of which the members are called “Yakuza”), the Italian-American Mafia, the Russian “Mafiya” , the “Maffya” Turkish and the Maffia albano-Kosovan. Other criminal groups such as the Colombian Trusts, the clans Nigerian S, the Installation S Jamaïcain S, the Underworld of the south of the France, etc… cannot be qualified “Maffias” in a strict sense, insofar as their characteristics do not correspond to the criteria of definition of a Maffia (symbiotic stage of integration in the company, life expectancy of the institutions higher than that of the individuals in place).
OperationThe Maffia functions on a model of economy parallel or underground. She seeks to control the markets and the activities where the money is abundant, circulates in cash (Cash) and is easy to dissimulate with the Fisc. The majority of the usual marketing activities are used, that it is like folding screen with illegal activities or means of bleaching of the collected money. These activities recover the most varied fields today:
control " douanier" goods and people in entry and exit of a district (for certain places).
- voto di scambio (vote of exchange): purchase of electoral consensus against the " faveurs" granted to part of the electorate (it was a long time the case of cd.).
- the sale of Weapon S.
- the Counterfeit.
- the drug trafficking.
- the Traffic of human beings.
- the traffic of bodies.
- the Money laundering.
- the plays of money (Bet S, casino S…).
- the Procuring (although the Prostitution is dépénalisée, even legal, in certain countries).
- the Racket (Extortion or " Pizzo ").
In general, the Maffia prefers to resort to the intimidation, the Corruption or the Chantage rather than with the force to force those which resist to him. In this manner it draws less the attention of the general public to it. But it happens regularly that to get rid of awkward competitors, Témoin S or traitors, the Maffias use of sanguinary methods: wars of Gang S for the takeover of a territory or a market, Assassination of witnesses, accomplices or judges before a Procès are some examples.
Fight against the MaffiaThe policies to fight against this criminal organization run up against the adaptability of these structures flexible and decentralized, able to delocalize their activities and to diversify their financial flows without limits in the whole world. To undertake transnational investigations and to reassemble the multiple dies then become a headache for the judges, more especially as certain countries as the tax shelters do not do anything to facilitate the task to them. It is mainly accordingly that Interpol was created, it makes it possible to centralize information to facilitate the international cooperation.
The fight in Italy
The fascistic periodThe October 20th 1925 Mussolini names Cesare Mori prefect of Palermo, with extraordinary capacities and scope extended to all the Sicily, in order to slow down the gangster phenomenon in the island. The “iron prefect” obtains significant results and his continuous action during the years 1926-1927. Quickly, the investigations show relationship between the Maffia and the statesmen, thus Mori recalled to Rome by Mussolini and named senator the June 16th 1929, whereas propaganda declares proudly that the Maffia was overcome.
The years 1990The Italy succeeded in giving some important blows to the gangster organizations which worked on its territory and from this one. The lawsuits with large scales (the Opération clean hands which related to the Maffia, but not only) in the Années 1990 allowed the arrest of several emblematic figures of the Maffia local, while putting out of state to harm of many véreux politicians (of which the famous farmers general who collected the taxes, of which a part returned to them!).
The particularly conclusive assassination of the General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, then judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino (by means of a ton of TNT in each case), even if they had the effect of an electric shock with the new voted laws anti-Maffia which reiterated the main part of the theories of this senior official of the army or the two magistrates, unfortunately gave a serious crushing argument to this action. In fact especially mentalities must evolve/move: not to be afraid of the Maffia more and more to regard it as a fate.
The gangster organization of the peninsula is composed mainly of four groups:
- the Cosa Nostra (Sicily, Palermo);
- the Camorra (Campania, Naples);
- the Crowned Corona Unita (Pouilles, Bari).
The November 30th 2004, several thousands of demonstrators were found in the streets of Naples, to protest against the Maffia local Camorra. In 2004, the settlings of score between rival gangster bands made 119 died, especially in the disadvantaged districts of Scampia and Secondigliano of this same city. This gangster war did not reach yet ** the width of that which had made 273 died for the only year 1981. (Source: Le Monde , February 1st 2004).
Several Web sites anti-Maffia were created as Libera and Addiopizzo.
In 1993, the Italian commission of enquiry into the gangster phenomena revealed that the principle of operation of the Maffia had common points with that of the Franc-maçonnerie, pyramidal.
- Emanuele Notarbartolo di San Giovanni, politician, assassinated with Termini Imerese the February 1893,
- Giuseppe Petrosino, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on March 12th, 1909,
- Bernardino Verro, politician and Italian trade unionist, assassinated with Corleone on November 3rd, 1915,
- Giorgio Gennaro, Italian priest, assassinated in Palermo in 1916,
- Alfonso Canzio, Italian trade unionist, assassinated with Barrafranca on December 13rd, 1919,
- Nicola Alongi, Italian trade unionist, assassinated in Palermo on February 29th, 1920,
- Stefano Caronia, Italian archpriest, assassinated with Gibellina on November 17th, 1920,
- Sebastiano Bonfiglio, politician and Italian trade unionist, assassinated with Monte San Giuliano on June 11th, 1922,
- Gaetano Guarino, politician, assassinated in Favara on May 16th, 1946,
- Accursio Miraglia, Italian trade unionist, assassinated with Sciacca on January 4th, 1947,
- Epifanio Leonardo Li Puma, politician and Italian trade unionist, assassinated with Petralia Soprana on March 2nd, 1948,
- Placido Rizzotto, Italian trade unionist, assassinated with March 10th, 1948,
- Cosimo Cristina, Italian journalist, assassinated with Termini Imerese on May 5th, 1960,
- Enrico Mattei, head of undertaking, old resistant, man policy, assassinated with Bascapè on October 27th, 1962,
- Mauro De Mauro], Italian journalist, assassinated in Palermo on September 16th, 1970,
- Russo Giuseppe, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on August 20th, 1977),
- Giuseppe Impastato, Italian journalist, assassinated with Cinisi on May 9th, 1978,
- Filadelfio Aparofu, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on January 11th, 1979,
- Mario Francese, Italian journalist, assassinated in Palermo January 26th, 1979,
- Giorgio Ambrosoli, Italian lawyer, assassinated in Milan on July 11th, 1979,
- Giorgio Boris Giuliano, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo July 21st, 1979,
- Cesare Terranova Italian magistrate, assassinated in Palermo on September 25th, 1979,
- Lenin Mancuso, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on September 25th, 1979,
- Piersanti Mattarella, politician, assassinated in Palermo on January 6th, 1980,
- Emanuele Basile, police officer, assassinated in Monreale on May 4th, 1980,
- Gaetano Costa, Italian magistrate, assassinated in Palermo on August 6th, 1980,
- Pio Torre, politician, assassinated in Palermo on April 30th, 1982,
- Roberto Calvi, Italian business man, assassinated in London on June 18th, 1982,
- Carlo Alberto Paved Chiesa, general Italian, assassinated in Palermo on September 3rd, 1982 with his wife,
- Calogero Zucchetto, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on November 14th, 1982,
- Giangiacomo Ciaccio Montalto Italian magistrate, assassinated in Valderice on January 25th, 1983,
- Rocco Chinnici, Italian magistrate, assassinated in Palermo on July 29th, 1983,
- Giuseppe Fava, writer, journalist and Italian playwright, assassinated with Catania on January 5th, 1984,
- Beppe Montana, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on July 28th, 1985,
- Antonino Cassarà, police Italian, assassinated in Palermo on August 6th, 1985,
- Michele Sindona, lawyer, assassinated in Palermo Voghera on March 22nd, 1986,
- Giuseppe Insalaco, politician, assassinated in Palermo on January 12th, 1988,
- Alberto Giacomelli, Italian magistrate, assassinated with Trapani on September 14th, 1988,
- Mauro Rostagno, Italian sociologist, assassinated with Lenzile September 26th, 1988,
- Antonino Saetta, Italian magistrate, assassinated with Caltanissetta in 1988,
- Rosario Angelo Livatino, Italian magistrate, assassinated with Agrigento on September 21st, 1990,
- Antonio Scopelliti, Italian magistrate, assassinated with Campo Calabro on August 9th, 1991,
- Libero Grassi, chief ofcompany Italian, assassinated in Palermo on August 29th, 1991,
- Antonio Montinaro, police Italian, assassinated in Capaci on May 23rd, 1992,
- Francesca Laura Morvillo, Italian magistrate, assassinated in Palermo on May 23rd, 1992,
- Paolo Borsellino, Italian magistrate, assassinated in Palermo on July 12th, 1992,
- Rita Atria, witness of the Italian justice, assassinated in Rome the July 26th, 1992,
- Giovanni Falcone, Italian magistrate, assassinated with Capaci on May 23rd, 1992,
- Giuseppe Borsellino, Italian head of undertaking, assassinated in Lucca Sicula on December 17th, 1992,
- Giuseppe Aldo Felice Alfano, Italian journalist, assassinated with Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto on January 8th, 1993,
- Giuseppe Puglisi, Italian priest, assassinated in Palermo on September 15th, 1993,
- Domenico Buscetta, repented Italian, assassinated in Palermo on March 6th, 1995.
Other MaffiasThe Maffia term indicates before all the Italian criminal organization, but it is often used to designate any structured criminal organization, among whom:
See also: Corsican Maffia, Corsican Medium
See also: Russian Maffia
See also: Chinese Triads
Maffia Japanese woman
See also: Yakuza
See also: Maffia Albanian
Ritual of the Sicilians of Cosa NostraThe rite of orientation in the majority of the families arrives when a man becomes a associate and, later, a soldier. Like Tommaso Buscetta with the judge Giovanni Falcone describes it, the neophyte is joined together with at least three “men of honor” of the family and the oldest member informs it that this “House” is meant to protect the weak one against the abuse from the capacity; he then pricks the finger of the initiate and shift his blood on a crowned image, usually a saint. The image is placed in the hand of the initiate and is bound by fire. The neophyte must resist the pain of fire, to pass the image of one hand to the other, until the image is consumed, while solemnly swearing to keep the faith with the principles of the “Cosa Nostra” by using the formula “to see my burn of flesh like this saint if I do not keep my oath. ” Joseph Valachi was the first nobody to mention that with the court.
The Sicilians have also a law of silence called the Omertà: it defends with the man in the street, the woman or the child to cooperate with the police force or the government, under penalty of death.
History of Cosa Nostra Sicilian
BeginningsIt was a long time discussed to know if the Maffia had medieval origins. Pentito deceased Tommaso Buscetta thought that yes, whereas the modern well-read men think now differently. It is possible that the Maffia “original” was made up as a Secret society from which the acknowledged objective was to protect the sicilian population from the threat of the petty thieves Spanish S with the XVe century. However, there is very few historical evidence which abounds in this direction. It is also conceivable that the myth of “Robin of Wood” was perpetuated by the notorious first mafiosi with an aim of gaining the benevolence and the confidence of the Sicilien S.
After the revolutions of 1848 and 1860, the Sicily had sunk in the most total anarchy. The first mafiosi, then bands of outlaw, small and scattered, contributed by the weapons to confusion. For the author John Dickie, their objective was to destroy the police reports and the evidence, like eliminating the police force and the " pentiti" (Repented S) while benefitting from ambient chaos. However, once a new government was established with Rome and that it became clear that the Maffia would not be capable any more to conclude these actions, they gradually changed their methods and their techniques during second half of the XIXe century. To protect the large plantations from lemon trees and the properties of the local Noblesse (sometimes in its absence until replacing it) became profitable businesses although dangerous. These activities proceeded at the beginning mainly with Palermo, but the sicilian domination of the Maffia extended soon in all the west from Sicily. In order to reinforce the bonds between the disparate bands and by ensuring there of better profits and a surer environment, it is possible that the Maffia such as we know it was formed at this time, in the middle of the XIXe century.
The Maffia after the Unification of ItalyFrom 1860, date on which the new unified Italian state took control of Sicily and the papal states, the Pape S were hostile in the State. As of 1870, the Pope declared being attacked by the Italian State and the Catholique S were strongly encouraged to refuse to cooperate with him. In general, in Italy, that took a peaceful character. Sicily was strongly catholic, but more in one Community direction that in a intellectual or theological direction, and was wary traditionally from abroad. The friction between the Church and the State gave a great advantage to the violent criminal bands of Sicily which could declare with the peasants and with the townsmen that to cooperate with the police force, which represented the new Italian State, was an act anti-catholic. It is during the two decades following the unification of 1860 that the Maffia term came for submission to the general public, although it then indicated more a system of attitudes and values that an organization. It was still with the image of the foremen who directed the great agricultural properties in the absence of the landowners (noble) who generally resided at Palermo, the Naples or, after the Unification, Rome and which acquérirent in fact a local authority, in particular in terms of taxes.
The first mention in the official judiciary record of the term “Maffia” appears at the end of the XIXe century, when certain Dr. Galati was victim of violent threats by a local mafioso which tried to drive out it of its exploitation of lemon trees in order to settle there. Rackets of " protection" , the flight of cattle and the corruption of civils servant of the State were the sources of revenue and the protection principal of the first Maffias. Cosa Nostra also strongly borrowed from the oaths and rites maconnic, like from now on celebrates ceremony of initiation.
The fascistic eraFor the Fascistic period in Italy, Cesare Mori, the prefect (" of fer") from Palermo, used the special capacities which were granted to him to prosecute the Maffia, forcing many mafiosi to flee abroad to escape the imprisonment. Much took refuge with the the United States (often while passing by the port of the Havre) and among them Joseph Bonanno, called Joe Bananas, who came from there to dominate the American branch of the Maffia. However, when Mori started to persecute the mafiosi which had taken refuge in the fascistic hierarchy, it was relieved and the fascistic authorities proclaimed that the Maffia had been overcome. In spite of its attacks against their fellow-members, Mussolini had partisans in the Maffia of New York, in particular Vito Genovese, which was however of Naples and not of Sicily.
Rebirth of post-war periodAfter the Fascism of the Second world war, the Maffia is become again powerful in Italy only with the rendering of the country and the American occupation. The United States used the Italian relations of mafiosi American during the invasion of Sicily and Italy in 1943. Lucky Luciano and others mafiosi, which had been imprisoned during this time in the United States, provided information to the American military information and used of the influence of Luciano to facilitate the projection of the troops. Moreover the control of Luciano on the ports prevented their sabotage by the agents of the forces of the Axe.
Some affirm that the American office of the strategic services (OSE), the precursor of the CIA, deliberately made it possible the Maffia to find its social and economic position as a " State in Etat" in Sicily and that was, with alliance State-Plain-Maffia forged in 1943, the decisive turn in the history of the Maffia and the new bases for its activity during the sixty following years. Others, such as the Palerman historian Francesco Renda, cancelled the existence of any alliance of this type. The Maffia would have rather exploited the chaos of Sicily post-fascist to reconquer his social base. The OSE indeed, in 1944, in his “Report/ratio on the Problems of the Maffia” by agent W.E. Scotten, noted the signs of resurgence of the Maffia and informed dangers which it represented for the social order and economic progresses.
An additional benefit (from the American point of view) would have been that many mafiosi sicilian was anti Communiste S pure and hard. They were thus seen as of invaluable combined by the Americans Anti-communiste S. Those would have used their services as well in the American shipbuilding industry for éradiquer the elements Socialiste S and Communists, as in the movements of Résistance during the war or in the governments of post-war period, buildings and regional, where the Maffia had the seizure.
According to the expert of the drug trafficking Dr. Alfred W.McCoy, Luciano was authorized to order his criminal network of his cell of prison in exchange of his assistance. After the war, Luciano was rewarded by a release and an extradition towards Italy, where it could continue its criminal career without obstacle. It went to Sicily in 1946 to continue its activities and, according to the book of McCoy “The Politics off Heroïn in South East Asia”, Luciano forged a crucial alliance with the Corsica Maffia , driving with the development of a vast global area network of traffic of Héroïne, initially provided by the Turkey and based with Marseilles - known under the name of “French Connection”.
Later, when Turkey started to eliminate the production from Opium, it the USA of its relations with the Corsicans to open to a dialog with the mafiosi Corsican expatriates with the South-Vietnam. In collaboration with the principal American owners like Santo Trafficante Jr, Luciano and its successors benefitted from the chaotic conditions in Asia of South-east, resulting from the war of the Vietnam, to establish a base of provisioning and distribution out of reach in the “Triangle of gold”, which redirected soon enormous quantities of Asian Héroïne to the the United States, in Australia and in the other countries via the American Armée.
The gangster infiltration in the economy.
Operation of the gangster economy.The base of the gangster economy is in the system of collection of the " Pizzo " : the gangsters impose to the tradesmen incomes in exchange of a " protection" but also under penalty of seeing their windows broken and their goods disappeared or burned. Although it is one of the most important techniques as regards gangster economy, the incomes have hundreds of different origins. It should initially be specified that the gangster economy is divided into 3 parts: illegal, legal economy and legal-gangster. These three circuits are closely dependant. Thus, for example, incomes of the illegal economy (" economia sommersa") allow to create new companies this completely legal time. In the same way the production can be legal but the illegal sale and conversely. These are the close links which raise the enormous difficulties that faces the Italian government to flush out the gangster companies, in particular by checking the movements and the bank deposits or the invitations to tender. The dirty money recycling is an activity with whole share. One knows the large traditional dies of the illegal traffics: Drug S, Weapon S, works of art flights. But we have also to make with less known businesses such as the traffic of industrial waste, the fraud with the food subsidies, great work of infrastructure and so on. The list of the sectors is long even unlimited that goes from the procuring to controls of the casino S, of the counterfeit money to the traffic of human beings but also more recently of the cybercriminality (hacking and embezzlement on Internet). All these networks are obviously wide today with the international level and even planet gear.
ConsequencesAccording to a recent report/ratio, the economic product of the Maffias Italian would account for approximately 15% of GDP of the Italy, that is to say nearly 834 billion Euro S. the Maffia is not more one family company but became with the wire of time a financial empire of multinational type.
1947 with 1990 without stopping. For this reason, the name of Giulio Andreotti was quoted several times at the time of lawsuit, but no proof could be retained against him, even if representatives of cd. on the spot were stopped.
Eminent sicilian gangsters
- Calogero Vizzini (1877-1954), owner of Villalba, it was regarded as one of the owner of the Maffia most influential of Sicily of the end of the Second world war to its death in 1954.
- Stefano Magaddino (1891-1974), “imposing the old man of Cosa Nostra”. Member original of the National Commission and was very eminent in the towns of Buffalo and Strait.
- Giuseppe Genco Russo (1893-1976), the owner of Mussomeli, considered as the heir to Calogero Vizzini.
- Michele Navarra (1905-1958), the owner of the family with Corleone of 1930 to 1958.
- Salvatore “Ciaschiteddu” Greco (1923-1978), the owner of the family of CIaculli, he was the first secretary of the first sicilian Committee of the Maffia when it was formed some share in 1958.
- Gaetano Badalamenti (1923-2004), the owner of the Family of Cisini.
- Angelo LaBarbera (1924-1975), the owner of the family of Central Parleme.
- Michele Greco (born in 1924), the owner of the Maffia with Croceverde.
- Luciano Leggio (1925-1993), the owner of the family with Corleone.
- Tommaso Buscetta (1928-2000), the sicilian first mafioso has to become a pentito (adviser) in 1984. (a predecessor, Leonardo Vitale, which was given to the police force in 1973, was considered to be as suffering of mental disease) the proof of Buscetta was used ruant the Maximum Lawsuit.
- Salvatore Riina (born in 1930), so known like Louse Riina, it is one of the most famous member of the Maffia Sicilian. It was called the Animal or sometimes The Short One and it controlled the Maffia with an iron hand in the years 1980 until its arrest in 1993.
- Bernardo Provenzano (born in 1933), the successor of Riina to the head of Corleonesi and was regarded as one of the most powerful owners of the Maffia Sicilian. Provenzano was fugitive justice since 1963. It was captured on April 11th, 2006 in Sicily. Before its capture, the authorities had tried to capture it for 10 years.
- Stefano Bontade (1939-1981), the parton of the family with Santa Maria di Gesu.
- Leoluca Bagarella (born in 1941), the family member of Corleone stopped in 1995.
- Salvatore Lo Piccolo (born in 1942), considered as one of the successors of Provenzano.
- Salvatore Inzerillo (1944-1981), the owner of the Family with Passo di Rigano.
- Giovanni “lo scannacristiani” Brusca (born in 1957), which was implied in the murder of Giovanni Falcone.
- Matteo Messina Denaro (born in 1962), regarded as one of the successors of Provenzano.
- Michele Cavataio died in the blow of the Maffia in 1969.
- Francesco di Boille (born in 1959) " Capo di Tutti Capi" of the " family; di Boille" of Bagheria.
- Vincenzo di Boile (born in 1940) " Capo di Capi Re" preceding family, and father of Francesco above.
Structure of Cosa Nostra SicilianKnown as the Honorary Company among the mafiosi, the command string is organized in a pyramid similar to a structure of modern company.
- Capo di Tutti I Capi (the “Owner of all the owners”, namely Matteo Messina Denaro for the Maffia Sicilian and Renato Gagliana for Crowned Corona Unita), like Francesco di Boille towards Cosa Nostra
- Capo di Capi Re (a title of respect given to a groin or a reprocessed member, an equivalent becomes a highly skilled member, literally, “the owner king of the owners”) with knowing Vicenzo di Boille
- Capo Crimine (“Owner of the crime”, known as Parrain - the head of a family of the crime)
- Capo Bastone (The head of beat”, known as the “Underboss” is second with the head of Capo Crimine)
- Consigliere (an adviser)
- Caporegime (Chief of Mode”, a captain which orders a team of ten Sgarriste or Soldiers.)
- Sgarrista or Soldati (“Soldier”, members of the Maffia who is useful mainly like soldiers.)
- Picciotto (“Small man”, a bottom grade who serves as large arm)
- Parrain (an associated member, usually, it is not Italian or of sicilian ancestor.)
Sicilian structure of the Maffia
- Capofamiglia - (Gift)
- Consigliere - (Advises)
- Sotto Capo - (Under-owner)
- Capodecina - (Team leader/Capo)
- Uomini D' Onore - (" Man of honneur")
Cosa Nostra American
See also: Maffia American
- Al Capone
- Lucky Luciano
- Vito Genovese
- Tommaso Buscetta
- Salvatore Riina
- Bernardo Provenzano
- John Gotti
- Vito Corleone (Fictitious)
- John Abruzzi (Fictitious)
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