The République of Madagascar is an Island state, located in the Western part of the Indian Ocean, with broad of the Africa of the east of which it is separated by the Canal from Mozambique, broad 400 km. Its capital is Tananarive (Antananarivo).
During the major part of the 19th century, the island was managed by the Royaume of Madagascar that the French colonial invasion of 1895 abolishes then. In 1960, Madagascar finds its independence but remains subjected to a strong influence French in all the fields, and more particularly on political plan and economic.
The language Malgache is originating in Indonesia. More precisely, it belongs to the group known as " Barito " Austronesian branch of the Languages austronésiennes. The other languages of this group are spoken in the province about Southern Kalimantan in the island about Borneo.
See also: History of Madagascar
Kingdoms of MadagascarAccording to the linguistic research undertaken by researchers indonesianists, the first human occupation in Madagascar goes up towards 7th. These pioneers are originating in the the West Indies or Malay Archipelago (current Indonesia). Indeed Malayan sailor-tradesmen in the search of spice S sold thereafter with the China, decided to install a relay at that time or bases supply in Madagascar on their road towards the Eastern coasts of the Africa. To this end, they took along with them to occupy the island of the populations originating in the central part of Borneo (area of south-east Barito), place where the Malayan navigators went to seek wood for their naval constructions. What explains very great affinity between the language Malgache and dialects of Barito South-east belonging to the languages Dayak. Among the navigators insulindiens also appeared of the sailors originating in the areas of south-east Sulawesi (known later under the name of Bugis, Makassar) as of the wandering sailors of the Détroit of Malacca known probably under the name of Malaga S. The latter gave certainly the name to the future inhabitants of Madagascar, the Malagasy, other tradesmen or migrants come from other areas of the Malay Archipelago (Indonesia) also belonged to these populations coming from Indonesia among them the Batak and the proof remains the practice of the second burial which in Madagascar took the name of “reversal of died” or Famadihana.
All these migrants populated the western northern part of the island, where carry out the marine currents north-south-west with like place of unloading and installation between the island of Nosy-Be and the mouth of the river Loza that the Malayan sailors called Kuala (bay) become as a Madagascan Year-Koala. In order to support their occupation of the island later these migrants or colonists were divided on the Western coast of the large island to future the Fort-Dauphin between IXe and the 10th centuries as attests it the archaeological excavations (Irodo, Sarodrano,…) who show a uniformity of the material civilization of Malagasy.
The first Malagasy companies saw the precedence of the sailors of the colonists originating in the interior of Borneo. Let us note that the latter are most numerous and were transported in family in Madagascar what explain why their language is preserved until now and known under the name of Malgache language because the language is transmitted by the mother (native tongue) . On the other hand other migrants: Malayan, Javanese, originating in the islands Sulawesi (Célèbes), Sumatranais (Batak, Achinais) came certainly as simple explorers without their families from where one finds in the Malagasy language only " words of emprunts" with these languages.
The descendants sailor-tradesmen: Malayan, Javanese, Achinais and originating in Sulawesi constituted the class nobilaire in Madagascar the Andriana which derives from name noble Andi meaning at the originating ones in Sulawesi.
The populations originating in Barito South-east were the dependant ones on the first and bore the name of ulun (depending or servant) become in Malagache olona (human or man) like hova i.e. emigrated or Ntaolo which derives from To- Ulu meaning in the languages of Sulawesi: “people of the interior”. Some among the noble ones, in particular Achinais, are Moslems because Aceh was converted with the Islam as of the 9th century and they are known in Madagascar under the name of Onjatsy or the people of Atsy , transformation into Malagache of the name of Aceh or Asyi . In addition all the royal dynasties in Madagascar go down from these originating in the area in Aceh: the ZafiRaminia : the descendant of Raminia or Ramni . This last is the name of the Western area of Aceh where is the port of Lamuri and current Meulaboh. It is extremely probable which Ankoala was controlled by a viceroy originating in Aceh or Java carrying the title of Raden Anon become as a Madagascan Randrianony and this towards IXe and 10th century.
Professing the Islamic religion Shiite this royal court of Ankoala was comparison constant with the other Moslem counters of the Eastern coast of Africa (Qilwa, Zanzibar.) held by people of the same confession that they and alliances matrimonial had certainly place towards Xe and 11th century giving rise to noble families carrying the name of Kazimambo which derives from Swahili, meaning the " woman of the king or reine" and giving later the dynasty of the ZafiKazimambo , the " descendants of Reine". The arrival of these migrants from Eastern Africa taking along with them of many African Noirs servants caused mixing between the first inhabitants originating in Indonesia Ntaolo called since by the Africans Vanjimbo become as a Madagascan Vazimba and meaning the " autochtones" , they also called Ntaolo the Ba lambo : " clear men of peau" become later in Malagache Amboalambo . And as these Africans came more the share as soldier-servants they were also without family what explain why in spite of the first mixtures with the Ntaolo/Vazimba women, the language and habits hardly changed. It is about sure that they were these Moslems originating in Africa Eastern and Al Basra which baptized the final name of the island in Malagasybar/Madagasybar , the " country of Malagas or Madagas" become Madagascar (11th century).
The disappearance of the Shiite Moslem kingdom of Aceh towards the beginning of the 10th century under the blows of a new dynasty sunnite completely cut the bonds between the Malay Archipelago and Madagascar. Later these wars of religion inter-Moslem women (sunnite vs Shiite) reach the Western shores of the Indian Ocean as well as the west coasts of Madagascar to be started with the installation in Ankoala. These wars were transformed quickly into plunderings and draft of the slaves whom underwent Ntaolo/Vazimba which preferred to migrate inside the island by going up the course of the rivers and their affluents: Mahajamba, Sofia, Bemarivo, Betsiboka, Ikopa, Mananara, Tsiribihina, Handled, Andratsay, Kitsamby, Onilahy, Mnagoky, Matsiatra,… And Nataolo will give rise to the various clans: Tsimihety, Androna, Sihanaka, Merina, Bestileo, Antandroy, Mahafaly ,… the noble ones (ZafiRaminia and ZafiKazimambo) migrated towards the north-eastern coast (neighborhood of Vohémar). What explains why the majority of the inhabitants of the large island are confined inside the grounds.
Until the 18th century, other immigrants mixed with Malagasy who are consisted a substrate indonésien originating in Borneo and made adstrats Arabs, Malais, Javanese, Indiens and later of Europeans thus giving his specificity to the Malagasy nation. The first kingdoms typically Malagasy which one can establish the history go up around the 12th century, in the center of the island. Other kingdoms of the littoral whose memory remained emergent only as from the 17th century. One can in this respect enumerating the kingdoms Sakalava on the west coast, those of the Betsimisaraka and the people of south-east on the Eastern littoral, the kingdoms Betsileo in the south of the country merina, etc
The first European contacts took place with the arrival of Portuguese in 1500. The captain of the fleet in question was Diogo Dias. On the highlands, a kingdom takes its rise at the beginning of the 16th century. This one was however to know the apogee only under the reign of Andrianampoinimerina which died in 1810. This last undertook to unify the center of the country, while leaving by will with its successor the care to unify the remainder of the island, through the expression: ny riaka No valamparihiko , “sea limit of my rice plantation”. It was thus with his/her son Radama Ier that the company of unification itself of Madagascar began. The first areas extra merina with being comparable were the country bezanozano in the east and the countries Betsileo in the south.
After the " agreement; britannico-malagasy" from 1817 then in exchange of its co-operation to put an end to the trade Slaves with the foreigner (1819), Radama accepted via the Mauritius the assistance of the the United Kingdom to modernize the kingdom and the army. Thus in a few years hardly, with the title of King de Madagascar which the British had recognized to him, it succeeds in rejoining the three-quarters of the island, corresponding to the most populated richest areas and. Virtually, it thus had in fact gathered Madagascar, even if it were as suzerain, being satisfied to control the foreign relations and to perceive " tributs" other areas, remained autonomous in the management of their internal businesses.
After the death of Radama in 1828, the throne échut with its wife, the queen Ranavalona Ire who undertook to extend a little more and to consolidate the kingdom left by its husband. In front of the French threats (unexpected attacks of Gourbeyre in 1829) and those which the propaganda of the missionaries made plane on the perenniality of the sociocultural values malagasy, the Ranavalona queen decided in 1835 to expel the Européens missionaries who had refused to cease proselytism.
She decided despite everything to continue the modernization process of the kingdom. With James Cameron and the missionaries, set out again most known among these foreign technicians who was Jean Laborde, established in Antananarivo as of 1831 for remaining then there during more than forty years, until its disappearance in 1878.Il will have created an industrial pole with Mantasoa, under the orders of Ranavalona I. This one needed armament, faience manufacture, breeding of worms with silk, etc
After the disappearance of Ranavalona I in 1861, his/her son read succeeded under the name of Radama II. This one chooses a policy of opening to Europeans, it was in particular criticized to have allotted immense territorial concessions to adventurers like the French Joseph Lambert. Its reign quickly became more and more disputed and it disappeared in 1863, according to some assassinated on order of the Prime Minister Rainivoninahitriniony, others support the thesis which it was constrained with a secret exile in another area of the country.
Its wife who became then queen under the name of Rasoherina. Consequently occasion, the Prime Minister Hova (commoner), became officially the husband of the sovereign one. This union was thus above all of political nature, in order to symbolize the division of the capacities between monarchy and the commoner's condition.
Under Rasoherina, the kingdom continued its modernization, and it will be the same with two the sovereign following ones, Ranavalona II (1868-1883) which converts with Protestantism and Ranavalona III (1883-1897).
As from 1864, the load of Prime Minister and Commander-in-chief of the army échut to Rainilaiarivony, the younger brother of Rainivoninahitriniony. This one remained at its station until the French invasion of 1896. Initially subjected to the mode of the Protectorate French following the treaty of October 1st, 1895, Madagascar was then unilaterally declared colony French on August 6th, 1896, whereas the queen and the local government were still in function. Thereafter, on March 1st, 1897, always unilaterally, the general Galliéni abolishes monarchy malagasy, depriving of political straight those who became “Malagasy natives” until the beginning of the year 1946.
Resistance armed with the Menalamba, started in November 1895, was broken by the force. The " pacification" island was completed however in the coastal regions only in 1904, after having made approximately 100 000 victims on a total population of approximately 3 million hearts.
After a difficult beginning with the business of VVS in 1915, the nationalist combat developed truly only at the end of the years 1920. André Giresse written (pages 42 sqq), in memory of his/her father, mayor of Tananarive in 1928: " It was the time when the political climate was degraded slowly in Madagascar. The indigenous opinion evolved/moved since the end of the First World War. Of their military service in France, young Madagascans returned with the revolutionary ideas which agitated Europe. Most radical of them claimed independence straightforwardly. According to letters intercepted by the police force, other Madagascans wished a new statute, granting a greater autonomy to them… ". the same author continues, without however specifying the date : " … The demonstration took place. No force in the world could have prevented the Young Madagascans gathering and from ravelling… All was to be held in the calm one. Unfortunately, appeared sudden, as on the high steps of the Battleship Potemkine, the colonial troops of the governor by interim… which methodically; coldly, opened fire on the demonstrators, drawing in crowd, cutting down the runaways. A premeditated shooting, a massacre carried out on the instructions expresses of the governor by interim, which made any only with its tête".
The nationalist combat knew its apogee the shortly after the Second world war under the control of MDRM. But the dash was broken in 1947 after repression in the blood of the insurrection of March 29th. The number of victims is estimated with the neighborhoods from 8.000 to 12.000, quite lower than the 89000 dead ones at the time announced by the High-Commissioner in Madagascar, with an apparent aim to terrorize the Madagascans .
Madagascar finds its independence on June 26th, 1960 under the direction of Philibert Tsiranana, a former leader of PADESM.
Independence of MadagascarBut the First Republic of Madagascar was still very closely related to France by the Cooperation agreements. Tsiranana, criticized for its support for the French interests, faced a growing dispute and is withdrawn in 1972.
After a few years of disorders, Didier Ratsiraka becomes president of one Second Republic in 1975 and undertakes to be aligned on the position of the block pro-Soviet. But towards the end of the year 1980, it is constrained to commit the country to a careful liberalism, in particular economic.
In 1991, the opposition to Ratsiraka develops. Popular demonstrations degenerate into confrontation with the army, making many victims. After a short transitional period, a new constitution is adopted and Albert Zafy, candidate of the opposition, are elected with the presidency.
Paradoxically, the presidential elections of 1996 (after the prevention of Zafy by the National Assembly) see the re-election of Ratsiraka. Madagascar knows one period of economic stability until 2001, where the results of the elections are disputed.
The candidate of opposition Marc Ravalomanana proclaims himself victorious and forms his own government, installed in the Antananarivo capital, while that of Ratsiraka is exiled in Toamasina, city of the largest port of the country.
The situation will not be released before two car-nominations of Marc Ravalomanana and the departure in exile of Ratsiraka in July 2002, leaving the capacity to Ravalomanana de facto. Contrary to Ratsiraka, directed especially towards the socialist block during IIe Republic and almost exclusively towards France at the time of IIe Republic, Ravalomanana undertakes a policy of commercial opening and policy towards many countries of the world, in particular Germany, but also the USA (first country to recognize its electoral victory), Japan, Morocco, China, South Africa. In April 2007, a referendum, with nearly 47% of rate of participation of the voters, approves an amendment of the constitution.
See also: Political of Madagascar
Its election caused a great joy in the local population. It tries to nationalize the companies.
See also: Geography of Madagascar
Madagascar is the fifth larger island in the world - after the Australia, the Greenland, the New Guinea and Borneo - with a surface of 587.000 km ² (surface of the France and joined together Benelux). Located in the Indian Ocean, crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn, it occupies a strategic position with its coast turned towards the channel of the Mozambique.
Only 5% of the surface of the country are used for the Agriculture. The Déforestation reaches proportions which make of it an main issue for the ecology and the economy of the island. The rapid growth of the population is the leading cause of the deforestation which, by-effect, involves the erosion of the rare arable lands and the drying up of water reserves. Water is polluted more and more by uncontrolled human rejections, from where sometimes a disease risk (Choléra) in the zones of strong densities.
This immense island where, however, imposing nature is not always hospital with the man, inspires the mythical vision of the saved paradise of the flood. It holds especially the surprise of landscapes of a planet fallen on the sea emerald and of meetings with an extraordinary variety of species. Madagascar is the alive legend of a island-continent.
The relief divides the country into three bands, of north in the south: a narrow coastal strip in the east, high plateaus in the center and a zone of lower plates and plains in the west.
The central high plateaus have an altitude oscillating between 800 and 1 500 m and cover 60% of the island; they rise abruptly when one approaches the country by the east coast and go down much more gently towards the vast plains from the west. The high plateaus count 3 principal solid masses: in north, the Tsaratanana, which has more the high summit of the island, a volcanic peak of 2876 m altitude, in the center the Ankaratra and the south the Andringita. The east coast is bordered of lagoons sheltered by a coral barrier.
Madagascar is cut out in five climatic zones:
- In north and the North-West, the area receives abundant annual rains during the Mousson, period which lasts from December to April. The climate is of equatorial type and the temperatures vary from 15 with 37°C.
- On the east coast, of the North-East in south-east, reigns a very wet equatorial climate and the rectilinear coast is annually exposed with the Alizé S and the Cyclone S devastators between March and January.
- the great area of the west of Madagascar is less rainy than the preceding one and is characterized by Savane S. the temperatures vary there from 10 with 37°C.
- In the center of the island, the Highlands are at an altitude which varies from 1.200 to 1.500 Mètre S. the climate perhaps compared to a climate of the type Subtropical with dominant estival rains with average annual temperatures about 20°C.
- the extreme south of the Large Island is very dry and the rains are rare. The thermal amplitude is very high going from 6°C to 40°C. The climate is of type Subdésertique.
The island is subject to the influence of the trade winds and monsoon. There exist two seasons:
- the rain season (hot season) from November to April,
- the season dries (fresh season) from May to October.
At the end of the Jurassic , 150 million years ago, this ground was dislocated to form the Continent S. As of the period Quaternaire, Madagascar was about at the place where it is currently located.
This origin makes it possible to explain the existence of a fauna and a flora common to Madagascar and with the south of the continents African and American as well as very close geological profiles. Nevertheless, the insulation of Madagascar during geological times made evolve/move the fauna and the single Flore in way. One thus finds on the large island of the particular species which do not exist nowhere elsewhere (endemic S) whose Lémurien S are a famous example. From the geological point of view, one finds in the structure of the Large Island all the periods of the history of planet. The culminating point of the island is the Maromokotro in the solid mass of the Tsaratanana to 2.876 meters of altitude.
Because of its relief, Madagascar joins together a true mosaic of landscapes. The island is made contrasts between the Bush of the great South, the wet forests of the east, the granitic of the center, sometimes surmounted high plateaus volcanic massive and savannas of the sedimentary hills of the west.
In 2003, the president Marc Ravalomanana, announced that it would triple the surface of the protected areas of the island to reach 6 million Hectare S. In December 2005, the country created a million hectares of new protected areas. In 2007, more than one million additional hectares (either a total of 3,7 million hectares including:
- the biological corridor|forest corridor “ Fandriana-Vondrozo ”
- the complex of lakes, rivers and forests of the wetlands of Mahavavy-Kinkony (Coast north-western) in the District of Mitsinjo (South-eastern) and including the second largest lake of the country, to approximately 80 km of Mahajanga. Although sheltering sugar industry SIRAMA, this complex remains of an extreme wealth of biodiversity associates the river of Mahavavy, the lake Kinkony, the forest of Tsiombikibo, bay of Boeny Aranta and the littoral Mangrove S; On 30 fish species, five are endemic), on 18 species of reptiles, 12 are endemic), on 133 species of birds, 57 are terrestrial including 45 endemic and 76 are watery 23 are endemic, 4 Lemurs - 1 Rodent and 1 Carnivore also profit from protection.
- the forest dries central of the Menabe (South-western of the island).
Fauna, flora and biodiversity
See also: Flora of Madagascar
The biogeographic insulation of Madagascar, and the variety of the climates and reliefs supported there the development of a single fauna and a flora in the world, partly endemic (of which for example gray Hapalémur of the Lac Alaotra ( Hapalemur alaotrensis ), single Primate in the world with living in reeds).
This biodiversity is very weakened by the development of the Agriculture and by the partly illegal Déforestation.
The marine animal-life is also very rich, although still badly known.
See also: Subdivisions of Madagascar
Madagascar has six Provinces, named according to their capital, in 2004, a cutting of 22 areas of the Large Island left officially, namely:
See also: Saving in Madagascar
In May 2003, Ariary replaced the FMG like currency in Madagascar. Starting from this date, a double labelling was applied in the trade and to the markets until the official swing, on January 1st, 2005. Since this date, only the ariary has course in the country (1 Ariary = 5 Ia = 5 FMG).
See also: Demography of Madagascar
The Malagasy population is mainly of Afro-Asian origin. A recent study leaves think that the island was uninhabited until probably, where of Indonésiens would have unloaded.
The 18 ethnos groups of Madagascar are:
1.Antaifasy 2.Antaimoro 3.Antaisaka 4.Antakarana 5.Antambahoaka 6.Antandroy 7.Antanosy will 8.Bara 9.Betsileo 10.Betsimisaraka 11.Bezanozano 12.Mahafaly 13.Merina 14.Sakalava 15.Sihanaka 16.Tanala 17.Tsimihety 18.Vezo
See also: Culture of Madagascar
When the soothsayer gives the signal of it, the family clan decides to begin the ceremony known as of the reversal of dead the . Exhumed two or three years after the death, the late one momifié is initially carried in procession with a procession of musicians. Then the bones, after a ritual toilet, are wrapped in Lamba S white. The festival marks the final return of the ancestors among their descendants of which they will become the guards.
One counts more than 20 traditional tribes in Madagascar. Ethnic diversity is not there for all that racial type, but well rather of a political nature or economic. The amalgam of the people of the East, Africa and Arabia is found in each group, of north in the south. All these people in common have the same worship of the ancestors.
manahoana = will mbolatsara = hello
- veloma = goodbye
- will misaotra = thank you
- tompoko - > form for courtesy, example: veloma tompoko (decides: vélouma toupko)
As a Madagascan, the letter " o" decides like a " ou".
Capital Tananarive (Antananarivo)
Population: 18.040.341 inhabitants (in 2005). 0-14 years: 44,8%; 15-64 years: 52,1%; + 65 years: 3%
Surface: 587.040 km ²
Density: 30 hab. /km ²
Land borders: 0 km
Littoral: 4.828 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > + 2876 m
Life expectancy of the men: 54,57 years (in 2005)
Life expectancy of the women: 59,4 years (in 2005)
natural Rate of increase: 3,03% (in 2005)
Birth rate: 41,66 ‰ (in 2005)
Death rate: 12 ‰ (in 2005)
infantile Death rate: 76,83 ‰ (in 2005)
Fertility rate: 5,7 children/woman (in 2005)
Rate of elimination of illiteracy: 71%
Rate of migration: 0 ‰ (in)
Independence: June 26th 1960
Telephone lines: 59.600 (in 2003)
Cellphones: 279.500 (in 2003)
Radios: 3,05 million (in 1997)
Television stations: 325.000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 55.000 (in 2000)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 5 (in 2007)
Roads: 50.000 km (including 5000 bituminized)
Railways: 893 km (metric spacing)
Many airports: 130 (including 29 with bituminized tracks)
CodesMadagascar has as codes:
- 5R, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- FM, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- MY, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- MAD, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- MDG, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- MDG, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- MG, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 (code list country),
- .mg, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- RM, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- Mahaleo film of Paes and Rajaonarivelo (2005)
- Clarisse Ratsifandrihamanana
- integral Natural reserve of Tsingy de Bemaraha
- List of the governors of the Malagasy provinces
- Official site of the Republic of Madagascar
- environment in Madagascar - National office for the environment
- National office of tourism
- National parks
Beats-smg: Madagaskars Simple: Madagascar Zh-min-nan: Madagasikara
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